|Chairman of the Secretariat of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)|
1918 –16 March 1919
|Preceded by|| Elena Stasova |
(as Technical Secretary)
|Succeeded by||Elena Stasova|
|Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets|
21 November 1917 –16 March 1919
|Preceded by||Lev Kamenev|
|Succeeded by||Mikhail Vladimirsky|
|Member of the 6th, 7th Bureau|
29 November 1917 –16 March 1919
|Member of the 6th, 7th Secretariat|
6 August 1917 –16 March 1919
|Born||3 June 1885|
Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||16 March 1919 33) (aged|
Moscow, Russian SFSR
|Political party||Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)|
Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov (Russian : Яков Михайлович Свердлов; 3 June 1885 – 16 March 1919) known by pseudonyms "Andrei", "Mikhalych", "Max", "Smirnov", "Permyakov"; was a Bolshevik party administrator and chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
The All-Russian Central Executive Committee, was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 until 1937. Although the All-Russian Congress of Soviets had supreme authority, in periods between its sessions its powers were passed to VTsIK.
Sverdlov was born in Nizhny Novgorod as Solomon Mikhailovich Sverdlov to Jewish parents Mikhail Izrailevich Sverdlov and Elizaveta Solomonova. His father was a politically active engraver who produced forged documents and stored arms for the revolutionary underground. The Sverdlov family had six children: two daughters (Sophia and Sara) and four sons (Zinovy, Yakov, Veniamin, and Lev). After his wife's death in 1900, Mikhail converted with his family to the Russian Orthodox Church, married Maria Aleksandrovna Kormiltseva, and had two more sons, Herman and Alexander. Yakov's eldest brother Zinovy was adopted by Maxim Gorky, who was a frequent guest at the house.[ citation needed ]
Nizhny Novgorod ; Russian: Ни́жний Но́вгород, IPA: [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj ˈnovɡərət]), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky, after the writer Maxim Gorky, who was born there.
Forgery is a white-collar crime that generally refers to the false making or material alteration of a legal instrument with the specific intent to defraud anyone. Tampering with a certain legal instrument may be forbidden by law in some jurisdictions but such an offense is not related to forgery unless the tampered legal instrument was actually used in the course of the crime to defraud another person or entity. Copies, studio replicas, and reproductions are not considered forgeries, though they may later become forgeries through knowing and willful misrepresentations.
The Russian Orthodox Church, alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate, is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. The primate of the ROC is the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'. The ROC, as well as its primate, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church; the Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Since 15 October 2018, the ROC is not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, having unilaterally severed ties in reaction to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine, which was finalised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 5 January 2019.
Yakov Sverdlov joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1902, and then the Bolshevik faction, supporting Vladimir Lenin. He was involved in the 1905 revolution while living in the Ural Mountains.
The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist political party founded in Minsk, Belarus.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by his alias Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1922 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia and then the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism; his ideas were posthumously codified as Marxism–Leninism.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to constitutional reform, including the establishment of the State Duma, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
After four years of high school, he became a major activist and speaker in Nizhny Novgorod. For most of the time from his arrest in June 1906 until 1917 he was either imprisoned or exiled. During the period 1914–1916 he was in internal exile in Turukhansk, Siberia, along with Joseph Stalin. Both had been betrayed by the Okhrana agent Roman Malinovsky. Like Stalin, he was co-opted in absentia to the 1912 Prague Conference.
Turukhansk is a rural locality and the administrative center of Turukhansky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located 1,474 kilometers (916 mi) north of Krasnoyarsk, at the confluence of the Yenisey and Nizhnyaya Tunguska Rivers. 4,662 (2010 Census); 4,849 (2002 Census); 8,869 (1989 Census); 200 (1897).
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has historically been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Premier (1941–1953). Initially presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, by the 1930s he was the country's de facto dictator. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin formalised these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies are known as Stalinism.
After the 1917 February Revolution Sverdlov returned to Petrograd from exile and was re-elected to the Central Committee of the Communist Party. He played an important role in planning the October Revolution. He first met Lenin in April 1917 and was subsequently trusted as the chairman of the Central Committee Secretariat.Sverdlov was elected chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee in November, becoming thereby de jure head of state of the Russian SFSR until his death. He played important roles in the decision in January 1918 to end the Russian Constituent Assembly and the subsequent signing on 3 March of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
The February Revolution, known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution and sometimes as the March Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the executive leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, acting between sessions of Congress. According to own party statutes, the committee directed all party and governmental activities. Its members were elected by the Party Congress.
The October Revolution, officially known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and commonly referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–23. It took place through an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917.
Sverdlov had a prodigious memory and was able to retain the names and details of fellow revolutionaries in exile. His organizational capability was well-regarded, and during his chairmanship, thousands of local party committees were initiated.Sverdlov is sometimes regarded as the first head of state of the Soviet Union although it was not established until 1922, three years after his death.
A number of sources claim that Sverdlov played a major role in the execution of Tsar Nicholas II and his family on 17 July 1918.
A book written in 1990 by the Moscow playwright Edvard Radzinsky claims that Sverdlov ordered their execution on 16 July 1918. This book and other Radzinsky books were characterized as "folk history" (Russian term for pseudohistory) by journalists and academic historians.However Yuri Slezkine in his book The Jewish Century expressed a slightly different opinion: "Early in the Civil War, in June 1918, Lenin ordered the killing of Nicholas II and his family. Among the men entrusted with carrying out the orders were Sverdlov, Filipp Goloshchyokin and Yakov Yurovsky".
The 1922 book by a White Army general, Mikhail Diterikhs, The Murder of the Tsar's Family and members of the House of Romanov in the Urals, sought to portray the murder of the royal family as a Jewish plot against Russia. It referred to Sverdlov by his Jewish nickname "Yankel" and to Goloshchekin as "Isaac". This book in turn was based on an account by one Nikolai Sokolov, special investigator for the Omsk regional court, whom Diterikhs assigned with the task of investigating the disappearance of the Romanovs while serving as regional governor under the White regime during the Russian Civil War.
According to Leon Trotsky's diaries, after returning from the front (of the Russian Civil War) he had the following dialogue with Sverdlov:
My next visit to Moscow took place after the [temporary] fall of Ekaterinburg [to anti-Communist forces]. Speaking with Sverdlov, I asked in passing: "Oh yes, and where is the Tsar?"
"Finished," he replied. "He has been shot."
"And where is the family?"
"The family along with him."
"All of them?," I asked, apparently with a trace of surprise.
"All of them," replied Sverdlov. "What about it?" He was waiting to see my reaction. I made no reply.
"And who made the decision?," I asked.
"We decided it here. Ilyich believed that we shouldn't leave the Whites a live banner to rally around, especially under the present difficult circumstances."
I asked no further questions and considered the matter closed.
The investigating magistrate in Ekaterinburg in 1918 saw the signed telegraphic instructions to murder the Imperial Family came from Sverdlov. These details were published in 1966.In 1924, Yekaterinburg was renamed Sverdlovsk in his honour.
Sverdlov is commonly believed to have died of either typhus or most likely influenza, during the 1918 flu pandemic, after a political visit to Oryol.He is buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis, in Moscow.
His son Andrei had a long career as an officer for the Soviet security organs (NKVD, OGPU). His niece Ida married NKVD chief Genrikh Yagoda.
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin, known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky was a Russian Old Bolshevik and a Soviet Revolutionary. He was best known as the chief executioner of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his family, and four retainers on the night of 16 July 1918.
Yakov Iosifovich Dzhugashvili was the eldest of Joseph Stalin's three children, the son of Stalin's first wife, Kato Svanidze. Born in Georgia while Stalin was a young revolutionary, Dzhugashvili's mother died while he was an infant, and his father left him to be raised by her family. When he was fourteen he was brought to Moscow, where his father had become a leading Bolshevik figure and eventually became head of the Soviet Union. Disregarded by Stalin, Dzhugashvili was a shy, quiet child who appeared quite unhappy and tried to commit suicide several times as a youth. Married twice, Dzhugashvili had three children, two who reached adulthood.
Ipatiev House was a merchant's house in Yekaterinburg where the former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his family, and members of his household were executed in July 1918 following the Bolshevik Revolution. Its name is identical to that of the Ipatiev Monastery in Kostroma, from where the Romanovs came to the throne. As an act for the 60th anniversary of the Russian Revolutions, it was demolished in 1977 by orders of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to the local communist soviet government, almost 59 years after the Romanov family execution and 14 years before the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself in 1990–1991.
Pyotr Lazarevich Voykov was a Soviet revolutionary and diplomat known for his role in the murder of the Romanov family. The exact role Voykov played in the killings, in regard with his status as a respected diplomat by some individuals in Russia, has been a cause of frequent controversy.
The Prague Conference, officially the 6th All-Russian Conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, was held in Prague, Austria-Hungary, on 5–17 January 1912. Eighteen Bolsheviks attended, although Joseph Stalin and Yakov Sverdlov, who were in exile at the time, were not able to. Georgi Plekhanov claimed he was too ill to attend. At the conference, Vladimir Lenin and his supporters broke away from the rest of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and formed their own, Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (bolsheviks). The conference was meant to be secret; Lenin had instructed: "No-one, no organisation must know about this". However, every detail was known to the Okhrana, the secret police of the Russian Empire.
Alexander Nikolayevich Avdonin is a Russian who was the first known person, in 1979, to begin exhuming the grave of the seven executed Romanovs and four members of their household. He was born in Sverdlovsk in the Soviet Union, where the Romanovs were executed in 1918.
Yevgeny Sergeyevich Botkin, commonly known as Eugene Botkin, was the court physician for Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra and, while in exile with the family, sometimes treated the haemophilia-related complications of the Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia.
Andrey Andreyevich Andreyev was a Soviet Communist politician who rose to power during the rule of Joseph Stalin, joining the Politburo as a candidate member in 1926 and as a full member in 1932. Andreyev also headed the powerful Central Control Commission of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1930 to 1931 and then again from 1939 until 1952.
Roman Vatslavovich Malinovsky was a prominent Bolshevik politician before the revolution, while at the same time working as the best paid agent for the Okhrana. They codenamed him 'Portnoi'.
Pyotr Zakharovich Ermakov was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, notable as one of several men responsible for the execution of the Romanov family, including the deposed Tsar Nicholas II, his wife, their children, and their retinue.
Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the authoritarian leader of the Soviet Union.
Pyotr Adolfovich Otsup, was a Soviet photojournalist. He photographed many historic events including the Russo-Japanese War, 1905 Russian Revolution, October Revolution in 1917, World War I and Russian Civil War. Otsup made nearly 40,000 photographs.
Vasily Vasilyevich Yakovlev was a Finnish old Bolshevik revolutionary and politician. He participated in the October Revolution of 1917; transferred former Russian Emperor Nicholas II and his family to Yekaterinburg, where they were later killed; rose to become a commander in the Red Army during the Russian Civil War; fled to China after being captured by the White Army, where he became a government advisor; and returned to the Soviet Union in 1928, where he was eventually arrested and executed. Yakovlev was portrayed by the actor Ian Holm in the 1971 film Nicholas and Alexandra.
The Russian Imperial Romanov family and all those who chose to accompany them into imprisonment—notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov, according to the conclusion of the investigator Sokolov, were shot and bayoneted to death in Yekaterinburg on the night of 16–17 July 1918. According to the official state version in the USSR, former Tsar Nicholas Romanov, along with members of his family and retinue, was executed by firing squad, by order of the Ural Regional Soviet, due to the threat of the city being occupied by Whites. By the assumption of a number of researchers, this was done according to instructions by Lenin, Yakov Sverdlov and Felix Dzerzhinsky. Their bodies were then taken to the Koptyaki forest where they were stripped and mutilated. In 1919, White Army investigation failed to find the gravesite, concluding that the imperial family's remains had been cremated at the mineshaft called Ganina Yama, since evidence of fire was found. In 1979 and 2007, the remains of the bodies were found in two unmarked graves in a field called Porosenkov Log.
Vladimir Nikolaevich Derevenko (1879–1936) was a Russian physician and surgeon who served at the court of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia.
Filipp Isayevich Goloshchyokin, born Isay Isaakovich Goloshchyokin, was a Russian-Jewish Bolshevik, communist revolutionary, Soviet politician and party functionary. In his capacity as a senior figure in the Communist Party, he served as the Chief State Arbiter of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Kazakh Regional Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and as a Full and Candidate Member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1934. He is best known for his involvement in the Execution of the Romanov Family, as well as for the deadly role which he played in the Sovietization of Kazakhstan,, , better known within Kazakhstan as the "Goloshchekin Genocide". He was arrested towards the end of the Great Purge and was eventually executed by the NKVD during Operation Barbarossa.
Alexander Georgievich Beloborodov was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician, and party figure. Born in Solikamsk, Perm Governorate, Russian Empire, he joined the RSDLP in 1907. After the February Revolution he became a member of the Ural Regional Party Committee, represented the Ural Bolsheviks at the Party Conference in April 1917, and became Head of the Executive Committee of the Ural Regional Soviet in January 1918. In July 1918, he ordered the execution of the former Tsar Nicholas II and his family, signing the decision by the Ural Soviet which was taken by Filipp Goloshchekin, after a final consultation with party leadership in Moscow, to deliver to Yakov Yurovsky the final orders to murder the Imperial Family.
Georgy Ivanovich Safarov was a Bolshevik revolutionary and politician who was a participant in the Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War, and a participant in the executions of the Romanovs in Yekaterinburg and Alapayevsk. Later associated with Grigory Zinoviev's New Opposition and Leon Trotsky's United Opposition, he was purged from the Communist Party, and was later imprisoned in Vorkuta in 1937, after which he served as an NKVD informant. He was ultimately executed on 27 July 1942 by a Special Collegium of the NKVD. He is one of the only victims of Joseph Stalin's purges that was not posthumously rehabilitated or reinstated to the party after his death.
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| Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets |