Wythenshawe Hall in 2005
Wythenshawe Hall is a 16th-century medieval timber-framed historic house and former manor house in Wythenshawe, Manchester, England, five miles (8 km) south of Manchester city centre in Wythenshawe Park. Built for Robert Tatton, it was home to the Tatton family for almost 400 years. Its basic plan is a central hall with two projecting wings.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, and in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect. The country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast.
A historic house generally meets several criteria before being listed by an official body as "historic." Generally the building is at least a certain age, depending on the rules for the individual list. A second factor is that the building be in recognizably the same form as when it became historic. Third is a requirement that either an event of historical importance happened at the site, or that a person of historical significance was associated with the site, or that the building itself is important for its architecture or interior.
A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a manor in the European feudal system; within its great hall were held the lord's manorial courts, communal meals with manorial tenants and great banquets. The term is today loosely applied to various country houses, frequently dating from the late medieval era, which formerly housed the gentry.
In the winter of 1643–44 the house was besieged by Parliamentarian forces during the English Civil War. Despite the stout defence put up by Robert Tatton and his fellow Royalists, the defenders were overwhelmed by the Roundheads' superior weaponry.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War (1641–1652). Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I of England and his supporters, known as the Cavaliers or Royalists, who claimed rule by absolute monarchy and the principle of the 'divine right of kings'. The goal of the Roundhead party was to give the Parliament supreme control over executive administration of the country/kingdom.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration. It was later adopted by the Royalists themselves. Although it referred originally to political and social attitudes and behaviour, of which clothing was a very small part, it has subsequently become strongly identified with the fashionable clothing of the court at the time. Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered to be an archetypal Cavalier.
Rebuilding work was carried out at the end of the 18th century, and various additions made in the 19th century, including a walled garden, an ice house, glass houses and a tenant's hall.Wythenshawe Hall and its surrounding parkland were donated to Manchester Corporation in 1926, and in 1930 it was opened to the public as a museum.
The building was badly damaged in an arson attack in March 2016; repairs are expected to be completed by late 2019.
Arson is the crime of willfully and maliciously setting fire to or charring property. Though the act typically involves buildings, the term arson can also refer to the intentional burning of other things, such as motor vehicles, watercraft, or forests. The crime is typically classified as a felony, with instances involving a greater degree of risk to human life or property carrying a stricter penalty. A common motive for arson is to commit insurance fraud. In such cases, a person destroys their own property by burning it and then lies about the cause in order to collect against their insurance policy.
A pre-1300 charter mentions an enclosed deer park in Wythenshawe where the Tatton family owned land in 1297.Around 1540, Robert Tatton of Chester built Wythenshawe Hall as the Tatton family residence. The timber-framed Tudor house was the home of the family for almost 400 years. and may originally have had a moat.
In medieval and Early Modern England, a deer park was an enclosed area containing deer. It was bounded by a ditch and bank with a wooden park pale on top of the bank, or by a stone or brick wall. The ditch was on the inside increasing the effective height. Some parks had deer "leaps", where there was an external ramp and the inner ditch was constructed on a grander scale, thus allowing deer to enter the park but preventing them from leaving.
Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 79,645 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 329,608 in 2011, and serves as the unitary authority's administrative headquarters. Chester is the second-largest settlement in Cheshire after Warrington.
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period (1485–1603) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England. It is generally not used to refer to the whole period of the Tudor dynasty (1485–1603), but to the style used in buildings of some prestige in the period roughly between 1500 and 1560. It followed the Late Gothic Perpendicular style and was superseded by Elizabethan architecture from about 1560 in domestic building of any pretensions to fashion. In the much more slow-moving styles of vernacular architecture "Tudor" has become a designation for styles like half-timbering that characterize the few buildings surviving from before 1485 and others from the Stuart period. In this form the Tudor style long retained its hold on English taste. Nevertheless, 'Tudor style' is an awkward style-designation, with its implied suggestions of continuity through the period of the Tudor dynasty and the misleading impression that there was a style break at the accession of Stuart James I in 1603.
The hall was besieged during the English Civil War over the winter of 1643–44 by Cromwell's Parliamentarian forces. It was defended by Royalists led by Robert Tatton until the Roundheads brought two cannons to the hall from Manchester, leading to the Royalist surrender on 27 February 1644. 2,500 acres (1,000 ha).The Parliamentarian's subsequently confiscated Wythenshawe Hall, but it was returned to the Tatton family on payment of a fine of just over £700. After recovering the estate, the family expanded it to about
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland "and of the dominions thereto belonging" from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic.
Robert Tatton was the High Sheriff of Chester between 1645 and 1646. A supporter of King Charles I in the English Civil War, Robert is perhaps best known for the ultimately unsuccessful defence of his family home, Wythenshawe Hall, during its three-month siege by a Parliamentary force in the winter of 1643/44.
In 1924 Robert Henry Grenville Tatton inherited the Wythenshawe estate. There was interest from Manchester Corporation, who wanted land to build a garden suburb, 250 acres (1 km2) of its surrounding estate had been sold to Ernest Simon and his wife, who donated them to Manchester Corporation "to be used solely for the public good". Later that year the corporation purchased the rest of the estate, and went on to build one of the largest housing estates in Europe on the land.ostensibly to rehouse tenants from slum clearance. By April 1926 Wythenshawe Hall and
Repairs were made to the hall in the 1950s,and it was listed as a Grade II* structure on 25 February 1952. Its former stable block, to the west of the hall, was Grade II listed in 1974.
The roof of the hall and an upper floor were severely damaged by a fire that started at around 3:30 am on 15 March 2016; the clock tower was also damaged. as of August 2017 [update] , the building was scaffolded and undergoing repairs under a protective roof.On 23 March, Jeremy Taylor from Cheadle Hulme was charged with arson in connection with the fire. In August 2017, after changing his plea and admitting guilt, he was sentenced to four and a half years in prison. The hall was added to the Heritage at Risk register in October 2016. A planning application to restore the building was submitted in November 2016, with the intention of keeping as much of the original material as possible;
The hall was partially rebuilt between 1795 and 1800 by Lewis Wyatt.It was altered around 1840 possibly by Edward Blore. Additions included a walled garden, an ice house, and glass houses. In the Victorian era the dining room was refurbished and a tenant's hall was added.
The timber-framed manor house has a hall with two projecting wings, and a porch and dais bays.The entrance hall (also known as the ante-room) is thought to have previously been a chapel, which was subsequently turned into a billiards room, before becoming an entrance hall in the 1870s.
In 1930, the hall was turned into a museum and art gallery.Most of the hall's original furniture was removed by the Tatton family in 1926 when they moved out, and most of the furniture and paintings displayed in the hall during its time as a museum were from the Manchester City Galleries collection.
Until 2007 a re-enactment of the 1643 siege of Wythenshawe Hall by Cromwell's troops was staged every July.
By 2004 the hall was only open once a week for four months in the yearand in 2010 closed completely as a result of council spending cuts. One proposition was that Manchester City Council could sell the building to the National Trust. In summer 2012 the hall re-opened for 10 days for the Wythenshawe Games. A friends group was established in September 2012 to hold monthly open days and regular events at the hall. Furniture installed by the friends group (including a four-poster bed engraved with the Tatton family crest) was not damaged by the fire.
Wythenshawe Park occupies 270 acres (1.1 km2) of land surrounding the hall in Northern Moor. The park contains a mix of woodland, bedding, borders, grassland and meadows, sports and games facilities, and Wythenshawe community farm and a horticulture centre North Lodge, the Grade II listed gate lodge on the park's northern boundary was built in the Tudor style in the mid to late 19th century. A Grade II listed bronze statue of Oliver Cromwell on a granite plinth and pedestal in the park is dated 1875, and was originally located at Deansgate.
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Wimpole Estate is a large estate containing Wimpole Hall, a country house located within the Parish of Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, England, about 8 1⁄2 miles southwest of Cambridge. The house, begun in 1640, and its 3,000 acres (12 km2) of parkland and farmland are owned by the National Trust and are regularly open to the public. Wimpole is the largest house in Cambridgeshire.
Wythenshawe is an area of south Manchester, England.
Northenden is a suburb of Manchester, England, with a population of 14,771 at the 2011 census. It lies on the south side of the River Mersey, 4.2 miles (6.8 km) west of Stockport and 5.2 miles (8.4 km) south of Manchester city centre, in the Wythenshawe district of south Manchester. It is bounded by Didsbury to the north, Gatley to the east, and the rest of Wythenshawe to the south and west.
Sulham is a village and civil parish in West Berkshire, England. The larger village of Tidmarsh is adjacent to Sulham on the west side and of Tilehurst on the east side.
Sharston is an area of Wythenshawe, south Manchester, England. The population at the 2011 census was 16,754.
Tatton Park is an historic estate in Cheshire, England, north of the town of Knutsford. It contains a mansion, Tatton Hall, a medieval manor house, Tatton Old Hall, Tatton Park Gardens, a farm and a deer park of 2,000 acres (8.1 km2). It is a popular visitor attraction and hosts over a hundred events annually. The estate is owned by the National Trust, who administer it jointly with Cheshire East Council. Since 1999, it has hosted North West England's annual Royal Horticultural Society flower show.
Ernest Emil Darwin Simon, 1st Baron Simon of Wythenshawe was a British industrialist, politician and public servant. Lord Mayor of Manchester in 1921–1922, he was a member of parliament for two terms between 1923 and 1931 before being elevated to the peerage and serving as the Chairman of the BBC Board of Governors.
West Ashton is a village and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. It is about 2 miles (3.2 km) southeast of Trowbridge, near the A350 between Melksham and Yarnbrook which bypasses Trowbridge. The parish includes the hamlets of Dunge, East Town and Rood Ashton.
Tatton Hall is a country house in Tatton Park near Knutsford, Cheshire, England. It is designated as a Grade I-listed building and is open to the public.
Wythenshawe Park is a Green Flag awarded park in Wythenshawe, Manchester, with an area of 270 acres. Wythenshawe Hall is at the centre of the park.
Clayton Hall is a 15th-century manor house on Ashton New Road, in Clayton, Manchester, England. It is hidden behind trees in a small park. The hall is a Grade II* listed building, the mound on which it is built is a scheduled ancient monument, and a rare example of a medieval moated site. The hall is surrounded by a moat, making an island 66 m by 74 m. Alterations were made to the hall in the 16th and 17th centuries, and it was enlarged in the 18th century.
Baguley Hall is a 14th-century timber-framed building in Baguley, Greater Manchester, North West England.
Tatton Old Hall is a historic building in Tatton Park near Knutsford, Cheshire, England. It is designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building which is owned by the National Trust and administered in conjunction with Cheshire East Council. It is also known as one of the most haunted houses in Britain and is home to The Haunted Hunts official haunted collection. Paranormal investigations take place on a monthly basis under the guidance of The Haunted Hunts team. Its site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument.
Northern Moor is an area of Manchester, England, west of Northenden and east of Sale, 5 miles south of Manchester city centre. The Tatton family lived at from 1540 to 1926 Wythenshawe Hall, which is in Northern Moor; land around it is now Wythenshawe Park, which was a deer park from 1200-1540. In former centuries its name was spelled "Northen Moor" and meant "the moor area belonging to Northenden". Until the early 1900s Northern Moor was part of Cheshire, before Manchester expanded south of the River Mersey and the borders of Cheshire changed. Northern Moor and Northenden following the border changes has been part of Manchester instead of Cheshire. The current area called 'Northern Moor' now includes Lawton Moor, and the border of Northern Moor is now at the Sale moor border.
The Church of St Wilfrid in Ford Lane, Northenden, Manchester, England, is an Anglican church of late medieval origins which was substantially re-built in the 19th century by J. S. Crowther. The church was designated a Grade II* listed building on 25 February 1952.
There is a large number of Grade II listed buildings in the City of Manchester, England. The majority of Manchester's listed buildings date from the Victorian (1837–1901) and Edwardian era (1901–1911), most as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted by the Planning Act 1990 and is administered by English Heritage, an agency of the Department for Culture, Media & Sport. There are three categories of listing – Grade I, Grade II* and Grade II.
Chaddock Hall was an ancient hall on Chaddock Lane in Tyldesley, Greater Manchester, England. It was designated a Grade II listed building in 1966. It was gutted in an arson attack in 2014.
Tatton is a civil parish in Cheshire East, England. It contains 26 buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England as designated listed buildings. Of these, one is listed at Grade I, the highest grade, two are listed at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II. The major building in the parish is Tatton Hall, and all the listed buildings in the parish are related to it. These include the hall itself, Tatton Old Hall, the Home Farm, structures in the gardens and park, and lodges at the entrances to Tatton Park.
The Church of the Ascension is a Grade II listed Anglican church in Lower Broughton, Salford, England. In February 2017 a fire destroyed the roof and interior of the building.
Manchester is a city in Northwest England. The M23 postcode area of the city includes parts of the suburbs of Wythenshawe and Northenden. The postcode area contains eleven listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, one is listed at Grade I, the highest of the three grades, two are at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade. The area is almost completely residential, and the listed buildings include two former manor houses and associated structures, a former farm and outbuildings, a house, a church, and a vicarage.