Ya'ammu Nubwoserre

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Nubwoserre Ya'ammu (also rendered as Ya'amu, [4] Jamu and Jaam [3] ) was a ruler during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.
This Asiatic-blooded ruler is traditionally placed in the 16th Dynasty, an hypothesis still in use nowadays by scholars such as Jürgen von Beckerath; [3] although recently Kim Ryholt proposed him as the second ruler of the 14th Dynasty. [2]

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt period of Ancient Egyptian history

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Sixteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years.

Jürgen von Beckerath was a German Egyptologist. He was a prolific writer who published countless articles in journals such as Orientalia, Göttinger Miszellen (GM), Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (JARCE), Archiv für Orientforschung (AfO), and Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (SAK) among others. Together with Kenneth Kitchen, he is viewed as one of the foremost scholars on the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

Contents

Identification

This ruler seems to have made little use of the cartouche — which was a pharaonic prerogative — since it was used only for the throne name, Nubwoserre, though not always. [5] His personal name never appears inside a cartouche, and is simply reported as "the son of Ra, Ya'ammu".

Cartouche oval with inscriptions

In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. They came into common use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, but earlier examples date to the mid Second Dynasty on Cylinder Seals of Seth-Peribsen. While the cartouche is usually vertical with a horizontal line, if it makes the name fit better it can be horizontal, with a vertical line at the end . The Ancient Egyptian word for it was shenu, and it was essentially an expanded shen ring. In Demotic, the cartouche was reduced to a pair of brackets and a vertical line.

Pharaoh ruler of Ancient Egypt

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Similar to his suggested predecessor Yakbim Sekhaenre, there is no direct evidence that Ya'ammu's throne name was Nubwoserre: the association is based on stylistic features of the seals and was proposed by William Ayres Ward [6] and later elaborated by Ryholt; [7] Daphna Ben-Tor disputed this identification, pointing out that the seals of the many rulers living during this period are too similar to make such correlations on the basis of mere design features. [4] The Turin King List can not help with this issue since the ruler does not appear on it, likely due to a lacuna. [8]

Yakbim Sekhaenre Egyptian pharaoh

Sekhaenre Yakbim or Yakbmu was a ruler during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. Although his dynastic and temporal collocation is disputed, Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt believes that he likely was the founder of the Levantine-blooded Fourteenth Dynasty, while in older literature he was mainly considered a member of the Sixteenth Dynasty.

Seal (emblem) device or emblem

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects.

William Ayres Ward was an American Egyptologist.

Assuming that Ward and Ryholt were right, Nubwoserre Ya'ammu is attested by 26 rather crude scarab seals (more precisely, 19 naming Nubwoserre and 7 naming Ya'ammu); [1] [9] based on that, Ryholt estimated for him a reign length of around 10 years, in the interval 1780-1770 BCE. [2] However, about the events of his reign absolutely nothing is known.

Scarab (artifact) object in the form of a scarab beetle in art

Scarabs were popular amulets and impression seals in Ancient Egypt. They survive in large numbers and, through their inscriptions and typology, they are an important source of information for archaeologists and historians of the ancient world. They also represent a significant body of ancient art.

Israeli Egyptologist Raphael Giveon identifies Ya'ammu with his proposed predecessor Yakbim. [3]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 King Ya'ammu on Digitalegypt
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ryholt (1997) , p. 200
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Nubwoserre Ya'ammu on Eglyphica.de
  4. 1 2 Ben-Tor (2010) , pp. 99ff
  5. Ryholt (1997) , p. 45
  6. Ward (1984) , pp. 163ff
  7. Ryholt (1997) , pp. 41–47
  8. Ryholt (1997) , p. 98
  9. Ryholt (1997) , p. 199

Bibliography

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Museum Tusculanum Press Danish publisher

Museum Tusculanum Press is an independent academic press historically associated with the University of Copenhagen, publishing mainly in the humanities, social sciences and theology. It was founded in 1975 as a non-profit institution and publishes approximately 45 titles annually. A large part of the books published by Museum Tusculanum Press are authored or edited by researchers affiliated with the University of Copenhagen.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

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