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A 45-foot cruising yacht in 2010 Bavaria Cruiser 45.jpg
A 45-foot cruising yacht in 2010
The superyacht Azzam, the largest private yacht by length, as of 2018. Azzam bei Lurssen.JPG
The superyacht Azzam , the largest private yacht by length, as of 2018.

A yacht /jɒt/ is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. [2] [3] [4] There is no standard definition, though the term generally applies to vessels with a cabin intended for overnight use. To be termed a yacht, as opposed to a boat, such a pleasure vessel is likely to be at least 33 feet (10 m) in length and may have been judged to have good aesthetic qualities. [1]


The Commercial Yacht Code classifies yachts 79 ft (24 m) and over as large. [5] Such yachts typically require a hired crew [1] and have higher construction standards. [5] Further classifications for large yachts are: commercial—carrying no more than 12 passengers, private—solely for the pleasure of the owner and guests, or by flag, the country under which it is registered. [6] A superyacht (sometimes megayacht) generally refers to any yacht (sail or power) longer than 131 ft (40 m). [7]

Racing yachts are designed to emphasize performance over comfort. [8] Charter yachts are run as a business for profit. [7] As of 2020 there were more than 15,000 yachts of sufficient size to require a professional crew. [9]


An 18th-century Dutch jacht Jacob van Strij - Het Jacht van de kamer Rotterdam.jpg
An 18th-century Dutch jacht

The term, yacht, originates from the Dutch word jacht (pl. jachten, which means "hunt"), and originally referred to light, fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries. [2]


The history of pleasure boats begins with rowed craft in Pharaonic Egyptian times, and other vessels in the waters of Burma, India, Mindanao and Japan. It described 8th-century Anglo-Saxon royal pleg-scips (play ships) that featured ornamented bows and sterns and which had the capability of cooking on board. [10]


1893 America's Cup match between Vigilant and Valkyrie II America's Cup Racing, 1893-Fred S. Cozzens-IMG 5974.JPG
1893 America's Cup match between Vigilant and Valkyrie II

The history of sailing yachts begins in Europe in the beginning of the 1600s with the building of a pleasure vessel for the son of King James I of England. While other monarchs used naval ships for transportation and conquest, James I was the first English monarch to commission the construction of a yacht—for his son Henry, Prince of Wales in the early 1600s. [11] Pleasure vessels acquired the name yacht after the time of Charles II, who spent time exiled in Europe and visited the Netherlands, where a variety of jachten were already well developed as pleasure boats for the elite classes since the beginning of the 17th century. Upon his restoration to the English crown, Charles commissioned a series of royal yachts, which included at least one experimental catamaran. The first recorded yacht race between two vessels occurred in 1661, followed by the first open sailing competition in 1663 in English waters. [12]

Starting in 1739, England found itself in a series of wars—a period that saw a decline in yachting. In Ireland, however, the gentry enjoyed yachting and founded the first yacht club in Cork as the Cork Harbour Water Club in 1720. English yacht racing continued among the English gentry who founded England's oldest yacht club in 1775 to support a fleet at Cumberland. With maritime peace, starting in 1815, came a resurgence of interest in yachting. Boatbuilders, who had been making fast vessels both for smugglers and the government revenue cutters, turned their skills again to yachts. [12]

The fast yachts of the early 19th century were fore-and-aft luggers, schooners, and sloops. By the 1850s, yachts featured large sail areas, a narrow beam, and a deeper draft than was customary until then. Racing between yachts owned by wealthy patrons was common, with large wagers at stake. The America's Cup arose out of a contest between the yacht, America , and its English competitors. Both countries had rules by which to rate yachts, the English by tonnage and the American by length. [12]

In the late 19th century, a yacht owner would base their choice of vessels upon preferred lifestyle and budget, which would determine the size and type of vessel, which would most likely be a fore-and aft, two-masted sailing vessel. A treatise on the subject, A Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing, provided detailed information on selecting, equipping, sailing, seamanship, management of the paid crew, and racing such vessels. It included a brief section on steam yachts, the recirculating coil steam engine just having made such yachts efficient enough for leisure travel on the water. [13]


Steam yacht, Gunilda, ca. 1910 WIlliam L. Harkness Steam Yacht Gunilda - sunk in the great lakes.png
Steam yacht, Gunilda , ca. 1910
Turkish state yacht, Savarona in 2014, a steam-turbine yacht re-engined with diesels Savarona, yate de Ataturk.JPG
Turkish state yacht, Savarona in 2014, a steam-turbine yacht re-engined with diesels

While sailing yachts continued to exist, the development of reliable power plants created a new category of pleasure craft. The power plants started with the steam engine and transitioned to the internal combustion engine. Whereas sailing yachts continued to be steered from the after portion of the vessel, power yachts adopted the bridge in a forward cabin structure that afforded better forward and sideways visibility. [12]


The history of steam yachts starts with large sailing yachts with a steam auxiliary engine. Early examples, driven with paddle wheels, had a railed platform from which the person conning the vessel could walk across the vessel above the main deck, the origin of the bridge. In the late 18th century, steam engines became more efficient, spars were removed and screw propellers became standard. Large steam yachts were luxurious; their staff included a captain, engineer, and stewards, as well as deck hands. [12]

The development of the steam engine figured in yacht design. In England, the practice was to use fire-tube boilers wherein the hot gases of combustion ran through parallel tubes surrounded by water; a design that required as slow process of heating the water to avoid damaging the boiler before making steam. In the United States, the practice was to use water-tube boilers, wherein the water is surrounded by the hot gases of combustion, allowing for making steam more rapidly. While the boiler was the source of steam, the marine steam engine is where the steam was converted to mechanical power. With smaller, more rapidly spinning propellers engines comprised cylinders with pistons, connected to a crank shaft, driven by steam. [12]

Near the end of the 19th century, compound engines came into widespread use. Compound engines exhausted steam into successively larger cylinders to accommodate the higher volumes at reduced pressures, giving improved efficiency. These stages were called expansions, with double- and triple-expansion engines being common, especially in shipping where efficiency was important to reduce the weight of coal carried. [14] Steam engines remained the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of the steam turbine, electric motors and internal combustion engines gradually resulted in the replacement of reciprocating (piston) steam engines. [14] [15]

Internal combustion

Nicolaus Otto and Gottlieb Daimler developed practical four-stroke gasoline engines, starting in 1876. Beginning in 1898 engines increased in horsepower from 25 horsepower (19 kW) to 500 brake horsepower (370 kW) by 1906. Some were destined for speedboats, other for motor yachts. [16] Diesel power plants for boats were demonstrated in 1903. [17] Diesels became a more prevalent type of power plant in the 20th century thanks to their low cost of operation and reliability. [16]


Maltese Falcon sailing yacht in 2008 The Maltese Falcon (2906785674).jpg
Maltese Falcon sailing yacht in 2008

The Recreational Craft Directive requires that all vessels sold in the European Union and United Kingdom satisfy one of four design categories, based on the wind force and seas that they are designed to encounter: [18]

The Large Commercial Yacht Code (LY2) of Great Britain and its dominions defines a large yacht as one that is 24 metres (79 ft) or more at the waterline and is in commercial use for sport or pleasure, while not carrying cargo or more than 12 passengers and carrying a professional crew. The code regulates the equipping of such vessels, both at sea and in port—including such matters as crew duty times and the presence of a helicopter on board. The code has different levels of standard for vessels above and below 500 gross tons. [19] Such yachts may be considered superyachts and are more commonly at 40 metres (130 ft) or more in length. [20] Other countries have standards similar to LY2. [6]

Whereas commercial large yachts may carry no more than 12 passengers, private yachts are solely for the pleasure of the owner and guests do not carry the passenger restriction. Yachts may be identified by flag—the country under which a yacht is registered. [6] An industry publication categorizes superyachts by size, [21] by speed, [22] as "explorer" yachts, [23] as sailing yachts, [24] and classic yachts. [25]


Originally, all yachts were made of wood, using a wooden keel and ribs, clad with planks. These materials were supplanted with iron or steel in steam yachts. [12] In the 1960s fiberglass became a prevalent material. These materials and others continue in use. [26] Whereas yachts of 79 feet (24 m) and below may be constructed of fiberglass, larger yachts are more likely to be constructed of steel, aluminum or composite fiber-reinforced plastic. [27]


Sailing yacht interior with fold-down table in main salon, galley (kitchen) on left, and navigation station on right and forward cabin visible beyond. J46 MainCabin.jpg
Sailing yacht interior with fold-down table in main salon, galley (kitchen) on left, and navigation station on right and forward cabin visible beyond.

Depending on size, a cruising yacht is likely to have at least two cabins, a main salon and a forward stateroom. In smaller yachts, the salon is likely to have convertible berths for its crew or passengers. Typically the salon includes a dining area, which may have a folding, built-in table. The salon is typically contiguous to the galley. A cruising yacht is likely to have a head (bathroom) with a marine toilet that discharges waste into a holding tank. Larger yachts may have additional staterooms and heads. There is typically a navigation station that allows planning the route. [29] [30]


Wheelhouse of motor yacht, Taransay, in 2015 with navigation and systems displays Taransay Wheelhouse.jpg
Wheelhouse of motor yacht, Taransay , in 2015 with navigation and systems displays

Onboard systems include: [30]

Modern yachts employ a suite of electronics for communication, measurement of surroundings, and navigation. [31]

Sailing yachts

Small sailing yacht with outboard motor in 2017 Hunter 25 September Song 0878.jpg
Small sailing yacht with outboard motor in 2017

Sailing yachts for cruising versus racing embody different tradeoffs between comfort and performance. Cruising yachts emphasize comfort over performance. Racing yachts are designed to compete against others in their class, while providing adequate comfort to their crews.


Cruising yachts may be designed for near-shore use or for passage-making. They may also be raced, but they are designed and built with the comfort and amenities necessary for overnight voyages. Qualities considered in cruising yachts include: performance, comfort under way, ease of handling, stability, living comfort, durability, ease of maintenance, affordability of ownership. [32]


Cruising sailboats share the common attribute of providing overnight accommodations. They may be classified as small (easy to haul behind a trailer), [33] near-shore [2] and off-shore. [34] Multihull sailing yachts are a category, apart. [35]

  • Small yachts are typically shorter than 33 feet (10 m) length overall. [35] Trailer sailers that are readily towed by a car are generally shorter than 25 feet (7.6 m) length overall and weigh less than 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg). [33]
  • Near-shore yachts typically range in size from 33–45 feet (10–14 m) length overall. [5]
  • Offshore yachts typically exceed 45 feet (14 m) length overall. [35]


Cruising catamaran in 2012 Catamaran de croisiere Lagoon 560.JPG
Cruising catamaran in 2012
Cruising trimaran with folding amas in 2005 Dragonflyextended.jpg
Cruising trimaran with folding amas in 2005

Design considerations for a cruising yacht include seaworthiness, performance, sea kindliness, and cost of construction, as follows: [32]

  • Seaworthiness addresses the integrity of the vessel and its ability to stay afloat and shelter its crew in the conditions encountered.
  • Performance hinges on a number of factors, including the waterline length (longer means faster), drag in the water (narrower hull with smooth appendages), hull shape, and sail shape and area.
  • Sea kindliness is an indicator of steering ease, directional stability and quelling of motion induced by wind and waves.

Multihulls offer tradeoffs as cruising sailboats, compared with monohulls. They may be catamarans or trimarans. They rely on form stability—having separate hulls far apart—for their resistance to capsize. [32] Their advantages include greater: stability, speed, (for catamarans) living space, and shallower draft. Their drawbacks include: greater expenses, greater windage, more difficult tacking under sail, less load capacity, and more maneuvering room required because of their broad beam. They come with a variety of sleeping accommodations and (for catamarans) bridge-deck configurations. [36]


Gaff rigs have been uncommon in the construction of cruising boats, since the mid 20th century. More common rigs are Bermuda, fractional, cutter, and ketch. Occasionally employed rigs since then have been the yawl, schooner, wishbone, catboat. [26]


Sailboats employ standing rigging to support the rig, running rigging to raise and adjust sails, cleats to secure lines, winches to work the sheets, and more than one anchor to secure the boat in harbor. A cruising yacht's deck usually has safety line to protect the crew from falling overboard and a bow pulpit to facilitate handling the jib and the anchor. In temperate climates, the cockpit may have a canvas windshield with see-through panels, called a "dodger". Steering may be either by tiller or wheel. [26]


Cruising yachts have an auxiliary propulsion power unit to supplement the use of sails. Such power is inboard on the vessel and diesel, except for the smallest cruising boats, which may have an outboard gasoline motor. A 31-foot (9.4 m) sailboat might have a 13-horsepower (9.7 kW) engine, [37] whereas a 55-foot (17 m) sailboat might have a 110-horsepower (82 kW) engine. [38]


Racing yacht, Comanche, beginning a 2015 transatlantic race Comanche in the Rolex Transatlantic Race 2015 leaving Newport RI for Plymouth England--B.jpg
Racing yacht, Comanche, beginning a 2015 transatlantic race

Racing yachts emphasize performance over comfort. World Sailing recognizes eleven classes of racing yacht. [39]

Design features

High-performance rigs provide aerodynamic efficiency and hydrodynamically efficient hulls minimize drag through the water and sideways motion.

Racing yachts have a wide selection of weights and shapes of sail to accommodate different wind strengths and points of sail. A suite of sails on a racing yachts would include several weights of jib and spinnaker, plus a specialized storm jib and trysail (in place of the mainsail). Performance yachts are likely to have full-battened kevlar or carbon-fiber mainsails. [30]

Underwater foils can become more specialized, starting with a higher-aspect ratio fin keel with hydrodynamically efficient bulbs for ballast. [40] On some racing yachts, a canting keel shifts angle from side to side to promote sailing with less heeling angle (sideway tilt), while other underwater foils take care of leeway (sideways motion). [41] [30]

Motor yachts

Lazzara 80-foot (24 m) planing-hull, sports-cruiser motor yacht in 2014 80 foot motor yacht Alchemist photo D Ramey Logan.jpg
Lazzara 80-foot (24 m) planing-hull, sports-cruiser motor yacht in 2014
Nordhavn 47-foot (14 m) displacement-hull, expedition-style motor yacht in 2005 Nordhavn 47d.jpg
Nordhavn47-foot (14 m) displacement-hull, expedition-style motor yacht in 2005
Grand Banks 42-foot (13 m) displacement-hull, trawler-style motor yacht in 2018 Therapy D81 9848 (29134390348).jpg
Grand Banks 42-foot (13 m) displacement-hull, trawler-style motor yacht in 2018

Motor yachts range in length from 33–130 feet (10–40 m) before they are considered super-yachts or mega-yachts, which are 130 feet (40 m) and longer. They also vary by use, by style, and by hull type. As of April 2020 a 600-foot (180 m) yacht, REV Ocean, was under construction, [42] which when launched would replace the 590-foot (180 m) Azzam as the longest superyacht. [1] As superyachts have grown size, the distinction between a yacht and a ship (perhaps converted for personal use) has become unclear. A proposed definition for calling a vessel a yacht rather than a ship would if it was constructed solely for personal use and has a combined occupancy of less than 100, including crew.


The United States Coast Guard classifies motorboats—any vessel less than 65 feet (20 m), propelled by machinery—in four classes by length: [43]


A motor yacht's style can both be functional and evoke an aesthetic—trending towards the modern or the traditional. Among the styles, mentioned in the literature, are: [44]


There are three basic types of motor yacht hull: full-displacement, semi-displacement, and planing, which have progressively higher cruise speeds and hourly fuel consumption with increased engine power: [45]

A typical semi-displacement yacht has a wedge-shaped bow, which promotes penetrating waves, that transitions to flatter, wider surfaces aft, which promotes lifting the vessel out of the water—the "deep vee" hull, designed by Ray Hunt, found in approximately 75% of modern power boats. [46]

Cruising motor yachts are available in a range of styles as two-engine catamarans, ranging in length from 40–150 feet (12–46 m) with top speeds ranging from 20–60 knots (37–111 km/h). [47]


260-horsepower (190 kW) diesel marine engine Yanmar.jpg
260-horsepower (190 kW) diesel marine engine

Motor yachts typically have one or more diesel engines. Gasoline-powered motors and engines are the provenance of outboard motors and racing boats, due to their power-to-weight ratios. [44] Two engines adds expense, but provides reliability and maneuverability over a single engine. [48]

Motor yachts in the 42-foot (13 m) range might have the following hull, horsepower, cruise speed, and hourly fuel consumption characteristics:

Superyachts may employ multiple 9,000-horsepower (6,700 kW) diesels [53] or a combination of diesels and gas turbines with a combined 47,000 horsepower (35,000 kW). [54]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Multihull</span> Ship or boat with more than one hull

A multihull is a ship or boat with more than one hull, whereas a vessel with a single hull is a monohull.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sailing</span> Propulsion of a vehicle by wind power

Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice (iceboat) or on land over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.


Yachting is the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for racing or cruising. Yachts are distinguished from working ships mainly by their leisure purpose. "Yacht" derives from the Dutch word jacht ("hunt"). With sailboats, the activity is called sailing, and with motorboats, it is called powerboating.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sailboat</span> Boat propelled partly or entirely by sails

A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails and is smaller than a sailing ship. Distinctions in what constitutes a sailing boat and ship vary by region and maritime culture.

Yacht racing Sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats

Yacht racing is a sailing sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats, as distinguished from dinghy racing, which involves open boats. It is composed of multiple yachts, in direct competition, racing around a course marked by buoys or other fixed navigational devices or racing longer distances across open water from point-to-point. It can involve a series of races with buoy racing or multiple legs when point-to-point racing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Catamaran</span> Watercraft with two parallel hulls of equal size

A catamaran is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size. It is a geometry-stabilized craft, deriving its stability from its wide beam, rather than from a ballasted keel as with a monohull boat. Catamarans typically have less hull volume, smaller displacement, and shallower draft (draught) than monohulls of comparable length. The two hulls combined also often have a smaller hydrodynamic resistance than comparable monohulls, requiring less propulsive power from either sails or motors. The catamaran's wider stance on the water can reduce both heeling and wave-induced motion, as compared with a monohull, and can give reduced wakes.

Boating Leisure activity involving boats

Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels, focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. It is a popular activity, and there are millions of boaters worldwide.

Shark 24 Canadian-designed 24 ft sailing yacht

The Shark 24 is a Canadian-designed 24 ft sailing yacht which has earned itself a reputation of extraordinary reliability and longevity among sailors both in North America and Central Europe. Having been designed by George Hinterhoeller back in 1959 to cope well even with the harshest conditions found in the Great Lakes region, the vessel has proven to be well suited for extended leisure trips as well as for tough racing.

Model yachting

Model yachting is the pastime of building and racing model yachts. It has always been customary for ship-builders to make a miniature model of the vessel under construction, which is in every respect a copy of the original on a small scale, whether steamship or sailing ship. There are fine collections to be seen at both general interest museums such as the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and at many specialized maritime museums worldwide. Many of these models are of exquisite workmanship, every rope, pulley or portion of the engine being faithfully reproduced. In the case of sailing yachts, these models were often pitted against each other on small bodies of water, and hence arose the modern pastime. It was soon seen that elaborate fittings and complicated rigging were a detriment to rapid handling, and that, on account of the comparatively stronger winds in which models were sailed, they needed a greater draught. For these reasons modern model yachts, which usually have fin keels, are of about 15% or 20% deeper draught than full-sized vessels, while rigging and fittings have been reduced to absolute simplicity. This applies to models built for racing and not to elaborate copies of steamers and ships, made only for show or for " toy cruising."

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Superyacht</span> Large and luxurious pleasure vessel

A superyacht or megayacht is a large and luxurious pleasure vessel. There are no official or agreed upon definitions for such yachts, but these terms are regularly used to describe professionally crewed motor or sailing yachts, ranging from 40 metres (130 ft) to more than 180 metres (590 ft) in length, and sometimes include yachts as small as 24 metres (79 ft).

Yacht tender Boat used for servicing larger racing or cruising pleasure craft

A yacht tender is a vessel used for servicing and providing support and entertainment to a private or charter yacht. They include utilitarian craft, powered by oar or outboard motor, and high-speed luxury craft, supporting superyachts, powered by inboard engines, some using water-jets. Some superyachts have a support vessel that follows them with bulky items that are not conveniently stowed aboard the main yacht, such as a helicopter, automobile or larger watercraft.

This article attempts to give an overview of the design and manufacturing of sailboats and the evolution of this industry. Details should be found and contributed through linked articles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sailing yacht</span> Private sailing vessel with overnight accommodations

A sailing yacht, is a leisure craft that uses sails as its primary means of propulsion. A yacht may be a sail or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies here to sailing vessels that have a cabin with amenities that accommodate overnight use. To be termed a "yacht", as opposed to a "boat", such a vessel is likely to be at least 33 feet (10 m) in length and have been judged to have good aesthetic qualities. Sailboats that do not accommodate overnight use or are smaller than 30 feet (9.1 m) are not universally called yachts. Sailing yachts in excess of 130 feet (40 m) are generally considered to be superyachts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trailer sailer</span> Type of sailboat

A trailer sailer is a type of sailboat that has been designed to be easily transported using a boat trailer towed by an automobile. They are generally larger than a sailing dinghy. Trailer sailers include day sailers and small cabin cruisers, suitable for living on.

LOMOcean Design

LOMOcean Design is a naval architecture and yacht design company based in Auckland, New Zealand.

<i>Amazon</i> (yacht)

Amazon is a 102-foot (31 m) long screw schooner ex-steam yacht built in 1885 at the private Arrow Yard of Tankerville Chamberlayne in Southampton.

<i>A</i> (motor yacht)

Motor Yacht A is a superyacht designed by Philippe Starck and engineered by naval architect Martin Francis. It was built by the Blohm + Voss shipyard at the HDW deepwater facility in Kiel. It was ordered in November 2004, and delivered in 2008 at a rumoured cost of US$300 million. With a length of 119 metres (390 ft) and measuring almost 6,000 tonnes, it is one of the largest motor yachts in the world. It is owned by Russian entrepreneur and industrialist Andrey Melnichenko.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Motorsailer</span>

A motorsailer is a type of motor-powered sailing vessel, typically a yacht, that can derive power from its sails or engine, independently from each other during moderate seas or winds. A motorsailer may have a sail-to-engine power ratio in the range 30/70 to 70/30.

Hodgdon Yachts

Hodgdon Yachts is a builder of yachts and specialized military vessels, based in East Boothbay, Maine. It is a family-run business that was founded in 1816—reputedly the oldest continuously operating family boatbuilder in the United States. Hodgdon Yachts is noted for building superyachts, both sail and power, using advanced composite materials and construction techniques. It's also noted for its ability to incorporate those advanced materials into traditional designs that employ modern electronic and mechanical marine systems. The company has several divisions—yachts, custom tenders, yacht interiors, yacht services and military composites with offices in Boothbay, Maine, Newport, Rhode Island and Monaco.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sailing:


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