Xikang

Last updated
Xikang Province
西康省
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Province of the Republic of China (1939–1950)
1939–1950
Seigneurs de la guerre - 1925.png
Xikang Province in the Republic of China, light blue under control of Chinese warlord
Capital Kangding (1912-1931)
Ba'an (1931-1935)
Ya'an (1935-1936)
Kangding (1935-1949)
Xichang (1949-1950)
Area 
 Estimate
451,521 km2 (174,333 sq mi)
Population 
 Estimate
1748458
Historical era20th century
 Established
1939
 Fall of Xichang
27 March 1950
 Disestablished
1950
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Republic of China (1912-1928).svg Chuanbian Special Region
Xikang Flag of China.svg
Chamdo Region Flag of China.svg
Today part ofFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Flag of India.svg  India
Xikang Province
西康省
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Province of the People's Republic of China (1950–1955)
1950–1955
PRC-Xikang.png
Xikang Province (orange) in the People's Republic of China
Capital Kangding (1950-1951)
Ya'an (1951-1955)
Area 
 1953
451,521 km2 (174,333 sq mi)
Population 
 1953
3381064
Historical era20th century
 Established
1950
 Disestablished
1955
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Xikang
Sichuan Flag of China.svg
Tibet Autonomous Region Flag of China.svg
Today part ofFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Flag of India.svg  India

Xikang (also Sikang or Hsikang) was an illusory province [1] formed by the Republic of China in 1939 on the initiative of prominent Sichuan warlord Liu Wenhui [2] and continued by early People's Republic of China. It comprised most of the Kham region, where the Khampa, a subgroup of the Tibetan people, live. The then independent Tibet controlled the portion of Kham west of the Upper Yangtze River. [3] The nominal Xikang province also included in the south the Assam Himalayan region (Arunachal Pradesh) that Tibet had recognised as part of British India by the 1914 McMahon Line agreement. [4] The eastern part of the province was inhabited by a number of different ethnic groups, such as Han Chinese, Yi, Qiang people and Tibetan, then known as Chuanbian (川邊), a special administrative region of the Republic of China. In 1939, it became the new Xikang province with the additional territories belonging to Tibetan and British control added in. After the People's Republic of China invaded and occupied Tibet, the earlier nationalist imagination of Xikang came to fruition.

Contents

The provincial capital of Xikang was Kangding from 1939 to 1951 and Ya'an from 1951 to 1955. The province had a population of 3.4 million in 1954. [5]

History

The Xikang province sketched in a 1950 map by CIA. Borders shown in dark green lines. Xikang province in 1950 CIA map of Tibet.jpg
The Xikang province sketched in a 1950 map by CIA. Borders shown in dark green lines.
The Chinese control of the southeastern Tibet shown along with the proposed Simla Convention frontier of 1914. 1945 Central and Eastern Tibet from Tibetan Precis by Richardson in Himalayan Triangle.jpg
The Chinese control of the southeastern Tibet shown along with the proposed Simla Convention frontier of 1914.

In 1910, general Zhao Erfang occupied Kham region, destroyed a few monasteries and killed over 1000 lamas. Later on, he proclaimed this territory as a new Chinese province subsequently known as Xikang.

Following the Wuchang Uprising in October 1911 which led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty, this region[ which? ] was established as the Chuanbian Special Administrative District (川邊特別行政區) by the newly founded Republic of China.

In June 1930 this region[ which? ] was invaded by the army of Tibet, precipitating the Sino-Tibetan War. With the district locked in internal struggles, no reinforcements were sent to support the Sichuanese troops stationed here. As a result, the Tibetan army captured, without encountering much resistance, Garze and Xinlong Counties. When a negotiated ceasefire failed, Tibetan forces expanded the war attempting to capture parts of southern Qinghai province. In March 1932 their force invaded Qinghai but was defeated by the local Hui warlord Ma Bufang in July, routing the Tibetan army and driving it back to this district.

The Hui army captured counties that had fallen into the hands of the Tibetan army since 1919. Their victories threatened the supply lines to the Tibetan forces in Garze and Xinlong. As a result, part of the Tibetan army was forced to withdraw.

In 1932 Liu Wenhui in cooperation with the Qinghai army, sent out a brigade to attack the Tibetan troops in Garze and Xinlong, eventually occupying them, Dêgê and other counties east of the Jinshajiang River. The 1934 Khamba Rebellion led by the Pandatsang family broke out against the Tibetan government in Lhasa. The Khampa revolutionary leader Pandatsang Rapga was involved.

In January 1939, the Chuanbian Special Administrative District officially became a province of the Republic, the Hsikang Province. Kesang Tsering was sent by the Chinese to Batang to take control of Sikang, where he formed a local government. He was sent there for the purpose of propagating the Three Principles of the People to the Khampa. [6]

In 1950, following the defeat of the Kuomintang by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, Xikang was split along the Yangtze into Sikang to the east and a separate Chamdo Territory (昌都地区) to the west. Chamdo was merged into Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965. The rest of Hsikang was merged into Sichuan in 1955.

Administrative divisions

1939-1950

NameAdministrative SeatTraditional ChineseSubdivisionsComments
First Administrative CircuitKangding County第一行政督察區4 counties, 1 bureauLater the Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous Region
Second Administrative CircuitYingjing County第二行政督察區7 countiesLater the Ya'an Division
Third Administrative CircuitXichang County第三行政督察區9 counties, 3 bureausLater the XIchang Division
Fourth Administrative CircuitGarzê County第四行政督察區15 countiesLater the Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous Region
Fifth Administrative Circuit第五行政督察區13 countiesChamdo Region; de facto controlled by Tibet

1950–1955

NameSimplified ChineseHanyu PinyinSubdivisions
Ya'an (1951-1955)雅安市Yǎ'ān shì1 city
Ya'an
Ya'an Division雅安专区Yǎ'ān Zhuānqū8 counties
Ya'an (1950-1951), Baoxing, Lushan, Tianquan, Yingjing, Hanyuan, Mingshan (1951-1955), Shimian (1951-1955)
Xichang Division西昌专区Xīchāng Zhuānqū13 counties
Xichang , Yanyuan, Yanbian, Huili, Ningnan, Dechang, Zhaojue (1950-1952), Yuexi, Mianning, Jinkang (1952-1955), Muli (1952-1955), Miyi (1952-1955), Huidong
3 bureaus
Puge (1950-1952), Ningdong (1950-1952), Luoning (1950-1952)
Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous Region西康省藏族自治区Xīkāng Shěng Zàngzú Zìzhìqū20 counties
direct controlled
Kangding , Danba, Qianning, Yajiang, Luding, Jiulong
1 bureau
Jintang

Ganzi Regional Office (1951-1955)
Ganzi, Shiqi, Dengke, Dege, Baiyu, Zhanghua→Xinlong, Luhuo, Daofu


Litang Regional Office (1951-1955)
Litang, Batang, Derong, Dingxiang→Xiangcheng, Daocheng, Yidun

Liangshan Yi Autonomous Region (1952-1955)凉山彝族自治区Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìqū8 counties
Zhaojue, Puge, Ningdong, Xide, Butuo, Jinyang, Meigu, Puxiong

List of governors

   Kuomintang (Nationalist)   Communist Party of China

Chairperson of the Provincial Government

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical party
1 Liu Wenhui.jpg Liu Wenhui
劉文輝
Liú Wénhuī
(1895–1976)
1 January 19399 December 1949 Kuomintang
Defected to the Communists.
2 He Guoguang.jpg Ho Kuo-kuang
賀國光
Hè Guóguāng
(1885–1969)
25 December 1949March 1950 Kuomintang
Fled to Taiwan via Haikou after fall of Xichang.

Xikang CPC Party Committee Secretary

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical party
1Liao Zhigao
廖志高
Liào Zhìgāo
(1913–2000)
19501955 Communist Party of China
Province abolished.

Xikang People's Government Chairperson (Governor after January 1955)

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical party
1Liao Zhigao
廖志高
Liào Zhìgāo
(1913–2000)
26 April 1950September 1955 Communist Party of China
Province abolished.

See also

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References

  1. Lin, Bounary, sovereignty and imagiantion (2004) , p. 30: "Despite its almost entirely illusory nature, the so-called Xikang province was officially sketched out by Chinese map-makers, from whom it came to be known nation-wide.
  2. Yajun Mo, "The New Frontier: Zhuang Xueben and Xikang Province", in "Chinese History in Geographical Perspective", edited by Yongtao Du and Jeff Kyong-McClain, p. 124, Lexington Books, 2013
  3. Lin, Bounary, sovereignty and imagiantion (2004) , p. 29: "According to the Kuomintang, the boundary of this new Xikang province encompassed, not only part of the southwestern province of Sichuan that was then dominated by the Han Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui, but also a huge portion of the ethnographic Tibetan area west of the Upper Yangtze River that was then effectively administered by the autonomous Tibetan government."
  4. Lin, Bounary, sovereignty and imagiantion (2004) , p. 29: "In addition, the newly carved provincial boundary also extended deep into the Tibetan-Assam tribal territory, including areas south of the theoretically existing McMahon Line that had been signed away to British India by Lhasa in 1914."
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's ethnic frontiers: a journey to the west. Volume 67 of Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 27. ISBN   978-0-415-58264-3 . Retrieved 2011-12-27. area and spreading Sun Yat-sen's Three People's Principle among the Tibetan and Khampa minorities, Kesang Tsering set up a field headquarters in Batang (Pa'an). There he appointed his own Xikang provincial government staff and issued an|volume= has extra text (help)

Bibliography