Yakuts

Last updated
Yakuts
Саха
Sakha family.jpg
A Yakut family
Total population
500,000
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 478,085 (2010 census) [1]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 415 (2009 census) [2] [3]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 34150 (2001 census) [4]
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 304 (2001 census) [5]
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia 38 (2020 statistics) [6]
Languages
Yakut, Russian
Religion
Shamanism, Eastern Orthodoxy
Related ethnic groups
Dolgans, Tuvans, Khakas, Altay, Mongols
Percentages of Yakuts in the districts of Yakutia according to the 2010 census Yakuts in Yakutia raions percentage 2010.svg
Percentages of Yakuts in the districts of Yakutia according to the 2010 census

The Yakuts, or the Sakha (Yakut : саха, sakha; plural:сахалар, sakhalar), are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly live in the Republic of Sakha in the Russian Federation, with some extending to the Amur, Magadan, Sakhalin regions, and the Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Districts. The Yakut language belongs to the Siberian branch of the Turkic languages. The Russian word yakut was taken from Evenk yokō. The Yakuts call themselves Sakha, or Urangai Sakha in some old chronicles. [7]

Contents

Culture

The Yakuts engage in animal husbandry, traditionally having focused on rearing horses, mainly the Yakutian horse, reindeer and the Sakha Ynagha ('Yakutian cow'), a hardy kind of cattle known as Yakutian cattle which is well adapted to the harsh local weather. [8] [9]

Certain rock formations named Kigilyakh, as well as places such as Ynnakh Mountain, are held in high esteem by Yakuts. [10]

Origin and history

Yakut elder, early 20th c. Yakut Sakha elder.jpg
Yakut elder, early 20th c.

The ancestors of Yakuts were Kurykans who migrated from Yenisey river to Lake Baikal and were subject to a certain Mongolian admixture prior to migration [11] [12] [13] in the 7th century. The Yakuts originally lived around Olkhon and the region of Lake Baikal. Beginning in the 13th century they migrated to the basins of the Middle Lena, the Aldan and Vilyuy rivers under the pressure of the rising Mongols. The northern Yakuts were largely hunters, fishermen and reindeer herders, while the southern Yakuts raised cattle and horses. [14] [15]

In the 1620s the Tsardom of Muscovy began to move into their territory and annexed or settled down on it, imposed a fur tax and managed to suppress several Yakut rebellions between 1634 and 1642. The tsarist brutality in collection of the pelt tax (yasak) sparked a rebellion and aggression among the Yakuts and also Tungusic-speaking tribes along the River Lena in 1642. The voivode Peter Golovin, leader of the tsarist forces, responded with a reign of terror: native settlements were torched and hundreds of people were killed. The Yakut population alone is estimated to have fallen by 70 percent between 1642 and 1682, mainly because of smallpox and other infectious diseases. [16] [17]

Yakut travellers in the 1890s Yakuty v doroge.jpg
Yakut travellers in the 1890s

In the 18th century the Russians reduced the pressure, gave Yakut chiefs some privileges, granted freedom for all habitats, gave them all their lands, sent Eastern Orthodox missions, and educated the Yakut people regarding agriculture. The discovery of gold and, later, the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway, brought ever-increasing numbers of Russians into the region. By the 1820s almost all the Yakuts claimed to have converted to the Russian Orthodox church, but they retained (and still retain) a number of shamanist practices. Yakut literature began to rise in the late 19th century, and a national revival occurred in the early 20th century.

In 1922, the new Soviet government named the area the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The last conflict of the Russian Civil War, known as the Yakut Revolt, occurred here when Cornet Mikhail Korobeinikov, a White Russian officer, led an uprising and a last stand against the Red Army.

Yakuts Sakha, early 20th c. Yakuts Sakhas.jpg
Yakuts Sakha, early 20th c.

In the late 1920s through the late 1930s, Yakut people were systematically persecuted, when Joseph Stalin launched his collectivization campaign. [18] It is possible that hunger and malnutrition during this period resulted in a decline in the Yakut total population from 240,500 in 1926 to 236,700 in 1959. By 1972, the population began to recover. [19] Currently, Yakuts form a large plurality of the total population within the vast Sakha Republic. According to the 2010 Russian census, there were a total of 466,492 Yakuts residing in the Sakha Republic during that year, or 49.9% of the total population of the Republic.

DNA and genetics analysis

A Yakut woman in traditional dress Sakha beauty.jpg
A Yakut woman in traditional dress

The majority of Yakut males belong to Haplogroup N-Tat, with the observed frequency in most samples of Yakuts being approximately 90% (Central Yakut 86%, [20] Yakut 89%, [21] Vilyuy Yakut 93%, [20] Yakut 94% [22] ). However, a sample of Yakut males from northern Yakutia has revealed a somewhat lower frequency of this haplogroup (Northern Yakut 47/66 = 71% N-TAT). [20] The remainder of the Yakut Y-DNA pool consists of members of haplogroup C-M217 (approximately 4.0%, including members of the C-M48 and C-M407 subclades), haplogroup R1a-M17 (approximately 3.5%, including members of the R1a-M458 subclade), and haplogroup N-P43 (approximately 2.1%), with sporadic instances of haplogroup I1-M253, haplogroup R1b-M269, haplogroup J2, and haplogroup Q. [22] [20]

A majority of Yakut people belong to mtDNA haplogroup C (75/164 = 45.7% Central Yakut, [20] 60/148 = 40.5% Northern Yakut, [20] 40/111 = 36.0% Vilyuy Yakut [20] ) or haplogroup D (54/164 = 32.9% Central Yakut, [20] 33/111 = 29.7% Vilyuy Yakut, [20] 38/148 = 25.7% Northern Yakut [20] ), with subclades D5a2a2 (57/423 = 13.48% [20] ), C4a1c (47/423 = 11.11% [20] ), C4a2 (35/423 = 8.27% [20] ), C4b1 (33/423 = 7.80% [20] ), and C5b1b (19/423 = 4.49% [20] ) being particularly well represented. Minor mtDNA haplogroups of Eastern Eurasian origin include haplogroup G (22/423 = 5.20%, [20] including 19/423 = 4.49% G2a and 3/423 = 0.71% G1b), haplogroup F (19/423 = 4.49%, [20] including 13/423 = 3.07% F1b and 6/423 = 1.42% F2b1), haplogroup M13a1b (15/423 = 3.55% [20] ), haplogroup A (8/423 = 1.89% [20] ), haplogroup Y1a (5/423 = 1.18% [20] ), haplogroup B (5/423 = 1.18% [20] ), haplogroup Z3 (4/423 = 0.95% [20] ), and haplogroup M7 (3/423 = 0.71% [20] ). A minority of Yakuts (42/423 = 9.93% [20] ) belong to mtDNA haplogroups of Western Eurasian origin, including haplogroup H (15/423 = 3.55% [20] ), haplogroup W (6/423 = 1.42% [20] ), haplogroup J1c5 (6/423 = 1.42% [20] ), haplogroup T2 (5/423 = 1.18% [20] ), haplogroup HV1a1a (5/423 = 1.18% [20] ), haplogroup R1b2a (2/423 = 0.47% [20] ), haplogroup U5b1b1a (2/423 = 0.47% [20] ), and haplogroup U4d2 (1/423 = 0.24% [20] ).

Russian President Medvedev in the Sakha Republic in 2011 Dmitry Medvedev in Sakha, November 2011-11.jpeg
Russian President Medvedev in the Sakha Republic in 2011

Language

According to the 2010 census, some 87% of the Yakuts in the Sakha Republic are fluent in the Yakut (or Sakha) language, while 90% are fluent in Russian. [23] The Sakha/Yakut language belongs to the North Siberian of the Siberian Turkic languages. It is most closely related to the Dolgan language, and also to a lesser extent related to Tuvan and Shor.

Cuisine

The cuisine of Sakha prominently features the traditional drink kumis, dairy products of cow, mare, and reindeer milk, sliced frozen salted fish stroganina (строганина), loaf meat dishes (oyogos), venison, frozen fish, thick pancakes, and salamat—a millet porridge with butter and horse fat. Kuerchekh (Куэрчэх) or kierchekh, a popular dessert, is made of cow milk or cream with various berries. Indigirka is a traditional fish salad. This cuisine is only used in Yakutia.[ citation needed ]

Notable people

Academia

Arts

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Military

Models

Musicians

Politicians

Rulers

Sports

See also

Related Research Articles

Sakha First-level administrative division of Russia

Sakha, a federal Russian republic, is also known as Yakutia or Yakutiya, and officially known as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

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Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to haplogroup T. In his book The Seven Daughters of Eve, Bryan Sykes named the originator of this mtDNA haplogroup Jasmine. Within the field of medical genetics, certain polymorphisms specific to haplogroup J have been associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

Haplogroup D (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup N-M231 Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup,

Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker M231.

Chona

The Chona is a river in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and Irkutsk Oblast, Russia. It is a right hand tributary of the Vilyuy, and is 802 kilometres (498 mi) long, with a drainage basin of 40,600 square kilometres (15,700 sq mi).

Tungusic peoples Ethno-linguistic family

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Kobyaysky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic on the Vilyuy River, 334 kilometers (208 mi) by road north of the republic's capital of Yakutsk. The area of the district is 107,800 square kilometers (41,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Sangar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 13,680, with the population of Sangar accounting for 32.0% of that number.

Yakut language Turkic language spoken in Yakutia, Russia

Yakut, also known as Yakutian, Sakha, Saqa or Saxa, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in Sakha (Yakutia), a federal republic in the Russian Federation, by the Yakuts.

Yakutian cattle Breed of cattle

Yakutian cattle, Саха ынаҕа in the Sakha language, are a cattle landrace bred north of the Arctic Circle in the Republic of Sakha. They are noted for their extreme hardiness and tolerance towards freezing temperatures.

Yakutian Laika Dog breed

The Yakutian Laika is a working dog breed that originated in the Arctic seashore of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. The major habitat is estuaries of Kolyma, Indigirka, Yana and Lena. In terms of functionality, Yakutian Laikas might serve as a reindeer herder's dog (olenegonka), hunter's dog, and a sled dog. In September 2019, the FCI officially accepted the breed.

Haplogroup C-M48 also known as C2b1a2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

Yakutian knife

The Yakutian knife, sometimes called the Yakut knife, is traditional knife of Yakuts, used for working with wood, hides, skins, fish and meat or for combat. The knife has been used in Yakutia for hundreds of years without significant changes in its design.

Vilyuy Plateau

The Vilyuy Plateau is a mountain plateau in Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Siberia, Russia. It is a part of the Central Siberian Plateau and it is made up mainly of the upper course section of the Vilyuy River.

Central Yakutian Lowland

The Central Yakutian Lowland or Central Yakutian Lowlands, also known as Central Yakut Plain or Vilyuy Lowland, is a low alluvial plain in Siberia, Russia.

Ust-Vilyuy Range Mountain range in Russia

The Ust-Vilyuy Range is a range of mountains in North-eastern Russia. Administratively the range is part of the Sakha Republic of the Russian Federation. The area of the range is largely uninhabited, there are only some abandoned villages.

Tyukyan

The Tyukyan is a river in the Republic of Sakha in Russia. It is a left hand tributary of the Vilyuy, and is 747 kilometres (464 mi) long, with a drainage basin of 16,300 square kilometres (6,300 sq mi). There are no permanent settlements by the river, but its source is close to Eyik village in Olenyoksky District. After flowing across desolate areas it only reaches the inhabited Verkhnevilyuysky District about 50 km (31 mi) upstream from its mouth.

References

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Further reading