Kemal Sadık Gökçeli
|Born||6 October 1923|
Gökçedam, Osmaniye, Turkey
|Died||28 February 2015 91) (aged|
Yaşar Kemal (born Kemal Sadık Gökçeli;6 October 1923 – 28 February 2015) was a Turkish writer and human rights activist of Kurdish origin. He was one of Turkey's leading writers. He received 38 awards during his lifetime and had been a candidate for the Nobel Prize in Literature on the strength of Memed, My Hawk .
Turkish people or the Turks, also known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, particularly in Western Europe.
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize that is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. It was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019.
Memed, My Hawk is a 1955 novel by Yaşar Kemal. It was Kemal's debut novel and is the first novel in his İnce Memed tetralogy. The novel won the Varlik prize for that year and earned Kemal a national reputation. In 1961, the book was translated into English by Edouard Roditi, thus gaining Kemal his first exposure to English-speaking readers.
An outspoken intellectual, he often did not hesitate to speak about sensitive issues, especially those concerning the oppression of the Kurdish people.He was tried in 1995 under anti-terror laws for an article he wrote for German magazine Der Spiegel accusing the Turkish army of destroying Kurdish villages. He was released but later received a suspended 20-month jail sentence for an article he wrote criticising the Turkish racism against the minorities in Turkey, especially against the Kurds.
Der Spiegel is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg. With a weekly circulation of 840,000 copies, it is the largest such publication in Europe.
Kemal was born to Sadık and his wife Halime on 6 October 1923 in Gökçedam,a hamlet in the province of Osmaniye in southern Turkey. He was born into a Kurdish family that had partly Caucasian and Assyrian origins. Kemal had a difficult childhood, because he lost his right eye in a knife accident when his father was slaughtering a sheep on Eid al-Adha. Moreover, when he was five years old he witnessed his father being stabbed to death by his adoptive son Yusuf while praying in a mosque. These traumatic experiences left Kemal with a speech impediment, which lasted until he was twelve years old. At nine Kemel began school in a neighboring village, and later he continued his formal education in Kadirli, Osmaniye Province.
Gökçedam is a village in the central district of Osmaniye Province, Turkey. It is the birthplace of Yaşar Kemal.
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement. The word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church.
Turkey is divided into 81 provinces. Each province is divided into a number of different districts. Each provincial government is seated in the central district. The central district usually bears the name of the province. There are only three exceptions to this naming scheme:
Kemal was a locally noted bard before he began school but was unappreciated by his widowed mother until he composed an elegy on the death of one of her eight brothers, all of whom were bandits.However, he forgot it and became interested in writing as a means to record his work when he questioned an itinerant peddler, who was doing his accounts. Ultimately, his village paid his way to university in Istanbul.
Istanbul, historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side. With a total population of around 15 million residents, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth-largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the East and West.
He worked for a while for rich farmers, guarding their river water against other farmers' unauthorized irrigation. However, instead he taught the poor farmers how to steal the water undetected, by taking it at night.
Later he worked as a letter-writer, then as a journalist, and finally as a novelist. He said that the Turkish police confiscated his first two novels.
When Kemal was visiting Akdamar Island in 1951, he saw the island's Holy Cross Church being removed. Using his contacts to the public, he helped stop the removal. In 2005 the church was restored by the Turkish government.
In 1962 Kemal joined the Workers Party of Turkey and "served as one of its leaders until quitting after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968".
In 2005 Kemal wrote a new introduction to his novel Memed, My Hawk, wherein he prognosticated that "...confronted with the massacre of nature, that great scourge of our age, we will create myths of fear as our ancestors did."
In 1952, Yaşar Kemal married Thilda Serrero,a member of a prominent Sephardi Jewish family in Istanbul. Her grandfather, Jak Mandil Pasha, was the chief physician of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II. She translated 17 of her husband’s works into the English language. Thilda predeceased Yaşar on 17 January 2001 (aged 78) from pulmonary complications at a hospital in Istanbul, and was laid to rest at Zincirlikuyu Cemetery. Thilda was also survived by her son Raşit Göğçel and a grandchild.
Yaşar Kemal remarried on 1 August 2002 to Ayşe Semiha Baban, a lecturer for public relations at Bilgi University in Istanbul. She was educated at the American University of Beirut, Bosphorus University and Harvard University.
On 14 January 2015 Kemal was hospitalized at Istanbul University's Çapa Medical Faculty, due to respiratory insufficiency. During the afternoon of 28 February 2015, in the intensive care unit, where he had been admitted owing to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, he died.Following a religious funeral service held at Teşvikiye Mosque, attended by former Turkish president Abdullah Gul, political party leaders, high-ranking officials and an enormous assembly of mourners, he was laid to rest on 2 March 2015 beside his first wife Thilda's grave in Zincirlikuyu Cemetery. Kemal is survived by his wife Ayşe Semiha Baban and his adoptive son, visual artist Ahmet Güneştekin.
|“||I don't write about issues, I don't write for an audience, I don't even write for myself. I just write.||”|
|— Interview with The Guardian .|
Kemal published his first book Ağıtlar ("Ballads") in 1943, which was a compilation of folkloric themes. This book brought to light many long forgotten rhymes and ballads. He had begun to collect these ballads at the age of 16.His first stories Bebek ("The Baby"), Dükkancı ("The Shopkeeper") and Memet ile Memet ("Memet and Memet") were published in 1950. He penned his first tale Pis Hikaye ("The Dirty Story") in 1944, while he was serving in the military, in Kayseri. Then he published his book of short stories Sarı Sıcak ("Yellow Heat") in 1952. The initial point of his works was the toil of the people of the Çukurova plains and he based the themes of his writings on the lives and sufferings of these people. Kemal used the legends and stories of Anatolia extensively as the basis for his works.
He received international acclaim with the publication of Memed, My Hawk (Turkish : İnce Memed) in 1955. In İnce Memed, Kemal criticizes the fabric of the society through a legendary hero, a protagonist, who flees to the mountains as a result of the oppression of the Aghas. One of the most famous writers in Turkey, Kemal was noted for his command of the language and lyrical description of bucolic Turkish life. He was awarded 19 literary prizes during his lifetime and nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1973.
His 1955 novel Teneke was adapted into a theatrical play, which was staged for almost one year in Gothenburg, Sweden, in the country where he lived for about two years in the late 1970s.Italian composer Fabio Vacchi adapted the same novel with the original title into an opera of three acts, which premiered at the Teatro alla Scala in Milano, Italy in 2007.
Kemal was a major contributor to Turkish literature in the early years after the language's recreation as a literary language following Atatürk's Reforms of the 1930s.
Kayahan Açar was a Turkish pop music singer-songwriter. He was an accomplished composer, consistently ranking among the best-selling Turkish musicians of all time. Kayahan composed all of his own material and released more than eight best-selling albums during a career spanning three decades. Kayahan released a number of compact cassettes, CDs and albums and had major singles. He represented Turkey in Eurovision Song Contest 1990 with "Gözlerinin Hapsindeyim".
İnce Memed is a series of four epic novels written by the Turkish novelist Yaşar Kemal. The novels follow the life of Memed, the only son of a poor widow who escapes from his village in the Anatolian landowners and transforms himself into a legendary, Robin Hood-like figure, championing the landless peasants of Anatolia in their struggle against their corrupt and greedy landowners.
Çetin Altan was a Turkish writer, journalist, and a member of parliament. He was considered one of the finest writers in the modern Turkish language of the late 20th century.
Yaşar Nuri Öztürk was a Turkish university professor of Islamic theology, lawyer, columnist and a former member of Turkish parliament.
Teneke is an opera in three acts by Italian composer Fabio Vacchi.
Teneke is a novel by the Turkish author of Kurdish origin Yaşar Kemal, appeared in 1955 by Varlık Yayınları after its first publication in 1954 as an episode in the newspaper Cumhuriyet. It is Kemal's second novel. Teneke reached its 23rd edition, published 2004 by Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
The Zincirlikuyu Cemetery is a modern burial ground residing on the European part of Istanbul, Turkey. It is administered by the Metropolitan Municipality. Many prominent figures from the world of politics, business, sports and arts rest here.
Fikret Hakan was a prolific Turkish film actor and a recipient of the honorary State Artist, a prestigious title awarded by the Turkish government.
The Turkish Basketball First League, also called TBL, is the second-tier level league of professional club basketball in Turkey. The league was previously known as Turkish Basketball Second League (TB2L).
Rohat Alakom,, is a Kurdish author from Kars, Turkey who writes his books in Kurdish, Turkish and Swedish. He was born in a village of Kağızman a district of Kars Province. He went to high school in Kağızman, Later, he went to the capital of Turkey Ankara for higher education. After living in Bulgaria (1979–1980) and Germany (1980–1982) he went to Sweden. He is currently living in Sweden.
Attila Özdemiroğlu was a Turkish composer and arranger. He was best known for his award winning film scores in the 1970s and 1980s.
The time that can be called contemporary in Turkish literature falls in the period between the middle of the 20th century and the first years of the new millennium. Throughout this period many changes in literary discourse have occurred. Together with the fall of the Ottoman Empire and foundation of the Turkish Republic brought a different way to Turkish literature together with the effect of Westernization on Turkish writers. The literature of the new republic emerged largely from the pre-independence National Literature movement, with its roots simultaneously in the Turkish folk tradition and in the Western notion of progress. One important change to Turkish literature was enacted in 1928, when Mustafa Kemal initiated the creation and dissemination of a modified version of the Latin alphabet to replace the Arabic-based Ottoman script. Over time, this change—together with changes in Turkey's system of education— would lead to more widespread literacy in the country. In 1950s, Turkish authors started to write in the tone of their western contemporaries bringing a new sense of literature to the country.
They Burn the Thistles – Ince Memed II is a 1969 novel by Yaşar Kemal. It was Kemal's second novel in his İnce Memed tetralogy.
Yalçın Akdoğan is a Turkish politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey from 2014 to 2016. A member of the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP), Akdoğan became a Member of Parliament representing Ankara's first electoral district at the 2011 general election and was re-elected in June 2015. Prior to being elected Akdoğan was an academic and a journalist, having taught at the Bahçeşehir Üniversitesi and Anadolu University and written for Yeni Şafak and Star among others. He named Traditionalist authors René Guénon and Seyyed Hossein Nasr as his favourite writers.
Muharrem İnce is a Turkish politician. He was elected four consecutive times in 2002, 2007, 2011 and 2015 as a Republican People's Party (CHP) MP for his hometown. He served as the CHP's parliamentary group deputy chairman for two terms.
The following lists events that happened in 2015 in Turkey.
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Boulevard, abbreviated as GMK Boulevard, is a boulevard connecting Anadolu Square in Yenimahalle with Kızılay Square in Çankaya of Ankara, Turkey. The 2.2 km (1.4 mi) long boulevard runs in northwest-southeast direction. It is named after Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938), the founder of Turkish Republic.
Gülruz Sururi was a Turkish drama actress and author. She presented a TV cooking show and co-owned a theatre.
...for Yasar Kemal has become perhaps the best known champion of human rights in Turkey, the godfather of freedom of conscience. He is no stranger to prison and currently has a suspended prison sentence hanging over him.