Wuppertal

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Wuppertal
Wuppertal ansicht.jpg
2004 view of Wuppertal
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Flag
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Coat of arms
Wuppertal within North Rhine-Westphalia
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Wuppertal
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Wuppertal
Coordinates: 51°16′0″N07°11′0″E / 51.26667°N 7.18333°E / 51.26667; 7.18333 Coordinates: 51°16′0″N07°11′0″E / 51.26667°N 7.18333°E / 51.26667; 7.18333
Country Germany
State North Rhine-Westphalia
Admin. region Düsseldorf
District Urban district
Government
   Lord Mayor Andreas Mucke (SPD)
  Governing parties SPD
Area
  City168.41 km2 (65.02 sq mi)
Elevation
100-350 m (−1,050 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31) [1]
  City353,590
  Density2,100/km2 (5,400/sq mi)
   Urban
608,000 (Bergisches Dreieck)
   Metro
11,300,000 (Rhein-Ruhr)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
42001-42399
Dialling codes 0202
Vehicle registration W
Website wuppertal.de
The Schwebebahn floating tram in Wuppertal-Barmen Wuppertal-100508-12833-Uferstrasse.jpg
The Schwebebahn floating tram in Wuppertal-Barmen
Sankt Laurentius church in Wuppertal Laurentiuskirche in Wuppertal.jpg
Sankt Laurentius church in Wuppertal
The Schwebebahn in Wuppertal-Elberfeld Schwebebahn ueber Strasse.jpg
The Schwebebahn in Wuppertal-Elberfeld
Concert Hall (Stadthalle) Wuppertal Wuppertal Stadthalle.JPG
Concert Hall (Stadthalle) Wuppertal
Engels House (Historisches Zentrum) 280505 001 Engelshaus Barmen.jpg
Engels House (Historisches Zentrum)
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Wuppertal-Beyenburg
Wuppertal University Wuppertal Nutzenberger Str 0117.JPG
Wuppertal University

Wuppertal (German pronunciation: [ˈvʊpɐtaːl] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in and around the Wupper valley, east of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr. With a population of approximately 350,000, it is the largest city in the Bergisches Land. Wuppertal is known for its steep slopes, its woods and parks, and its suspension railway, the Wuppertal Schwebebahn. It is the greenest city of Germany, with two-thirds green space of the total municipal area. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths.

North Rhine-Westphalia State in Germany

North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Wupper river in Germany

The Wupper is a right tributary of the Rhine in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Rising near Marienheide in western Sauerland it runs through the mountainous region of the Bergisches Land in Berg County and enters the Rhine at Leverkusen, south of Düsseldorf. Its upper course is called the Wipper.

Contents

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Wupper valley was one of the largest industrial regions of continental Europe. The increasing demand for coal from the textile mills and blacksmith shops encouraged the expansion of the nearby Ruhrgebiet . Wuppertal still is a major industrial centre, being home to industries such as textiles, metallurgy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, automobiles, rubber, vehicles and printing equipment.

Ruhr Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

The Ruhr is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With a population density of 2,800/km2 and a population of over 5 million (2017), it is the largest urban area in Germany and the third-largest in the European Union. It consists of several large cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to the west, and Lippe to the north. In the southwest it borders the Bergisches Land. It is considered part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region of more than 10 million people, which is among the largest in Europe.

Metallurgy domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metals

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement. The science of metallurgy is subdivided into chemical metallurgy and physical metallurgy.

Aspirin originates from Wuppertal, patented in 1897 by Bayer, as is the Vorwerk-Kobold vacuum cleaner. [2] [3]

Aspirin Medication used to treat pain and inflammation and decrease the risk of heart disease

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation. Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever. Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death. Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk. It may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.

Bayer German multinational pharmaceutical, chemical, and agricultural biotechnology company

Bayer AG is a German multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Headquartered in Leverkusen, where its illuminated corporate logo, the Bayer cross, is a landmark, Bayer's areas of business include human and veterinary pharmaceuticals; consumer healthcare products; agricultural chemicals, seeds and biotechnology products. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Werner Baumann has been CEO since 2016.

Vacuum cleaner Device that sucks up dust and dirt from floors

A vacuum cleaner, also known as a sweeper or hoover, is a device that uses an air pump, to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt from floors and from other surfaces such as upholstery and draperies.

The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy and the European Institute for International Economic Relations are located in the city. [4]

History

Wuppertal in its present borders was formed in 1929 by merging the industrial cities of Barmen and Elberfeld with the communities Vohwinkel, Ronsdorf, Cronenberg, Langerfeld and Beyenburg. The initial name Barmen-Elberfeld was changed in a 1930 referendum to Wuppertal (“Wupper Valley”). The new city was administered as part of the Prussian Rhine Province.

Barmen former city in eastern Rhineland, Germany

Barmen is a former industrial metropolis of the region of Bergisches Land, Germany, which merged with four other towns in 1929 to form the city of Wuppertal. Barmen, together with the neighbouring town of Elberfeld founded the first electric suspended monorail tramway system, the Schwebebahn floating tram. Barmen was a pioneering centre for both the early industrial revolution on the European mainland, and for the socialist movement and its theory. It was the location of one of the first concentration camps in Nazi Germany, KZ Wuppertal-Barmen, later better known as Kemna concentration camp.

Elberfeld former city in Germany, now part of Wuppertal

Elberfeld is a municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal; it was an independent town until 1929.

Ronsdorf is a district of the German town Wuppertal. It has population of about 22,500. Ronsdorf was first mentioned in 1494, and in 1745 it received its town charter. It was founded only a few years before by Elias Eller when he relocated the Zionites there from Elberfeld. Ronsdorf was made a part of Wuppertal in 1929.

Uniquely for Germany, it is a "linear city", owing to the steep hillsides along the river Wupper. Its highest hill is the Lichtscheid, which is 351 metres above sea level. The dominant urban centres Elberfeld (historic commercial centre) and Barmen (more industrial) have formed a continuous urbanized area since 1850. During the succeeding decades, “Wupper-Town” became the dominant industrial agglomeration of northwestern Germany. During the 20th century, this conurbation had been surpassed by Cologne, Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area, all with a more favourable topography.

Linear city

The linear city was an urban plan for an elongated urban formation. The city would consist of a series of functionally specialized parallel sectors. Generally, the city would run parallel to a river and be built so that the dominant wind would blow from the residential areas to the industrial strip. The sectors of a linear city would be:

  1. a purely segregated zone for railway lines,
  2. a zone of production and communal enterprises, with related scientific, technical and educational institutions,,
  3. a residential zone, including a band of social institutions, a band of residential buildings and a "children's band",
  4. a park zone, and
  5. an agricultural zone with gardens and state-run farms.

The Lichtscheid is the highest hill of the German city of Wuppertal.

Cologne city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, and its 1 million+ (2016) inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, and of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. It is the largest city in the Central Franconian and Ripuarian dialect areas.

From July 5, 1933 to January 19, 1934, the Kemna concentration camp was established in Wuppertal. It was one of the early Nazi concentration camps, created by the Third Reich to incarcerate their political opponents after the Nazi Party first gained power in 1933. The camp was established in a former factory on the Wupper in the Kemna neighborhood of the Barmen part of Wuppertal. Wuppertal is famous as an important place of resistance in Germany. The Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany who opposed the Deutsche Christen philosophy. In the opinion of the delegates to the Synod that met in Wuppertal-Barmen in May 1934, the German Christians had corrupted church government by making it subservient to the state and had introduced Nazi ideology into the German Protestant churches that contradicted the Christian gospel.

During World War II, about 40% of buildings in the city were destroyed by Allied bombing, as were many other German cities and industrial centres. However, a large number of historic sites have been preserved, such as:

The US 78th Infantry Division captured Wuppertal against scant resistance on April 16, 1945. [5] Wuppertal became a part of the British Zone of Occupation, and subsequently part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in West Germany.


Largest groups of foreign residents by 31.12.2017

Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 11,575
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 7,415
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 6,870
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 6,130
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 5,870

Main sights

In total, Wuppertal possesses over 4,500 buildings classified as national monuments, most exemplifying styles such as Neoclassicism, Eclecticism, Historicism, Art Nouveau/Jugendstil and Bauhaus.

Main sights include:

Wuppertal in the arts

Notable people from Wuppertal

Friedrich Bayer 1863 Friedr. Bayer 1863.jpg
Friedrich Bayer 1863
Friedrich Engels Engels 1856.jpg
Friedrich Engels
Else Lasker-Schuler 1875 Else Lasker-Schuler 1875.jpg
Else Lasker-Schüler 1875
Federal President Johannes Rau in 2004 Johannes rau 2004-05-16 berlin-RZ.jpg
Federal President Johannes Rau in 2004

Sports

Association football

In football , Wuppertal's most popular club is Wuppertaler SV who currently play in the Regionalliga West, the fourth tier of the German football league system. Playing their home games at the city's Stadion am Zoo, the club, which enjoyed its last season in a nationwide division during the 2009–10 season, looks back on a rich and eventful history since its establishment as the result of a 1954 merger between the two main Wuppertal clubs SSV 04 Wuppertal and TSG Vohwinkel 80. The club spent a total of seven seasons in the top flight of German football, three of which in the Bundesliga, which they were promoted to during 1972. In their first season in the nationwide first division, the club reached a remarkable fourth place and qualified for the UEFA Cup for the first and only time in its history. After a first-round defeat by Polish side Ruch Chorzów and another two widely unsuccessful Bundesliga campaigns, the club disappeared from the top flight again, though, and has yet to return.

During 2004, the club merged with local rivals SV Borussia Wuppertal to form Wuppertaler SV Borussia, though the name change remained the only visible attribute of the merger with the club's colours and crest remaining unaltered. The additional "Borussia" was scrapped again during 2013 due to fans' demand amidst a change of leadership which was brought about to lead the club through necessary insolvency proceedings which have been completed as of September 2014.

Another noteworthy Wuppertal football club is Cronenberger SC from the district of Cronenberg. Their greatest success to date is reaching the 1952 German amateur football championship final which they lost 5–2 against VfR Schwenningen. Today, they play one tier below WSV in the Oberliga Nordrhein.

Famous players include Günter Pröpper who scored 39 of WSV's 136 Bundesliga goals and West Germany international Horst Szymaniak, as well as Cronenberg's Herbert Jäger who represented Germany at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki during his stay with the club.

Team handball

In handball , Wuppertal's most successful team is Bergischer HC , playing in the top-tier Handball-Bundesliga which they were promoted to for the second time during 2013, reaching 15th place during the 2013–14 campaign and therefore staying among the top scorers for a second consecutive season. BHC originates from a 2006 cooperation between the management, squad and main sponsor of LTV Wuppertal and rivals SG Solingen from the nearby city of the same name. The club advertises itself as a representative of the entire Bergisches Land region. The team plays its home games at both Wuppertal's Uni-Halle (3,200 seats) and Solingen's Klingenhalle (2,600 seats).

Wuppertal's past most successful club are the aforementioned LTV Wuppertal. LTV spent most of their seasons in the second and third tiers, before they merged with Wuppertaler SV's handball section in 1996 to form HSG LTV/WSV Wuppertal. The handball combination was promoted to the Bundesliga after its inaugural season, finishing 8th before dissolving again in 1998. However, the mere departure of Wuppertaler SV still allowed LTV Wuppertal, whose professional team were renamed HC Wuppertal, to play another three seasons in the Bundesliga before returning to the 2nd division and re-introducing its old name. After the establishment of BHC in 2006, LTV lost its financial base and was relegated several times, currently playing in the fifth-tier Verbandsliga.

Volleyball

In volleyball , SV Bayer Wuppertal was one of Germany's leading men's teams for many years during the 1990s and 2000s. The team was part of the well-known mass-sports club originating in Leverkusen and was promoted to the Bundesliga in 1978. Reacting to low attendances, the eponymous Bayer AG decided to relocate the volleyball team to Wuppertal in 1992, where there also was a Bayer-funded club. After the move, the club won various titles, including the German championship in 1994 and 1997 and the German Cup in 1995. In addition to that, they finished runners-up to Greek side Olympiacos S.C. in the 1995-96 European Cup Winners' Cup, losing the final in five sets.

After the wide-reaching retreat of Bayer AG from less popular professional sport during 2008, the club acquired the name Wuppertal Titans and later A!B!C Titans Berg. Land. However, the loss of their main sponsor eventually resulted in the team having to terminate during 2012. Presently, they once more play by the name of Bayer Wuppertal in the third-tier Regionalliga, unable to promote with their current financial set-up.

Basketball

Perhaps one of the most successful Wuppertal sports clubs was the women's basketball team of Barmer TV (known as BTV Wuppertal between 1994 and 2000, BTV Gold-Zack Wuppertal between 2000 and 2002 and Wuppertal Wings internationally). An 11-time German champion and 12-time German Cup winner, they won a remarkable ten consecutive doubles between 1993 and 2002. During 1996, they even won the European Cup as the first and so far only German side, beating Italy's SFT Como in the final. A year later, they narrowly missed out on back-to-back trebles, losing to French side CJM Bourges in the newly christened EuroLeague's final.

In 2002, the club withdrew from the Bundesliga due to financial troubles, their then-main sponsor Gold-Zack Werke filing for insolvency a year later. After a decade-long stay in amateur divisions, Barmer TV returned to the second-tier 2nd Bundesliga North in 2014.

Wuppertal co-hosted the 1998 FIBA World Championship for Women as one of seven host cities.

Roller hockey

In roller hockey (also known as rink hockey), Wuppertal club RSC Cronenberg are one of the most successful German teams, having won the German championship and the German Cup in both men's and women's competitions. In total, the men won 13 German championships and nine cups, the women ten championships and nine cups. Both teams play their home games at Alfred-Henckels-Halle.

Wuppertal hosted several international tournaments, including the World Championship in 1997 (men) and 2004 (women) and the European Championship in 1992, 2010 (men) and 2011 (women).

Education

Four institutions of higher education are in Wuppertal.

The privately financed Junior Uni is a unique German initiative to educate youth from the age of 4 to 18 in science outside the school program.> "Official website Junior Uni Wuppertal - Bergisches Land" (in German). Retrieved March 14, 2013.</ref>

Transport

Railways

Central Station Wuppertal Doppersberg 2018 129.jpg
Central Station

Wuppertal is well connected to the rail network. The town lies on the Cologne–Hagen and the Düsseldorf–Hagen railway lines, and is a stop for long-distance traffic. The central station is located in the district of Elberfeld. Regionalbahn trains and some Regional-Express trains also stop at Oberbarmen, Barmen, Ronsdorf and Vohwinkel. There are also S-Bahn stations in Langerfeld, Unterbarmen, Steinbeck, Zoologischer Garten and Sonnborn.

The rail services that operate on the mainline through the valley are the RE 4 (Wupper-Express), RE 7 (Rhein-Münsterland-Express), RE 13 (Maas-Wupper-Express), RB 48 (Rhein-Wupper Bahn) and four Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn services: the S 7, S 8, S 9 and S 68 (peak hours only). Every 30 minutes, it is served by a long-distance (Intercity-Express, InterCity, EuroCity or City Night Line) service in each direction.

With the exception of the line from Wuppertal to Solingen (operated as the S 7) and the Prince William Railway to Essen (now S-Bahn line S 9), all of the branch lines connecting to main line in the city of Wuppertal are now closed. This includes, among others, the Düsseldorf-Derendorf–Dortmund Süd railway (the Wuppertaler Nordbahn), the Burgholz Railway, the Wuppertal-Wichlinghausen–Hattingen railway, the Wupper Valley Railway and the Corkscrew Railway. Thus, there were once 31 stations in the Wuppertal area, including nine stations on the mainline. Nowadays only ten are serviced any more.

There is also the Wuppertal Suspension Railway

Controversy

In July 2014, three Palestinians living in Germany tried to damage the Wuppertal synagogue with molotov cocktails [6] . A year later, a court found them guilty of attempted arson, the crime was motivated by anti-Semitism, and sentenced the men to 200 hours of community service. [7] The court said the three men wanted to draw “attention to the Gaza conflict” with Israel. In January 2017, a regional appeals court upheld the decision, calling the arson attempt a justified expression of criticism of Israel’s policies. [8]

International relations

Signpost with twin towns of Wuppertal Wuppertal Johannes-Rau-Platz 2018 002.jpg
Signpost with twin towns of Wuppertal

Twin towns — sister cities

Wuppertal is twinned with:

See also

Notes and references

  1. "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2017" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW . Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  2. Marvin Brendel. "110 Jahre Aspirin" (in German). GeschichtsPuls. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
  3. "Official website Vorwerk - Kobold vacuum cleaners" . Retrieved May 22, 2011.
  4. "Official website European Institute for International Economic Relations" . Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  5. Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 147
  6. Martin Verdächtigte Palästinenser gestehen - Geständnis zum Brandanschlag auf Wuppertaler Synagoge, Abendzeitung vom 14. Januar 2015
  7. Weinthal, Benjamin (February 7, 2015). "German Judge: Torching of Synagogue Not Motivated by Anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post . Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  8. Weinthal, Benjamin (January 13, 2017). "German Court Calls Synagogue Torching An Act to Criticize Israel". The Jerusalem Post.
  9. "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved July 27, 2013.

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Solingen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the northern edge of the region called Bergisches Land, south of the Ruhr area, and, with a 2009 population of 161,366, is after Wuppertal the second largest city in the Bergisches Land. It is a member of the regional authority of the Rhineland.

Bergisches Land

The Bergisches Land is a low mountain range region within the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, east of Rhine river, south of the Ruhr. The landscape is shaped by woods, meadows, rivers and creeks and contains over 20 artificial lakes. Wuppertal is one of the biggest towns and seen as the region's capital, whereas the southern part nowadays has closer economic and socio-cultural ties to Cologne. Wuppertal and the neighbouring cities of Remscheid, Solingen form the Bergisches Städtedreieck.

Wuppertal Suspension Railway suspension railway in Wuppertal, Germany

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Wuppertaler SV association football club in Germany

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Wuppertal Hauptbahnhof railway station in Germany

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The Gruiten–Cologne-Deutz railway is a major German railway. It is part of a major axis for long distance and regional rail services between Wuppertal and Cologne, and is served by Intercity Express, InterCity, Regional-Express and regionalbahn trains.

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Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway railway line

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Vohwinkel may refer to:

Baumwollspinnerei Hammerstein location in Wuppertal

The Baumwollspinnerei Hammerstein was a cotton mill which had accompanying weaving sheds, located in the area now known as Wuppertal, Germany. It was the largest of its type in Bergisches Land and was owned by the Jung family between 1835 and 1869, when it also included a textile school.

Kohlfurther Bridge

The Kohlfurther Bridge is a truss bridge made of steel over the Wupper river in the borough of Cronenberg in Wuppertal, located on the city limits of Solingen. It served the Straßenbahn from Elberfeld to Solingen until the tramway was shut down in 1969, at which point it became a pedestrian bridge. The name of the bridge is also the name of a street. On April 13, 2006, it was registered in the architectural list, the Baudenkmalliste, of the city of Wuppertal and on May 3, 2006 in the city of Solingen. An extensive restoration was completed on May 8, 2010.