|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Criteria||Cultural: i, ii, vi|
|Inscription||1994 (18th Session)|
The Wudang Mountains (simplified Chinese :武当山; traditional Chinese :武當山; pinyin :Wǔdāng Shān) consist of a mountain range in the northwestern part of Hubei,China,just south of Shiyan. They are home to a famous complex of Taoist temples and monasteries associated with the god Xuanwu. The Wudang Mountains are renowned for the practice of Tai chi and Taoism as the Taoist counterpart to the Shaolin Monastery, which is affiliated with Chinese Chán Buddhism. The Wudang Mountains are one of the "Four Sacred Mountains of Taoism" in China,an important destination for Taoist pilgrimages. The monasteries such as the Wudang Garden were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 because of their religious significance and architectural achievement.
On Chinese maps,the name "Wudangshan" (Chinese :武当山) is applied both to the entire mountain range (which runs east-west along the southern edge of the Han River,crossing several county-level divisions of Shiyan),and to the group of peaks located within Wudangshan subdistrict of Danjiangkou,Shiyan. It is the latter specific area which is known as a Taoist center.
Modern maps show the elevation of the highest of the peaks in the Wudang Shan "proper" as 1612 meters;however,the entire Wudangshan range has somewhat higher elevations elsewhere.
Some consider the Wudang Mountains to be a "branch" of the Daba Mountains range,which is a major mountain system in western Hubei,Shaanxi,Chongqing and Sichuan.
For centuries,the mountains of Wudang have been known as an important center of Taoism,especially famous for its Taoist versions of martial arts or Taichi.
The first site of worship—the Five Dragons Temple—was constructed at the behest of Emperor Taizong of Tang.Further structures were added during the Song and Yuan dynasties,while the largest complex on the mountain was built during the Ming dynasty (14th–17th centuries) as the Yongle Emperor claimed to enjoy the protection of the god Beidi or Xuan Wu. During the Ming Dynasty,9 palaces,9 monasteries,36 nunneries and 72 temples were located at the site. Temples regularly had to be rebuilt,and not all survived;the oldest existing structures are the Golden Hall and the Ancient Bronze Shrine,made in 1307. Other noted structures include Nanyang Palace (built in 1285–1310 and extended in 1312),the stone-walled Forbidden City of the Taihe Palace at the peak (built in 1419),and the Purple Cloud Temple (built in 1119–1126,rebuilt in 1413 and extended in 1803–1820). Today,53 ancient buildings still survive.
On January 19,2003,the 600-year-old Yuzhengong Palace at the Wudang Mountains burned down after accidentally being set on fire by an employee of a martial arts school.A fire broke out in the hall,reducing the three rooms that covered 200 square meters to ashes. A gold-plated statue of Zhang Sanfeng,which was usually housed in Yuzhengong,was moved to another building just before the fire,and so escaped destruction in the inferno.
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|Chinese martial arts (Wushu)|
At the first national martial arts tournament organized by the Central Guoshu Institute in 1928, participants were separated into practitioners of Shaolin and Wudang styles. Styles considered to belong to the latter group—called Wudangquan—are those with a strong element of Taoist neidan exercises. Typical examples of Wudangquan are Taijiquan, Xingyiquan and Baguazhang. According to legend, Taijiquan was created by the Taoist hermit Zhang Sanfeng, who lived in the Wudang mountains.
Wudangquan has been partly reformed to fit the PRC sport and health promotion program. The third biannual Traditional Wushu Festival was held in the Wudang Mountains from October 28 to November 2, 2008.
Neijia is a term in Chinese martial arts, grouping those styles that practice neijing, usually translated as internal martial arts, occupied with spiritual, mental or qi-related aspects, as opposed to an "external" approach focused on physiological aspects. The distinction dates to the 17th century, but its modern application is due to publications by Sun Lutang, dating to the period of 1915 to 1928. Neijing is developed by using neigong, or "internal exercises," as opposed to "external exercises",
Shaolin Monastery, also known as Shaolin Temple, is a renowned temple recognized as the birthplace of Chan Buddhism and the cradle of Shaolin Kung Fu. It is located at the foot of Wuru Peak of Songshan mountain range in Dengfeng County, Henan Province, China. The name reflects its location in the ancient grove of Mount Shaoshi, in the hinterland of Songshan mountains. Mount Song occupied a prominent position among Chinese sacred mountains as early as the 1st century BC, when it was proclaimed one of the Five Holy Peaks. It is located some thirty miles southeast of Luoyang, the former capital of the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534), and forty-five miles southwest of Zhengzhou, the modern capital of Henan Province.
Zhang Sanfeng refers to a legendary Chinese Taoist who many believe invented T'ai chi ch'üan. However, other sources point to early versions of Tai Chi predating Sanfeng. He was purported to have achieved immortality. According to various accounts, he was born in Shaowu, Nanping, Fujian near the end of the Southern Song dynasty and lived for over 307 years until the mid-Ming dynasty. His given name was Tong (通) and his courtesy name was Junbao (君寶，君宝). He specialised in Confucian and Taoist studies, scholarly and literary arts. During the reign of Emperor Shizu in the Yuan dynasty, he was nominated as a candidate to join the civil service and held office as the Magistrate of Boling County. While touring around the mountainous regions near present-day Baoji, Shaanxi, he saw the summits of three mountains and decided to give himself the Taoist name "Sanfengzi" (三丰子), hence he also became known as "Zhang Sanfeng".
Shaolin Kung Fu, also called Shaolin Wushu, or Shaolin quan, is one of the oldest, largest, and most famous styles of wushu, or kung fu. It combines Ch'an philosophy and martial arts and originated and was developed in the Shaolin temple in Henan province, Greater China during its 1500-year history. Popular sayings in Chinese folklore related to this practice include "All martial arts under heaven originated from Shaolin" and "Shaolin kung fu is the best under heaven," indicating the influence of Shaolin kung fu among martial arts. The name Shaolin is also used as a brand for the so-called external styles of kung fu. Many styles in southern and northern China use the name Shaolin.
Mount Song is a mountain in central China's Henan Province, along the southern bank of the Yellow River, that is known as the central mountain of the Five Great Mountains of China. Its summit is 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) above sea level.
Mount Qingcheng is a mountain in Dujiangyan, Sichuan, China.
Shiyan is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, China, bordering Henan to the northeast, Chongqing to the southwest, and Shaanxi to the north and west. At the 2010 census, its population was 3,340,841 of whom 767,920 lived in the built-up area made of 2 urban districts of Maojian and Zhangwan on 1,193 square kilometres as Yunyang is not conurbated. In 2007, the city was named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.
The Nanyan Temple is a temple in Wudang Mountains, Danjiangkou, Hubei, China. It is known as the place where Emperor Zhen Wu found Taoism and flew to heaven. The whole structure - hall-pillars, beams, arches, gates and windows - is created out of rock.
Huaquan is a style of Long Fist Kung Fu (Changquan) which is believed to have originated in the Former Song Dynasty around the Hua Shan area of Shaanxi Province.
The Jiuyang Zhenjing, also known as the Nine Yang Manual, is a fictional martial arts manual in Jin Yong's Condor Trilogy. It was first introduced briefly at the end of the second novel The Return of the Condor Heroes. It plays a significant role in the third novel The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber after Zhang Wuji discovers it and masters the skills in the book.
There are hundreds of different styles of Chinese martial arts, each with their own sets of techniques and ideas. The concept of martial arts styles appeared from around the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). Before the Ming period, martial skills were commonly differentiated mainly by their lineage. There are common themes among these styles which allow them to be grouped according to generalized "families", "fractions", "class", or "schools" of martial art styles. There are styles that mimic movements from animals, or otherwise refer or allude to animals or mythical beings such as dragons, and others that gather inspiration from various Chinese philosophies or mythologies. Some deeply internal styles tend to focus strongly on practice relating to harnessing of qi energy, while some more-conspicuously external styles tend more to display skills and abilities in competition or exhibition.
The Wudang Sect, sometimes also referred to as the Wu-tang Sect or Wu-Tang Clan, is a fictional martial arts sect mentioned in several works of wuxia fiction. It is commonly featured as one of the leading orthodox sects in the wulin. It is named after the place it is based, the Wudang Mountains.
Chen Wangting (1580–1660) was a Ming Dynasty officer who founded Chen-style t'ai chi ch'uan, one of the five major styles of the popular Chinese martial art. Sometimes called Chen Wang Ting or Zouting, he devised the Chen family-style of t'ai chi ch'uan in his home of Chenjiagou, Wenxian county, Henan province after he retired there following the fall of the Ming Dynasty.
Tang Hao or Tang Fan Sheng (1887–1959) was a Chinese lawyer and expert on chinese martial arts.
Wudang quan is a class of Chinese martial arts. In contemporary China, Chinese martial arts styles are generally classified into two major groups: Wudang (Wutang), named after the Wudang Mountains; and Shaolin, named after the Shaolin Monastery. Whereas Shaolin includes many martial art styles, Wudangquan includes only a few arts that use the focused mind to control the waist, and therefore the body. This typically encompasses Tai ji quan, Xing-Yi chuan and Bagua zhang, but must also include Baji chuan and Wudang Sword. Although the name Wudang simply distinguishes the skills, theories and applications of the internal arts from those of the Shaolin styles, it falsely suggests these arts originated at the Wudang Mountains. The name Wudang comes from a popular Chinese legend that incorrectly purports the genesis of Tai chi chuan and Wudang Sword by an immortal, Taoist hermit named Zhang Sanfeng who lived in the monasteries of Wudang Mountain.
Shiyan Wudangshan Airport is an airport serving the city of Shiyan in northwestern Hubei Province, China. It is located 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city center and 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Wudangshan, the World Heritage Site after which it is named. The airport cost 1.635 billion yuan to build, and it opened on 5 February 2016, when its inaugural flight arrived from Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport.
Wu Dang is a 2012 Chinese-Hong Kong martial arts fantasy film directed by Patrick Leung, starring Vincent Zhao, Yang Mi, Louis Fan, Dennis To and Xu Jiao. It was first released in mainland China on 6 July 2012.
Taoism is a religion with many schools or denominations, of which none occupies a position of orthodoxy. Taoist branches usually build their identity around a set of scriptures, that are manuals of ritual practices. Scriptures are considered "breathwork", that is "configurations of energy" (qi), embodiments of "celestial patterns" (tianwen), or "revelations of structures" (li).
The Temple of the Five Immortals or Five Immortals Temple is a Daoist temple located in Shiyan's Zhangwan District in China's Hubei Province. The temple is situated on the Heavenly Horse peak of White Horse Mountain in the Wudang Mountains. The Wudang Mountains are home to a famous complex of Taoist temples and the monasteries and associated with the god Xuan Wu. The Temple of the Five Immortals is one of the very few temples in the Wudang mountain range which is still maintained by real Daoist monks who dedicate their life to explore the great Dao.
Wudang may refer to: