Yakut language

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Yakutian
Sakha tyla
саха тыла, saxa tıla
Pronunciation [saxa tɯla]
Native to Russia
Region Yakutia
Ethnicity Yakuts (2010 census)
Native speakers
450,000 [1]  (2010 census)
Turkic
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Language codes
ISO 639-2 sah
ISO 639-3 sah
Glottolog yaku1245
ELP Yakut
Yakut and Dolgan languages.png
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Yakut, [2] [3] also known as Yakutian, Sakha, Saqa or Saxa, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in Sakha (Yakutia), a federal republic in the Russian Federation, by the Yakuts.

Contents

The Yakut language differs from all other Turkic languages in the presence of a layer of vocabulary of unclear origin (possibly Paleo-Siberian). There are also a large number of words of Mongolian origin related to ancient borrowings, as well as numerous recent borrowings from Russian. Like most Turkic languages and their ancestor Proto-Turkic, Yakut is an agglutinative language and employs vowel harmony.

Classification

Yakut is a member of the Northeastern Common Turkic family of languages, which includes Shor, Tuvan and Dolgan in addition to Yakut. Like most Turkic languages, Yakut has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually subject–object–verb. Yakut has been influenced by Tungusic and Mongolian languages. [4]

Geographic distribution

Yakut is spoken mainly in the Sakha Republic. It is also used by ethnic Yakuts in Khabarovsk Region and a small diaspora in other parts of the Russian Federation, Turkey, and other parts of the world. Dolgan, a close relative of Yakut, considered by some [ who? ] a dialect, is spoken by Dolgans in Krasnoyarsk Region. Yakut is widely used as a lingua franca by other ethnic minorities in the Sakha Republic – more Dolgans, Evenks, Evens and Yukagirs speak Yakut than their own languages. About 8% of the people of other ethnicities than Yakut living in Sakha claimed knowledge of the Yakut language during the 2002 census. [5]

Phonology

One characteristic feature of Yakut is vowel harmony. For example, if the first vowel of a Yakut word is a front vowel, the second and other vowels of the same word are usually the same vowel or another front vowel: кэлин (kelin) "back": э (e) is open unrounded front, и (i) is close unrounded front. Yakut initial s- corresponds to initial h- in Dolgan and played an important operative rule in the development of proto-Yakut, ultimately resulting in initial Ø- < *h- < *s- (example: Dolgan huoq and Yakut suox, both meaning "not"). The hypothetical change of *s > h (debuccalization) is well known and is far from unusual, being characteristic of such languages as Greek and Indo-Iranian in their development from Proto-Indo-European, as well as such Turkic languages as Bashkir, e.g. höt 'milk' < *süt. [6]

Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Yakut
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal mnɲŋ
Plosive /
affricate
voiceless ptc͡çk(q)
voiced bdɟ͡ʝɡ
Fricative voiceless sx(χ)h
voiced ɣ(ʁ)
Approximant plainj
nasalized ȷ̃
lateral l
Flap ɾ

Uvular consonants are allophones for velar fricatives accordingly.

The Sakha language (except the Dolgan language) is the only Turkic language without hushing sibilants. Also, Sakha and Khorasani Turkic are the only known Turkic languages with voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/.

Vowels

Vowel phonemes of Yakut
FrontBack
unroundedroundedunroundedrounded
Closeshortiyɯu
longɯː
Diphthong ie̯y̑øɯa̯u̯o
Openshorteøaɔ
longøːɔː

Orthography

Yakut is written using the Cyrillic script: the modern Yakut alphabet, established in 1939 by the Soviet Union, consists of the usual Russian characters but with five additional letters: Ҕҕ, Ҥҥ, Өө, Һһ, Үү.

Yakut alphabet (Saxalıı suruk-biçik):

LetterName IPA NoteLatin translit.[ citation needed ]
А аа/a/A a
Б ббэ/b/B b
В ввэ/v/found only in Russian loanwords [7] V v
Г ггэ/ɡ/G g
Ҕ ҕҕэ/ɣ, ʁ/Ğ ğ
Д ддэ/d/D d
Дь дьдьэ/ɟ͡ʝ/C c
Е ее/e, je/found only in Russian loanwordsYe ye or e
Ё ёё/jo/found only in Russian loanwordsYo yo
Ж жжэ/ʒ/found only in Russian loanwordsJ j
З ззэ/z/found only in Russian loanwordsZ z
И ии/i/İ i
Й йый/j, ȷ̃/Nasalization of the glide is not indicated in the orthography Y y
К ккы/k/K k
Л лэл/l/L l
М мэм/m/M m
Н нэн/n/N n
Ҥ ҥҥэ/ŋ/Ñ ñ
Нь ньньэ/ɲ/Ny ny
О оо/ɔ/O o
Ө өө/ø/Ö ö
П ппэ/p/P p
Р рэр/ɾ/R r
С сэс/s/S s
Һ һһэ/h/H h
Т ттэ/t/T t
У уу/u/U u
Ү үү/y/Ü ü
Ф фэф/f/found only in Russian loanwordsF f
Х ххэ/x, q~χ/Q q
Ц ццэ/ts/found only in Russian loanwordsTs ts
Ч чче/c͡ç/Ç ç
Ш шша/ʃ/found only in Russian loanwordsŞ ş
Щ щща/ɕː/found only in Russian loanwordsŞç şç
Ъ ъкытаанах бэлиэ/◌.j/found only in Russian loanwords"
Ы ыы/ɯ/I ı
Ь ьсымнатар бэлиэ/◌ʲ/natively in дь and нь (see above); otherwise only in Russian loanwords'
Э ээ/e/E e
Ю юю/ju/found only in Russian loanwordsYu yu
Я яя/ja/found only in Russian loanwordsYa ya

Grammar

Syntax

The typical word order can be summarized as subjectadverbobjectverb; possessorpossessed; nounadjective.

Nouns

Nouns have plural and singular forms. The plural is formed with the suffix /-LAr/, which may surface as -лар (-lar), -лэр (-ler), -лөр (-lör), -лор (-lor), -тар (-tar), -тэр (-ter), -төр (-tör), -тор (-tor), -дар (-dar), -дэр (-der), -дөр (-dör), -дор (-dor), -нар (-nar), -нэр (-ner), -нөр (-nör), or -нор (-nor), depending on the preceding consonants and vowels. The plural is used only when referring to a number of things collectively, not when specifying an amount. Nouns have no gender.

Final sound basicsPlural affix optionsExamples
Vowels, л-лар, -лэр, -лор, -лөрКыыллар (beasts), эһэлэр (bears), оҕолор (children), бөрөлөр (wolves)
к, п, с, т, х-тар, -тэр, -тор, -төрАттар (horses), күлүктэр (shadows), оттор (herbs), бөлөхтөр (groups)
й, р-дар, -дэр, -дор, -дөрБаайдар (rich people)*, эдэрдэр (young people)*, хотойдор (eagles), көтөрдөр (birds)
м, н, ҥ-нар, -нэр, -нор, -нөрКыымнар (sparks), илимнэр (fishing nets), ороннор (beds), бөдөҥнөр (they're large)*

Notes

* Adjectives can also be nouns. So, for example, улахан is big (something/someone) and улаханнар is bigs (something/someones) or correctly they are big.

There are exceptions: уол (boy) — уолаттар (boys) and кыыс (girl) — кыргыттар (girls).

Pronouns

Personal pronouns in Yakut distinguish between first, second, and third persons and singular and plural number.

SingularPlural
1st personмин (min)биһиги (bihigi)
2nd personэн (en)эһиги (ehigi)
3rd personhumanкини (kini)кинилэр (kiniler)
non-humanол (ol)олор (olor)

Although nouns have no gender, the pronoun system distinguishes between human and non-human in the third person, using кини (kini, 'he/she') to refer to human beings and ол (ol, 'it') to refer to all other things. [8]

Questions

Question words in Yakut remain in-situ; they do not move to the front of the sentence. Sample question words include: туох (tuox) "what", ким (kim) "who", хайдах (xaydax) "how", хас (xas) "how much", ханна (xanna) "where", and ханнык (xannık) "which".

Vocabulary

Yakut (Cyrillic)Yakut (Latin) Turkish Azerbaijani English Mongolian (Cyrillic)

/Mongolian (Latin)

аччыктааһынaççıktahinaçlıkaclıqhungerөлсгөлөн / ölsgölön
аччыкaççıkachungryөлссөн / ölssön
аатaatadadnameнэр / ner
балыкbalıkbalıkbalıqfishзагас / zagas
балыксытbalıksıtbalıkçıbalıqçıfishermanзагасчин / zagaschin
yyuususuwaterус /us
тимирtimirdemirdəmirironтөмөр /tömör
күөлküölgölgöllakeнуур /nuur
атахataxayakayaqfoot
мурунmurunburunburunnose
баттахbattaxsaçsaçhairүс /üs
илииiliieləlhand
күнküngüngünday, sun
муусmuusbuzbuziceмөс /mös
ытıtititdog
сүрэхsürexyürekürəkheartзүрх /zürx
сарсынsarsınyarınsabahtomorrow
бүгүнbügünbugünbugüntoday
былытbılıtbulutbuludcloud
хаарxaarkarqarsnow
хаанxaankanqanblood
этetetətmeat
тиисtiisdişdiştooth
атatatathorse
таасtaastaşdaşstone
үүтüütsütsüdmilkсүү /süü
ынахınaxinekinəkcowүнээ /ünee
хараxarakaraqarablackхар / xar
сыттыкsıttıkyastıkyastıqpillow
быһахbıhaxbıçakbıçaqknife
бытыкbıtıkbıyıkbığmustache
кыс, кыһынkıs, kıhınkış, kışınqış, qışınwinter
туусtuustuzduzsalt
тылtıldildiltongue, languageхэл /xel
cаха тылasaxa tılasaha dili, sahacasaxa dili, saxacaYakut languageЯкут хэл / Yakut khel
кыысkııskızqızgirl, daughter
уолuoloğul, oğlanoğul, oğlanson, boy
үөрэтээччиüöreteeççiöğretici, öğretmenmüəllimteacher
үөрэнээччиüöreneeççiöğrenci,talebeşagird, tələbəstudent
уһунuhunuzunuzunlong, tall
кулгаахkulgaaxkulakqulaqear
сылsılyılilyearжил /jil
киһиkihikişiinsan, kişihuman, manхүн /hün
суолsuolyolyolroad, way
асчытasçıtaşçıaşbazcook
тараахtaraaxtarakdaraqcomb
ортоortoortaortamiddle
күн ортотоkün ortotogün ortasıgünortamidday, noon
күлkülgülmekgülməkto laugh
өлölölmekölməkto die
исisiçmekiçməkto drink
билbilbilmekbilməkto know
көрkörgörmekgörməkto seeхар /xar
үөрэнüörenöğrenmeköyrənməkto learn
үөрэтüöretöğretmeköyrətməkto teach
ытырıtırısırmakdişləməkto bite
хасxaskazmakqazmaqto dig
тикtikdikiş dikmek, dikmektikiş, tikməkto sew
кэлkelgelmekgəlməkto come
салааsalaayalamakyalamaqto lick
тарааtaraataramakdaramaqto comb
биэрbiervermekverməkto give
булbulbulmaktapmaqto find
диэdiedemekdeməkto say
киирkiirgirmekgirməkto enter
иһитihitişitmekeşitməkto hear
асasaçmakaçmaqto open
тутtuttutmaktutmaqto hold

Numbers

In this table, the Yakut numbers are written in Latin transcription (see Writing system).

Old Turkic Azerbaijani Turkish Yakut English
birbirbirbiirone
ekiikiikiikkitwo
üçüçüçüsthree
törtdörddörttüörtfour
beşbeşbeşbiesfive
altıaltıaltıaltasix
yetiyeddiyedisetteseven
sekizsəkkizsekizağiseight
tokuzdoqquzdokuztoğusnine
onononuonten

Literature

The first printing in Yakut was a part of a book by Nicolaas Witsen published in 1692 in Amsterdam. [9]

In 2005, Marianne Beerle-Moor, director of the Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS, was awarded the Order of Civil Valour by the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) for the translation of the New Testament into Yakut. [10]

Oral traditions

The Yakut have a tradition of oral epic in their language called "Olonkho", traditionally performed by skilled performers. Only a very few older performers of this Olonkho tradition are still alive. They have begun a program to teach young people to sing this in their language and revive it, though in a modified form. [11]

Examples

Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Novgorodov's alphabet 1920–1929. (Latin alphabet/IPA)зɔn barɯta beje s SakhaUo.png ltatɯgar SakhaUo.png nna bɯra:bɯgar teŋ b SakhaUo.png lan t SakhaOeSmall.png ry:ler. kiniler
barɯ SakhaOeSmall.png rk SakhaOeSmall.png :n SakhaOeSmall.png jd SakhaOeSmall.png :q, s SakhaUo.png basta:q b SakhaUo.png lan t SakhaOeSmall.png ry:ler, SakhaUo.png nna beje bejeleriger
tɯlga ki:riniges bɯhɯ:lara dɔʃɔrdɔhu: tɯ:nnɯ:q b SakhaUo.png l SakhaUo.png qta:q.
Latin alphabet 1929—1939. (Yañalif)Çon вarьta вeje suoltatьgar uonna вьraaвьgar teꞑ вuolan tɵryyller. Kiniler вarь ɵrkɵn ɵjdɵɵq, suoвastaaq вuolan tɵryyller, uonna вeje вejeleriger tьlga kiiriniges вьhььlara doƣordohuu tььnnaaq вuoluoqtaaq.
Modern Cyrillic 1939—present.Дьон барыта бэйэ суолтатыгар уонна быраабыгар тэҥ буолан төрүүллэр. Кинилэр бары өркөн өйдөөх, суобастаах буолан төрүүллэр, уонна бэйэ бэйэлэригэр тылга кииринигэс быһыылара доҕордоһуу тыыннаах буолуохтаах.
EnglishAll human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

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References

  1. , Russian census 2010
  2. , Yakut language, Omniglot
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Sakha". Glottolog 4.3.
  4. Forsyth, James (1994). A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN   9780521477710. Their language...Turkic in its vocabulary and grammar, shows the influence of both Tungus and Mongolian
  5. Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации (Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts) (in Russian)
  6. Ubrjatova, E. I. 1960 Opyt sravnitel'nogo izuc˙enija fonetic˙eskix osobennostej naselenija nekotoryx rajonov Jakutskoj ASSR. Moscow. 1985. Jazyk noril'skix dolgan. Novosibirsk: "Nauka" SO. In Tugnusic Languages 2 (2): 1–32. Historical Aspects of Yakut (Saxa) Phonology. Gregory D. S. Anderson. University of Chicago.
  7. Krueger, John R. (1962). Yakut Manual. Bloomington: Indiana U Press.
  8. Kirişçioğlu, M. Fatih (1999). Saha (Yakut) Türkçesi Grameri. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu. ISBN   975-16-0587-3.
  9. "Предпосылки возникновения якутской книги". Память Якутии. Retrieved 2014-10-29.
  10. "People". Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS . Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  11. Robin Harris. 2012. Sitting "under the mouth": decline and revitalization in the Skha epic tradition "Olonkho". Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia.

Content in Yakut