The xun lei chong (simplified Chinese :迅雷铳; traditional Chinese :迅雷銃; lit. 'Thundering fast firearm') is a revolving-barrel, spear-combined musket invented by Zhao Shizhen (趙士禎) during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644).
For Zhao Shi-Zhen's radical design, he connected five thin gun barrels behind a reinforced shield: like the five thunder divine machine the gunner could rotate the fuse 72 degrees and swiftly light each barrel with his match. These weapons would serve as defensive weapons and be fired from walls or high positions like hillocks and ridges. They were recorded to be deadly at 120 paces.
The central firing device is actually a combination of a detachable spear plus five tubings plus a firing mechanism, fitted together with interlocking grooves. The shield could be pulled off from the front and slung on the hand, the gun's rest is actually a double sided hand axe.
A firearm is any type of gun designed to be readily carried and used by an individual. The term is legally defined further in different countries.
A revolver is a repeating handgun that has at least one barrel and uses a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers for firing. Before firing a round, cocking the hammer partially rotates the cylinder, indexing one of the cylinder chambers into alignment with the barrel, allowing the bullet to be fired through the bore. The hammer cocking can be achieved by either the user manually pulling the hammer back, via internal linkage relaying a rearward movement of the trigger, or both. By sequentially rotating through each chamber, the revolver allows the user to fire multiple times until having to reload the gun, unlike older single-shot firearms that had to be reloaded after each shot.
A breechloader is a firearm in which the user loads the ammunition via the rear (breech) end of its barrel, as opposed to a muzzleloader, which loads ammunition via the front (muzzle).
Black powder was invented in China during the 9th century; these inventions were later transmitted to the Middle East and Europe. The direct ancestor of the firearm is the fire lance. The prototype of the fire lance was invented in China during the 10th century and is the predecessor of all firearms.
The Huolongjing, also known as Huoqitu, is a Chinese military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683) during the 14th-century. The Huolongjing is primarily based on the text known as Huolong Shenqi Tufa, which no longer exists.
The thunder crash bomb, also known as the heaven-shaking-thunder bomb, was one of the first bombs or hand grenades in the history of gunpowder warfare. It was developed in the 12th-13th century Song and Jin dynasties. Its shell was made of cast iron and filled with gunpowder. The length of the fuse could be adjusted according to the intended throwing distance.
Emperor Zhenzong of Song, personal name Zhao Heng, was the third emperor of the Song dynasty of China. He reigned from 997 to his death in 1022. His personal name was originally Zhao Dechang, but was changed to Zhao Yuanxiu in 983, Zhao Yuankan in 986, and finally Zhao Heng in 995. He was the third son of his predecessor, Emperor Taizong, and was succeeded by his sixth son, Emperor Renzong at the end of his reign. He was ill, but retained the power to rule. Because of his illness, charge of rule was often in the hands of his third wife, Empress Liu.
Gunpowder weapons in the Song dynasty included fire arrows, gunpowder lit flamethrowers, soft shell bombs, hard shell iron bombs, fire lances, and possibly early cannons known as "eruptors". The eruptors, such as the "multiple bullets magazine eruptors", consisting of a tube of bronze or cast iron that was filled with about 100 lead balls, and the "flying-cloud thunderclap eruptor", were early cast-iron proto-cannons that did not include single shots that occluded the barrel. The use of proto-cannon, and other gunpowder weapons, enabled the Song dynasty to ward off its generally militarily superior enemies—the Khitan led Liao, Tangut led Western Xia, and Jurchen led Jin—until its final collapse under the onslaught of the Mongol forces of Kublai Khan and his Yuan dynasty in the late 13th century.
Zhao Hongyin (899-956) was a military general in Imperial China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Zhao Ying, courtesy name Yuanhui (元輝), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin, serving as a chancellor during Later Jin.
The san yan chong was a three barrel hand cannon used in the Ming dynasty.
The che dian chong is a breech-loading, cartridge-using musket invented by Zhao Shizhen (趙士禎) during the Ming dynasty for the dynasty's arsenals. Like all early breech loading fireams, gas leakage was a limitation and danger present in the weapon's mechanism.
Zhongjunjiang or Jiangzhongjun was the military leader and the prime minister of the ancient Chinese state of Jin. Literally, the word Zhongjunjiang means "General of central army". The post originally was named "Situ" (司徒). Zhongjunjiang was also known as "Jiangjun" (將軍), "Dazheng" and "Yuanshuai" (元帥). Since Zhao Dun's term as Zhongjunjiang, the post's jurisdiction was widened and its holder automatically obtains the regency of Jin. Historical evidence also indicate that Zhongjunjiang had the legislative power.
The Ming dynasty continued to improve on gunpowder weapons from the Yuan and Song dynasties. During the early Ming period larger and more cannons were used in warfare. In the early 16th century Turkish and Portuguese breech-loading swivel guns and matchlock firearms were incorporated into the Ming arsenal. In the 17th century Dutch culverin were incorporated as well and became known as hongyipao. At the very end of the Ming dynasty, around 1642, Chinese combined European cannon designs with indigenous casting methods to create composite metal cannons that exemplified the best attributes of both iron and bronze cannons. While firearms never completely displaced the bow and arrow, by the end of the 16th century more firearms than bows were being ordered for production by the government, and no crossbows were mentioned at all.
The three most common types of Chinese polearms are the ge (戈), qiang (槍), and ji (戟). They are translated into English as dagger-axe, spear, and halberd. Dagger-axes were originally a short slashing weapon with a 0.9 to 1.8 m long shaft, but around the 4th century BC a spearhead was added to the blade, and it became a halberd. The spear is also sometimes called a mao (矛), which is sometimes used to designate polearms with a wavy snake-like spearhead. There was another polearm weapon known as the pi (鈹), translated into English as either sword-staff or long lance, that was used from ancient times until the Han dynasty. It was essentially a short sword attached to a stick. From the Warring States period onward, the length of Chinese polearms varied from around 2.8 m to 5.5 m, however there is no specific designation for a pike in the traditional Chinese lexicon. A very long spear is just called a long spear.
The military history of the Song dynasty encompasses military activity of the Han Chinese state of Song from 960 AD with the overthrow of Later Zhou until 1279 AD when China was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Li Ju, courtesy name Shihui, was a Chinese military general and warlord of the Jin dynasty (266–420). He was a wuzhu (塢主) during the Han Zhao conquest of northern China who took in fleeing refugees and held semi-autonomous control over his territory. With his nephew Guo Song and fellow wuzhu Guo Mo, Li traded blows with Han Zhao and Later Zhao near the Luoyang region, even managing to occupy the ancient capital for a brief period since its fall in 311. However, he had little support from the court in Jiankang and his position was being increasingly challenged as the barbarians continued to eliminate Jin's northern vassals. After a string of defeats in 324, he was forced to abandon his base and retreat to Jiankang, during which he died in a horse riding accident in 325.