Xhosa language

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Xhosa
isiXhosa
Pronunciation [ˈǁʰɔsa]
Native to South Africa
Region Eastern Cape, Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Cape, Free State
Ethnicity Xhosa
Native speakers
8.2 million (2020 March 08) [1]
11 million L2 speakers (2002) [2] isiXhosa is one of the official languages in post democratic South Africa.
Latin (Xhosa alphabet)
Xhosa Braille
Signed Xhosa [3]
Official status
Official language in
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg  Zimbabwe
Language codes
ISO 639-1 xh
ISO 639-2 xho
ISO 639-3 xho
Glottolog xhos1239 [4]
S.41 [5]
Linguasphere 99-AUT-fa incl.
varieties 99-AUT-faa
to 99-AUT-faj +
99-AUT-fb (isiHlubi)
South Africa Xhosa speakers proportion map.svg
Proportion of the South African population that speaks Xhosa at home
  0–20%
  20–40%
  40–60%
  60–80%
  80–100%
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
IsiXhosa
PersonumXhosa
PeopleamaXhosa
LanguageisiXhosa
CountryKwaXhosa

Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə,ˈksə/ [6] [7] [8] (Xhosa pronunciation:  [ˈǁʰɔsa] ), also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants and is one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. [9] [10] Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. It is also notable for having perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% of basic vocabulary items contained a click. [11]

Contents

Classification

Xhosa is part of the branch of Nguni languages known as Zunda languages, which also include Zulu, Southern Ndebele and Northern Ndebele. [12] Zunda languages effectively form a dialect continuum of variously mutually intelligible varieties.

Xhosa is, to some extent, mutually intelligible with Zulu and Northern Ndebele, and other Nguni languages to a lesser extent. Nguni languages are, in turn, part of the much larger group of Bantu languages. [13] [14]

Geographical distribution

Geographical distribution of the Xhosa in South Africa: density of Xhosa home-language speakers.
< 1 /km2
1-3 /km2
3-10 /km2
10-30 /km2
30-100 /km2
100-300 /km2
300-1000 /km2
1000-3000 /km2
> 3000 /km2 South Africa Xhosa speakers density map.svg
Geographical distribution of the Xhosa in South Africa: density of Xhosa home-language speakers.
  < 1 /km²
  1–3 /km²
  3–10 /km²
  10–30 /km²
  30–100 /km²
  100–300 /km²
  300–1000 /km²
  1000–3000 /km²
  > 3000 /km²
Trilingual government building sign in Afrikaans, English and Xhosa Stellenbosch Magistrate's Office (entrance).JPG
Trilingual government building sign in Afrikaans, English and Xhosa
Sign outside the AmaZink township theatre restaurant in Kayamandi welcoming visitors in Xhosa Amazink entrance.JPG
Sign outside the AmaZink township theatre restaurant in Kayamandi welcoming visitors in Xhosa

Xhosa is the most widely distributed African language in South Africa, though the most widely spoken African language is Zulu. [13] It is the second most common home language in South Africa as a whole. As of 2003 approximately 5.3 million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 2 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). [15] There is a small but significant Xhosa community of about 200,000 in Zimbabwe. [16] Also, a small community of Xhosa speakers (18,000) live in Quthing District, Lesotho. [17]

Dialects

Xhosa has several dialects. Maho (2009) lists Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomvana, Gaika (Ngqika), Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe, and Hlubi. [5]

Hlubi is the dialect in the former Ciskei; there is the more distinct Hlubi language further north, where Xhosa meets SeSotho.

Phonology

Spoken Xhosa

Vowels

Xhosa has an inventory of ten vowels: [a], [ɛ~e], [i], [ɔ~o] and [u] written a, e, i, o and u in order, all occurring in both long and short. The /i/ vowel will be long in the penultimate syllable and short in the last syllable. [18]

Xhosa vowel phonemes
Front Back
short long shortlong
Close iiiiuuuu
Mid ɛeeeɔooo
Open aaaa

Tones

Xhosa is a tonal language with two inherent phonemic tones: low and high. Tones are rarely marked in the written language, but they can be indicated a[à], á[á], â[áà], ä[àá]. Long vowels are phonemic but are usually not written except for â and ä, which are each sequences of two vowels with different tones that are realized as long vowels with contour tones (â high–low = falling, ä low–high = rising).

Consonants

Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has 18 clicks (in comparison, Juǀ'hoan, spoken by roughly 10,000 people in Botswana and Namibia, has 48 clicks, and Taa, with roughly 4,000 speakers in Botswana, has 83 click sounds as well as the largest consonant inventory of any known language). Also, Xhosa has ejectives and an implosive. Although 15 of the clicks also occur in Zulu, they are used less frequently than in Xhosa.

The first six are dental clicks (represented by the letter "c"), made with the tongue on the back of the teeth, and they are similar to the sound represented in English by "tut-tut" or "tsk-tsk" to reprimand someone. The next six are lateral (represented by the letter "x"), made by the tongue at the sides of the mouth, and they are similar to the sound used to call horses. The last six are alveolar (represented by the letter "q"), made with the tip of the tongue at the roof of the mouth, and they sound somewhat like a cork pulled from a bottle.

The following table lists the consonant phonemes of the language, with the pronunciation in IPA on the left and the orthography on the right:

Labial Dental/Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Glottal
central lateral central lateral
Click tenuis/ejective [19] [kǀʼ]c[kǁʼ]x[kǃʼ]q
aspirated [kǀʰ]ch[kǁʰ]xh[kǃʰ]qh
slack voice [ɡ̊ǀʱ]gc[ɡ̊ǁʱ]gx[ɡ̊ǃʱ]gq
nasal[ ŋǀ ]nc[ ŋǁ ]nx[ ŋǃ ]nq
slack-voice nasal [20] [ŋǀʱ]ngc[ŋǁʱ]ngx[ŋǃʱ]ngq
glottalised nasal [21] [ ŋǀˀ ]nkc[ ŋǁˀ ]nkx[ ŋǃˀ ]nkq
Plosive tenuis/ejective [pʼ]p[tʼ]t[t̠ʲʼ]ty[kʼ]k
aspirated [pʰ]ph[tʰ]th[t̠ʲʰ]tyh[kʰ]kh
slack voice [b̥ʱ]bh[d̥ʱ]d[d̠̥ʲʱ]dy[ɡ̊ʱ]g
implosive [ɓ]b
Affricate ejective [tsʼ]ts[tʃʼ]tsh[kχʼ]kr[kʟ̥ʼ] kl5
aspirated [tsʰ]ths[tʃʰ]thsh[kχʰ]krh
slack voice [d̥zʱ]dz3[d̥ʒʱ]j
Fricative voiceless [f]f[s]s[ɬ]hl[ʃ]sh[χ]rh[h]h
slack voice [v̤]v[z̤]z[ɮ̈]dl[ʒ̈]zh2[ɣ̈]gr[ɦ]hh
Nasal fully voiced [m]m[n]n[n̠ʲ]ny[ŋ]ngʼ
slack voice [m̤]mh[n̤]nh[n̠̈ʲ]nyh[ŋ̈]ngh4
Approximant fully voiced [l]l[j]y[w]w
slack voice [l̤]lh[j̈]yh[w̤]wh
Trill fully voiced [r]r1
breathy voiced [r̤]r1
  1. Two additional consonants, [r] and [r̤], are found in borrowings. Both are spelled r.
  2. Two additional consonants, [ʒ] and [ʒ̈], are found in borrowings. Both are spelled zh.
  3. Two additional consonants, [dz] and [dz̤], are found in loans. Both are spelled dz.
  4. An additional consonant, [ŋ̈] is found in loans. It is spelled ngh.
  5. The onset cluster /kl/ from phonologized loanwords such as ikliniki "the clinic" can be realized as a single consonant [kʟ̥ʼ].

In addition to the ejective affricate [tʃʼ], the spelling tsh may also be used for either of the aspirated affricates [tsʰ] and [tʃʰ].

The breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] is sometimes spelled h.

The ejectives tend to be ejective only in careful pronunciation or in salient positions and, even then, only for some speakers. Otherwise, they tend to be tenuis (plain) stops. Similarly, the tenuis (plain) clicks are often glottalised, with a long voice onset time, but that is uncommon.

The murmured clicks, plosives and affricates are only partially voiced, with the following vowel murmured for some speakers. That is, da may be pronounced [dʱa̤] (or, equivalently, [d̥a̤]). They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced. They are truly voiced only after nasals, but the oral occlusion is then very short in stops, and it usually does not occur at all in clicks. Therefore, the absolute duration of voicing is the same as in tenuis stops. (They may also be voiced between vowels in some speaking styles.) The more notable characteristic is their depressor effect on the tone of the syllable. [22]

Consonant changes with prenasalisation

When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. The murmur no longer shifts to the following vowel. Fricatives become affricated and, if voiceless, they become ejectives as well, at least with some speakers: mf is pronounced [ɱp̪fʼ], ndl is pronounced [ndɮ], n+hl becomes ntl[ntɬʼ], n+z becomes ndz[ndz], etc. The orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive [mb]. Prenasalisation occurs in several contexts, including on roots with the class 9 prefix /iN-/, for example on an adjective which is feature-matching its noun:

/iN- + ɬɛ/ [intɬɛ] "beautiful" (of a class 9 word like inja "dog")

When aspirated clicks (ch, xh, qh) are prenasalised, the silent letter k is added (nkc, nkx, nkq) to prevent confusion with the nasal clicks nc, nx, nq, and are actually distinct sounds. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. When plain voiceless clicks (c, x, q) are prenasalized, they become slack voiced nasal (ngc, ngx, ngq).

List of consonant changes with prenasalisation
PhonemePrenasalisedExamples (roots with class 10 /iiN-/ prefix)Rule
/pʰ/, /tʰ/, /c̟ʰ/, /kʰ//mp/, /nt/, /ɲc̟/, /ŋk/
  • phumla "to rest" → iimpumlo "noses"
  • thetha "to speak" → iintetho "speeches"
  • tyhafa "to weaken" → iintyafo "weaknesses"
  • khathala "care about" → iinkathalo "cares"
Aspiration is lost on obstruents.
/ǀ/, /ǁ/, /ǃ//ŋǀʱ/, /ŋǁʱ/, /ŋǃʱ/
  • ucango "door" → iingcango "doors"
  • uxande "rectangle" → iingxande "rectangles"
  • uqeqesho "training" → iingqeqesho "trainings"
Voiced clicks become slack voiced nasal.
/kǀʰ/, /kǁʰ/, /kǃʰ//ŋǀʼ/, /ŋǁ'/, /ŋǃ'/
  • chaza "to explain" → iinkcazo "descriptions"
  • xhasa "to support" → iinkxaso "supports"
  • qhuba "to continue" → iinkqubo "processes"
Aspirated clicks become prenasalized ejected clicks.
/ɓ//mb̥ʱ/
  • ibali "story" → iimbali "histories"
Implosive becomes slack voiced.
/f/, /s/, /ʃ/, /ɬ/, /x/
/v/, /z/, /ɮ/, /ɣ/
[ɱp̪f], /nts/, /ntʃ/, /ntɬ/, /ŋkx/
[ɱb̪̊vʱ], [nd̥zʱ], [nd̥ɮʱ], [ŋɡ̊ɣʱ]?
  • fuya "to breed" → iimfuyo "breeds"
  • usana "child" → iintsana "children"
  • shumayela "to preach" → iintshumayelo "sermons"
  • isihloko "title" → iintloko "heads"
  • vuma "approve" → iimvume "approvals"
  • zama "try" → iinzame "attempts"
  • ukudleka "wear and tear" → iindleko "costs"
Fricatives become affricates. Only phonemic, and thus reflected orthographically, for /nts/, /ntʃ/, /ntɬ/ and /ŋkx/.
/m/, /n/, /ɲ̟/, /ŋ/

/ǀ̃/, /ǁ̃/, /ǃ̃/

/m/, /n/, /ɲ̟/, /ŋ/

/ǀ̃/, /ǁ̃/, /ǃ̃/

  • umeyile "Mr. Mule (as a storybook character) → iimeyile "mules"
  • inoveli "novel" → iinoveli "novels"
  • ngena "bring in" → ingeniso "profit"
  • unyawo "foot" → iinyawo "feet"
  • ncokola "to chat" → incoko "conversation"
  • unxweme "sea shore" → iinxweme "sea shores"
  • nqula "worship" → iinqula "adam's apple"
No change when the following consonant is itself a nasal.

Consonant changes with palatalisation

Palatalisation is a change that affects labial consonants whenever they are immediately followed by /j/. While palatalisation occurred historically, it is still productive, as is shown by palatalization before the passive suffix /-w/.

Moreover, Xhosa does not generally tolerate sequences of a labial consonant plus /w/. Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the consonant.

List of consonant changes with palatalisation
Original
consonant
Palatalised
consonant
Examples
p
  • uku- + kopa + -wa→ ukukotshwa [ukukot͡ʃʷa] (to be copied)
tʃʰ
  • uku- + phuph + -wa → ukuphutshwa [ukupʰut͡ʃʰʷa] (to be dreamt)
b̥ʱd̥ʒʱ
  • uku- + gab + wa → ukugajwa [ukugad̥ʒʱʷa] (to be thrown up)
ɓ
  • ubu- + -alautywala [ucʷala] (alcohol)
mɲ̟
  • uku- + zam + -wa → zanywa [ukuzaɲʷa] (to be tried on)
ɲ̟̈
mpntʃ
  • uku- + krwemp + wa → ukukrwentshwa [ukukχʷ'ɛntʃʷa] (to be scratched)
mb̥ʱnd̥ʒʱ
  • uku + bamb + wa→ ukubanjwa [ukuɓand̥ʒʱʷa] (to be caught)

Morphology

In keeping with many other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa is an agglutinative language, with an array of prefixes and suffixes that are attached to root words. As in other Bantu languages, nouns in Xhosa are classified into morphological classes, or genders (15 in Xhosa), with different prefixes for both singular and plural. Various parts of speech that qualify a noun must agree with the noun according to its gender. Agreements usually reflect part of the original class with which the word agrees. The word order is subject–verb–object, like in English.

The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. The various parts of the sentence must agree in both class and number. [13]

Nouns

The Xhosa noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. Using the prefixes, nouns can be grouped into noun classes, which are numbered consecutively, to ease comparison with other Bantu languages.

The following table gives an overview of Xhosa noun classes, arranged according to singular-plural pairs.

ClassSingularPlural
1/2um-aba-, abe-
1a/2au-oo-
3/4um-imi-
5/6i-, ili-1ama-, ame-
7/8is(i)-2iz(i)-2
9/10iN-3iiN-3, iziN-4
11/10u-, ulu-1, ulw-, ul-iiN-3, iziN-4
14ubu-, ub-, uty-
15uku-
17uku-

1 Before monosyllabic stems, e.g. iliso (eye), uluhlu (list).

2is- and iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with a vowel, e.g. isandla/izandla (hand/hands).

3 The placeholder N in the prefixes iN- and iiN- for m, n or no letter at all.

4 Before monosyllabic stems in some words.

Verbs

Verbs use the following prefixes for the subject and object:

Person/
Class
SubjectObject
1st sing.ndi--ndi-
2nd sing.u--wu-
1st plur.si--si-
2nd plur.ni--ni-
1u--m-
2ba--ba-
3u--m-
4i--yi-
5li--li-
6a--wa-
7si--si-
8zi--zi-
9i--yi-
10zi--zi-
11lu--lu-
14bu--bu-
15ku--ku-
17ku--ku-
reflexive-zi-

Examples

ukudlala – to play
ukubona – to see
umntwana – a child
abantwana – children
umntwana uyadlala – the child is playing
abantwana bayadlala – the children are playing
indoda – a man
amadoda – men
indoda iyambona umntwana – the man sees the child
amadoda ayababona abantwana – the men see the children

History

Henry Hare Dugmore, an Englishman who became fluent in Xhosa, jointly produced the first translation of the Bible into the language in 1859 Henry Hare Dugmore (ca. 1890).jpg
Henry Hare Dugmore, an Englishman who became fluent in Xhosa, jointly produced the first translation of the Bible into the language in 1859
Nelson Mandela was a famous Xhosa man. Nelson Mandela.jpg
Nelson Mandela was a famous Xhosa man.

Xhosa-speaking people have inhabited coastal regions of southeastern Africa since before the 16th century. They refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and their language as Xhosa. AmaXhosa migrated to the east coast of Africa and came across Khoisan-speaking people; "as a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages". [23] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a San language that did. An estimated 15% of Xhosa vocabulary is of San origin. [17] In the modern period, it has also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans and English.

John Bennie was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary and early Xhosa linguist. Bennie, along with John Ross (another missionary), set up a printing press in the Tyhume Valley and the first printed works in Xhosa came out in 1823 from the Lovedale Press in the Alice region of the Eastern Cape. But, as with any language, Xhosa had a rich history of oral traditions from which the society taught, informed, and entertained one another. The first Bible translation was in 1859, produced in part by Henry Hare Dugmore. [17]

Role in modern society

The role of indigenous languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953. [13]

At present, Xhosa is used as the main language of instruction in many primary schools and some secondary schools, but is largely replaced by English after the early primary grades, even in schools mainly serving Xhosa-speaking communities. The language is also studied as a subject.

The language of instruction at universities in South Africa is English or Afrikaans, and Xhosa is taught as a subject, both for native and for non-native speakers.

Literary works, including prose and poetry, are available in Xhosa, as are newspapers and magazines. The South African Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts in Xhosa on both radio (on Umhlobo Wenene FM) and television, and films, plays and music are also produced in the language. The best-known performer of Xhosa songs outside South Africa was Miriam Makeba, whose Click Song #1 (Xhosa Qongqothwane) and "Click Song #2" (Baxabene Ooxam) are known for their large number of click sounds.

In 1996, the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%. [17]

Anthem

Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika is part of the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and Zambia, and the former anthem of Zimbabwe and Namibia. It is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897. The original stanza was:

Nkosi, sikelel' iAfrika;
Maluphakamis' uphondo lwayo;
Yiva imithandazo yethu
Nkosi sikelela, thina lusapho lwayo.
Lord, bless Africa;
May her horn rise high up;
Hear Thou our prayers
Lord, bless us, your family.

Additional stanzas were written later by Sontonga and other writers, with the original verse translated into Sotho and Afrikaans, as well as English.

In the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: Civil War and Black Panther , the language spoken in the fictional African nation of Wakanda is Xhosa. This came about because South African actor John Kani, a native of the Eastern Cape province who plays Wakandan King T'Chaka, is Xhosa and suggested that the directors of Civil War incorporate dialogue in the language. For Black Panther, director Ryan Coogler "wanted to make it a priority to use Xhosa as much as possible" in the script, and provided dialect coaches for the film's actors. [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

Breathy voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound. A simple breathy phonation,, can sometimes be heard as an allophone of English between vowels, such as in the word behind, for some speakers.

Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa. Examples familiar to English-speakers are the Tut-tut or Tsk! Tsk! used to express disapproval or pity, the tchick! used to spur on a horse, and the clip-clop! sound children make with their tongue to imitate a horse trotting.

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Phuthi (Síphùthì) is a Nguni Bantu language spoken in southern Lesotho and areas in South Africa adjacent to the same border. The closest substantial living relative of Phuthi is Swati, spoken in Swaziland and the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Although there is no contemporary sociocultural or political contact, Phuthi is linguistically part of a historic dialect continuum with Swati. Phuthi is heavily influenced by the surrounding Sesotho and Xhosa languages, but retains a distinct core of lexicon and grammar not found in either Xhosa or Sesotho, and found only partly in Swati to the north.

The phonology of Sesotho and those of the other Sotho–Tswana languages are radically different from those of "older" or more "stereotypical" Bantu languages. Modern Sesotho in particular has very mixed origins inheriting many words and idioms from non-Sotho–Tswana languages.

The Nguni people are a group of Bantu peoples who primarily speak Nguni languages and currently reside predominantly in Southern Africa. The Nguni people are Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi. They predominantly live in South Africa. Swazi people live in both South Africa and Eswatini, while Ndebele people live in both South Africa and Zimbabwe. In South Africa, the historic Nguni kingdoms of the Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi are on the present day provinces of the KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, Gauteng, Limpopo and Mpumalanga. The most notable of these kingdoms is the Zulu Kingdom, which was ruled by Shaka, a powerful warrior king whose conquest took place in the early nineteenth century. In Zimbabwe the Ndebele people live primarily in the provinces of Matebeleland and Midlands.

Yeyi is a Bantu language spoken by many of the approximately 50,000 Yeyi people along the Okavango River in Namibia and Botswana. Yeyi, influenced by Juu languages, is one of several Bantu languages along the Okavango with clicks. Indeed, it has the largest known inventory of clicks of any Bantu language, with dental, alveolar, palatal, and lateral articulations. Though most of its older speakers prefer Yeyi in normal conversation, it is being gradually phased out in Botswana by a popular move towards Tswana, with Yeyi only being learned by children in a few villages. Yeyi speakers in the Caprivi Strip of north-eastern Namibia, however, retain Yeyi in villages, but may also speak the regional lingua franca, Lozi.

Nasal clicks are click consonants pronounced with nasal airflow. All click types have nasal variants, and these are attested in four or five phonations: voiced, voiceless, aspirated, murmured, and—in the analysis of Miller (2011)—glottalized.

Glottalized clicks are click consonants pronounced with closure of the glottis. All click types have glottalized variants. They are very common: All of the Khoisan languages of Africa have them, as does Dahalo and the Bantu languages Yeyi and Xhosa. They are produced by making a glottal stop, which stops the flow of air, and then using the front of the tongue to make the click sound in the middle of the glottal stop.

Ditema tsa Dinoko writing system for some Southern Bantu languages

Ditema tsa Dinoko, also known by its IsiZulu name, Isibheqe Sohlamvu, and various other related names in different languages, is a constructed writing system designed in the early 2010s for the siNtu or Southern Bantu languages, developed from antecedent ideographic traditions of the Southern African region. Its visual appearance is inspired by these, including the traditional litema arts style.

References

  1. Xhosa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Webb, Vic. 2002. "Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development." Impact: Studies in language and society, 14:78
  3. Aarons & Reynolds, 2003, "South African Sign Language", in Monaghan, ed., Many Ways to be Deaf: International Variation in Deaf Communities
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Xhosa". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. 1 2 Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  6. "Xhosa – Definition and pronunciation". Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  7. "Xhosa – pronunciation of Xhosa". Macmillan Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  8. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  9. "Xhosa alphabet, pronunciation and language". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  10. The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe. l(CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE (final draft) Archived 2013-10-02 at the Wayback Machine ).
  11. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." In Clem et al. (eds), Theory and Description in African Linguistics: Selected Papers from the 47th Annual Conference on African Linguistics. Language Science Press, Berlin, pp. 703–724.
  12. Online Xhosa-English Dictionary Archived 13 April 2004 at the Wayback Machine
  13. 1 2 3 4 "Xhosa". UCLA Language Materials Project. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
  14. "isiNdebele for beginners. Northern Ndebele language in Africa". www.northernndebele.blogspot.com. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  15. "South Africa Population grows to 44.8 Million". southafrica.info. 9 July 2003. Archived from the original on 22 May 2005.
  16. Hlenze Welsh Kunju, 2017 "Isixhosa Ulwimi Lwabantu Abangesosininzi eZimbabwe: Ukuphila Nokulondolozwa Kwaso", PhD Dissertation, Rhodes University
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  18. William Branford (3 July 2015). The Elements of English: An Introduction to the Principles of the Study of Language. Routledge. pp. 65–. ISBN   978-1-317-42065-1.
  19. Jessen, Michael (2002). "An Acoustic Study of Contrasting Plosives and Click Accompaniments in Xhosa". Phonetica. 59 (2–3): 150–179. doi:10.1159/000066068.
  20. These are analogous to the slack-voice nasals mh, nh, etc. They are not prenasalized, as can be seen in words such as umngqokolo (overtone singing) and umngqusho in which they are preceded by a nasal.
  21. per Derek Nurse, The Bantu Languages, p 616. Zulu does not have this series.
  22. Jessen, Michael; Roux, Justus C. (2002). "Voice quality differences associated with stops and clicks in Xhosa". Journal of Phonetics . 30 (1): 1–52. doi:10.1006/jpho.2001.0150.
  23. "Xhosa | About World Languages". aboutworldlanguages.com. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  24. Eligon, John (16 February 2018). "Wakanda Is a Fake Country, but the African Language in 'Black Panther' Is Real". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 7 May 2018.