|Xinhai Revolution in Xinjiang|
|Part of Xinhai Revolution|
|Qing Empire||Gelaohui and Ili Revolutionaires|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Wang Peilan||Yang Zuanxu|
Several thousand Provincial Chinese troops
|Gelaohui rebels and Ili Revolutionaries, made out of Han Chinese, Hui Muslims, and Uyghurs|
The Xinhai Revolution in Xinjiang (Chinese :辛亥革命在新疆) refers to the fightings of the members of Anti-Manchu Revolutionary Party (反清革命党人) in Xinjiang during the Xinhai Revolution. The Revolution mainly took place in Yili.
After the success of the Wuchang Uprising, responses came from all over China, in November 1911, twenty four provinces of the country broke away from the Qing government. Seeing this situation, the Royalist Party of Qing Dynasty conspired to welcome the Xuantong Emperor to move westward, in an attempt to build the capital in Kulun (now Ulaanbaatar of Mongolia) or Altay to cede the northwest, and continue to confront the revolutionary army. When the members of Revolutionary Party in Wuhan learned of this situation, they immediately told their members in Xinjiang, and on November 28, 1911, the Xinhai Revolution broke out in Xinjiang.
The last Gansu Xinjiang Provincial Governor (甘肃新疆巡抚) of Qing Yuan Dahua (袁大化) fled and handed over his resignation to Yang Zengxin, because of the resistance and struggle of the people of all ethnic groups in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, Yuan "cannot deal with the revolutionaries, hears the wind and loses gall" (穷于应付, 闻风丧胆),and finally had to "flee into the Shanhai Pass", on the other hand, he did not want to work for the Republic of China. The Ili revolutionaries and the Gelaohui were then suppressed by Yang. Yang appointed Ma Fuxing as military commander of 2,000 Chinese Muslim troops, to crush Yang's rivals. President Yuan Shikai recognized his rule, appointing him Provincial Governor of Xinjiang. The revolutionaries printed new multi-lingual media.
Some Chinese historians believe that the success of the Xinhai Revolution in Xinjiang (Yili) completely broke the Qing Emperor's plan of moving westward, and directly promoted the abdication of Xuantong Emperor, which has not yet received much attention in the field of Chinese historiography. The Revolution eradicated the last "life-saving straw" ("救命稻草") of the Qing Dynasty.
Ürümqi or Urumchi, abbreviated Wushi, formerly known as Tihwa, is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China. Ürümqi was a major hub on the Silk Road during China's Tang dynasty and developed its reputation as a leading cultural and commercial center during the Qing dynasty in the 19th century.
The 1911 Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai (辛亥) stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the traditional Chinese calendar. The revolution marked the end of 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's early republican era.
The Id Kah Mosque is a mosque located in Kashgar, Xinjiang, China.
Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was a short-lived breakaway Islamic republic founded on 12 November 1933; it was the first state to style itself an "Islamic republic." It was centred on the city of Kashgar in what is today China-administered Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The ETR was primarily the product of an independence movement of the Uyghur population living there and more broadly of Turkic-ethnicity in character, including Kyrgyz and other Turkic peoples in its government and its population.
Xinjiang historically consisted of two main geographically, historically, and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names: Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains; and the Tarim Basin south of the Tianshan Mountains, currently mainly inhabited by the Uyghurs. They were renamed Xinjiang (新疆) in 1884, meaning "new frontier," when both regions were reconquered by the Chinese Qing dynasty after the Dungan revolt (1862–1877).
Yang Zengxin was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.
Ma Shaowu was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing Dynasty China. He was a member of the Xinjiang clique during the Republic of China.
Ma Fuxing was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing dynasty China. He was an ex-convict. During Yang Zengxin's reign in Xinjiang, Ma was appointed as a military commander, and then Titai of Kashgar.
The Gelaohui, usually translated as Elder Brothers Society, also known as Futaubang, or Hatchet Gang, as every member allegedly carried a small hatchet inside the sleeve, was a secret society and underground resistance movement against the Qing Dynasty. Although it was not associated with Sun Yat-sen's Tongmenghui, they both participated in the Xinhai Revolution.
In the 1933 Battle of Kashgar, Gen. Ma Zhancang signed a secret agreement with the daotai of Kashgar, Ma Shaowu, and his Chinese Muslim troops joined the Han Chinese garrison inside the yamen in Kashgar and helped them repulse Uighur and Kirghiz attacks led by Abdullah Bughra. Turkic Uighur and Kirghiz forces led by the Uighur Timur Beg had been attacking Chinese Muslim villages and pillaging them. During the fighting Timur Beg was shot and then beheaded by Ma Zhancang's forces, his head being put on display at the Idgah mosque. When more Chinese Muslim troops arrived, they reinforced the Chinese garrison inside Kashgar. Osman Ali, the Kirghiz rebel, attempted to attack the yamen, but was driven back with heavy losses. He then proceeded to loot the city.
The Kumul Khanate was a semi-autonomous feudal Turkic khanate within the Qing dynasty and then the Republic of China until it was abolished by Xinjiang governor Jin Shuren in 1930. The khanate was located in present-day Hami prefecture of Xinjiang.
Maqsud Shah, was the Uyghur Jasagh Prince (Qinwang) of the Kumul Khanate from 1908 to 1930.
Ma Zhongying, also Ma Chung-ying, was a Hui Chinese Muslim warlord during the Warlord era of China. His birth name was Ma Buying. Ma was a warlord of Gansu Province in China during the 1930s. His alliance with the Kuomintang (KMT) brought his predominantly Chinese Muslim troops under the control of the KMT as the 36th Division with Ma Zhongying as its commander. He was ordered to overthrow Jin Shuren, the governor of Xinjiang. After several victories over provincial and White Russian forces, he attempted to expand his territory into southern Xinjiang by launching campaigns from his power base in Gansu, but was stopped by Xinjiang warlord Sheng Shicai in 1934.
Masud Sabri, also known as Masʿūd Ṣabrī, was a Uyghur political leader in Sinkiang and Governor of Sinkiang during the Ili Rebellion. He received education at Kulja and Istanbul and was a Pan-Turkist.
1911 Revolution is a Chinese television series based on the events of the Xinhai Revolution, which brought an end to imperial rule in China in 1911. It was first broadcast on CCTV-1 during prime time on 27 September 2011. It was specially produced to mark the 100th anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution.
Abdulkerim Abbas, also Abdul Kerim Abbas, Abdulkerim Abbasoff, 'Abd al-Karīm 'Abbās, was an Uyghur leader in Xinjiang, China during the 20th century. He helped lead the Ili Rebellion of 1944, which led to the founding of the Second East Turkestan Republic in northern Xinjiang. Abbas, along with Ehmetjan Qasim, headed the Marxist faction within the Three Districts, which in 1946 set aside the rebellion's declaration of independence and joined the Nationalist Chinese in forming a coalition provincial government. Qasim and Abbas led the Three Districts in joining the Chinese Communists toward the end of the Chinese Civil War. They and several other senior leaders of the Three Districts perished in August 1949 in a plane crash while traveling en route to Beiping (Beijing) where they were invited to participate in the Chinese Communists' political consultative conference, which resulted in the founding of the People's Republic of China. Abbas is officially in hailed in the People's Republic of China as a revolutionary martyr.
Migration to Xinjiang is both an ongoing and historical movement of people, often sponsored by various states who controlled the region, including the Han dynasty, Qing dynasty, Republic of China and People's Republic of China.
The Qing dynasty ruled over Xinjiang from the late 1750s to 1912. In the history of Xinjiang, the Qing rule was established in the final phase of the Dzungar–Qing Wars when the Dzungar Khanate was conquered by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty of China, and lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. The post of General of Ili was established to govern the whole of Xinjiang and reported to the Lifan Yuan, a Qing government agency that oversaw the empire's frontier regions. Xinjiang was turned into a province in 1884.
Xinjiang Province or Sinkiang Province refers to a former province of the Republic of China. First set up in 1884 as a province of the Qing dynasty, it was replaced in 1955 by the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The original provincial government was relocated to Taipei as the Sinkiang Provincial Government Office (新疆省政府辦事處) until its dissolution in 1992.
The Imperial Edict of the Abdication of the Qing Emperor was an official decree issued by the Empress Dowager Longyu on behalf of the six-year-old Xuantong Emperor, who was the monarch of the Qing dynasty, on 12 February 1912, as a response to the Xinhai Revolution. The revolution led to the self-declared independence of 13 southern Chinese provinces and the sequent peace negotiation between the rest of Imperial China with the collective of the southern provinces. The issuance of the Imperial Edict ended the Qing dynasty of China, which lasted 276 years, and the era of imperial rule in China, which lasted 2,132 years.