Yakutsk

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Yakutsk

Якутск
City under republic jurisdiction [1]
Other transcription(s)
  YakutДьокуускай
Yakutsk panorama.jpg
Central Yakutsk from the air
Flag of Yakutsk.svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of Yakutsk (Yakutia) 2012.jpg
Coat of arms
Location of Yakutsk
Yakutsk
Russia administrative location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Yakutsk
Location of Yakutsk
Yakutia notext.svg
Red pog.svg
Yakutsk
Yakutsk (Sakha Republic)
Coordinates: 62°02′N129°44′E / 62.033°N 129.733°E / 62.033; 129.733 Coordinates: 62°02′N129°44′E / 62.033°N 129.733°E / 62.033; 129.733
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic [2]
Founded1632
City status since1643
Government
  Body Okrug Council
  Head Evgeny Grigoriev
Area
  Total122 km2 (47 sq mi)
Elevation
95 m (312 ft)
Population
  Estimate 
(2018) [3]
311,760
  Rank 68th in 2010
  Subordinated to city of republic significance of Yakutsk [1]
  Capital ofSakha Republic [2]
   Capital ofcity of republic significance of Yakutsk [1]
  Urban okrugYakutsk Urban Okrug [4]
   Capital ofYakutsk Urban Okrug [4]
Time zone UTC+9 (MSK+6   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [5] )
Postal code(s) [6]
677xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 4112 [7]
OKTMO ID98701000001
City DaySecond Sunday of September
Website якутск.рф

Yakutsk (Russian:Якутск,IPA:  [jɪˈkutsk] ; Yakut : Дьокуускай, Cokuuskay, pronounced  [ɟokuːskaj] ) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about 450 kilometers (280 mi) south of the Arctic Circle.

Contents

Yakutsk with an average temperature of −8.8 °C (16.2 °F), is the coldest large city in the world. [8] Yakutsk is also the largest city located in continuous permafrost. Yakutsk is located in the Central Yakutian Lowland and is a major port on the Lena River. It is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport.

History

Kate Marsden leaving Yakutsk in 1891 Kate Marsden leaving Yakutsk.jpg
Kate Marsden leaving Yakutsk in 1891

The Yakuts, also known as the Sakha people, migrated to the area during the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia. When they arrived they mixed with other indigenous Siberians in the area. [9] The Russian settlement of Yakutsk was founded in 1632 as an ostrog (fortress) by Pyotr Beketov. In 1639, it became the center of a voyevodstvo . The Voivode of Yakutsk soon became the most important Russian official in the region and directed expansion to the east and south.

Climate

With an extremely continental subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfd), Yakutsk has the coldest winter temperatures for any major city on Earth. Average monthly temperatures in Yakutsk range from +19.5 °C (67.1 °F) in July to −38.6 °C (−37.5 °F) in January. Yakutsk is the largest city built on continuous permafrost, [10] and many houses there are built on concrete piles.

The lowest temperatures ever recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast of Yakutsk, making it the coldest major city in the world. Although winters are extremely cold and long - Yakutsk has never recorded a temperature above freezing between 10 November and 14 March inclusive – summers are warm, peak travel and occasionally hot (though short), with daily maximum temperatures sometimes exceeding +30 °C (86 °F), making the seasonal temperature differences for the region the greatest in the world at 102 °C (184 °F). [11] The lowest temperature recorded in Yakutsk was −64.4 °C (−83.9 °F) on 5 February 1891 and the highest temperatures +38.4 °C (101.1 °F) on 17 July 2011 and +38.3 °C (100.9 °F) on 15 July 1942. The hottest month in records going back to 1834 has been July 1894, with a mean of +23.2 °C (73.8 °F), [12] and the coldest, January 1900, which averaged −51.4 °C (−60.5 °F). [13] Yakutsk is possibly the largest and most populous city in the world with an average winter temperature of below −30 °C (−22 °F) degrees. [ citation needed ]

Yakutsk has a distinct inland location, being almost 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from the Pacific Ocean, which coupled with the high latitude means exposure to severe winters and also lack of temperature moderation. July temperatures soar to an above-normal average for this latitude, with the average being several degrees hotter than such more southerly Far East cities as Vladivostok or Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. The July daytime temperatures are even hotter than some maritime subtropical areas. The warm summers ensure that Yakutsk, despite its freezing winters, is far south of the tree line. In winter, Yakutsk instead is between 35 °C (63 °F) and 40 °C (72 °F) colder than the mildest cities on similar latitudes in Scandinavia.

The climate is quite dry, with most of the annual precipitation occurring in the warmest months, due to the intense Siberian High forming around the very cold continental air during the winter. However, summer precipitation is not heavy since the moist southeasterly winds from the Pacific Ocean lose their moisture over the coastal mountains well before reaching the Lena valley.

With the Lena River navigable in the summer, there are various boat cruises offered, including upriver to the Lena Pillars, and downriver tours which visit spectacular scenery in the lower reaches and the Lena Delta.

Climate data for Yakutsk, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1891–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)−11.5
(11.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
8.3
(46.9)
21.1
(70.0)
31.1
(88.0)
35.1
(95.2)
38.4
(101.1)
35.4
(95.7)
27.0
(80.6)
18.6
(65.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
38.4
(101.1)
Average high °C (°F)−35.7
(−32.3)
−28.7
(−19.7)
−12.3
(9.9)
1.7
(35.1)
13.2
(55.8)
22.4
(72.3)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
11.5
(52.7)
−3.6
(25.5)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−34.6
(−30.3)
−3.5
(25.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−38.6
(−37.5)
−33.8
(−28.8)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−4.8
(23.4)
7.5
(45.5)
16.4
(61.5)
19.5
(67.1)
15.2
(59.4)
6.1
(43.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
−27.0
(−16.6)
−37.6
(−35.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
Average low °C (°F)−41.5
(−42.7)
−38.2
(−36.8)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−11.8
(10.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.3
(48.7)
12.7
(54.9)
8.9
(48.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−12.2
(10.0)
−31.0
(−23.8)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−14.1
(6.6)
Record low °C (°F)−63.0
(−81.4)
−64.4
(−83.9)
−54.9
(−66.8)
−41.0
(−41.8)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−4.5
(23.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−14.2
(6.4)
−40.9
(−41.6)
−54.5
(−66.1)
−59.8
(−75.6)
−64.4
(−83.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)9
(0.4)
8
(0.3)
7
(0.3)
8
(0.3)
20
(0.8)
36
(1.4)
39
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
31
(1.2)
18
(0.7)
16
(0.6)
10
(0.4)
237
(9.3)
Average rainy days000.13141615151640.1083
Average snowy days2828171050.30.0304252827172
Average relative humidity (%)76767060545762677278787669
Mean monthly sunshine hours 199723427430333334727317410659122,231
Source 1: Погода и Климат [14] March record: [15]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [16]

Economy

Yakutsk building of a Russo-Asian bank RusAsian bank Yakutsk.jpg
Yakutsk building of a Russo-Asian bank

Yakutia Airlines has its head office in the city. [17]

Culture

Yakutsk Orthodox cathedral of the Transfiguration of Jesus Christ Sobor yakutsk.jpg
Yakutsk Orthodox cathedral of the Transfiguration of Jesus Christ

There are several theaters in Yakutsk: the State Russian Drama Theater, named after A. S. Pushkin; the Sakha Theater, named after P. A. Oiyunsky; the Suorun Omoloon Young Spectator's Theater; and the State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater, named after D. K. Sivtsev.

There are a number of museums as well: the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha; the Museum of Local Lore and History, named after E. Yaroslavsky; and the only museums in the world dedicated to the khomus and permafrost.

The annual Ysyakh summer festival takes place the last weekend in June. The traditional Yakut summer solstice festivities include a celebration of the revival and renewal of the nature, fertility and beginning of a new year. It is accompanied by national Yakut rituals and ceremonies, folk dancing, horse racing, Yakut ethnic music and singing, national cuisine, and competitions in traditional Yakut sports. [18]

There is a local punk scene [19] in Yakutsk, with many bands.

Demographics

Ethnic composition (2010): [20]

Administrative and municipal status

Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic. [2] As an inhabited locality, Yakutsk is classified as a city under republic jurisdiction. [1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the settlement of Zhatay and eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yakutsk—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, Yakutsk and the eleven rural localities are incorporated as Yakutsk Urban Okrug. [4] The settlement of Zhatay is not a part of Yakutsk Urban Okrug and is independently incorporated as Zhatay Urban Okrug. [4]

Municipal composition of Yakutsk Urban Okrug
Towns / CitiesPopulationMaleFemaleInhabited localities in jurisdiction
City of Yakutsk
(Якутск)
285,023135,085 (47.4%)149,938 (52.6%)
Urban settlementsPopulationMaleFemaleInhabited localities in jurisdiction
Zhatay Urban Okrug
(Жатай)
9,5044,624 (48.7%)4,880 (51.3%)
Rural settlementsPopulationMaleFemaleRural localities in jurisdiction*
Tulagino-Kildemsky Nasleg
(Тулагино-Кильдемский)
4,0312,050 (50.9%)1,981 (49.1%)
Khatassky Nasleg
(Хатасский)
6,6103,238 (49.0%)3,372 (51.0%)

Divisional source: [21]
Population source: [22]
*Administrative centers are shown in bold

Transportation

Bus in Yakutsk Yakutsk commercial center.jpg
Bus in Yakutsk

Yakutsk is a destination of the Lena Highway. The city's connection to that highway is only usable by ferry in the summer, or in the dead of winter, by driving directly over the frozen Lena River, since Yakutsk lies entirely on its western bank, and there is no bridge anywhere in the Sakha Republic that crosses the Lena. The river is impassable for long periods of the year when it contains loose ice, when the ice cover is not thick enough to support traffic, or when the water level is too high and the river is turbulent with spring flooding. The highway ends on the eastern bank of Lena in Nizhny Bestyakh (Нижний Бестях), an urban-type settlement of some four thousand people. Yakutsk is connected with Magadan by the Kolyma Highway.

A highway bridge over the Lena in the Okrug had been scheduled to be built by the year 2020. [23] [24] However, as of 2018, no decision to actually build the bridge has been taken. [25] The bridge had originally been planned to be a dual-use railroad and highway bridge so the Amur Yakutsk Mainline, the North–South railroad being extended from the south, could connect the city with the East–West Baikal Amur Mainline. The railroad reached the settlement of Nizhny Bestyakh, on the opposite bank of the Lena from Yakutsk, in November 2011. [26]

The new river bridge would be over 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) long and would be constructed 40 kilometers (25 mi) upriver at Tabaga, where the river narrows and does not create a wide flooded area in spring. In the dead of winter, the frozen Lena River makes for a passable highway for ice truckers using its channel to deliver provisions to far-flung outposts. Yakutsk is also connected to other parts of Russia by Yakutsk Airport.

Construction of a road bridge over the River Lena to Yakutsk was approved by president Vladimir Putin on 9 November 2019. Cost of the 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) bridge and its 10.9 kilometres (6.8 mi) of approaches was estimated at 63.7 billion Rubles (83 billion rubles including VAT [НДС]), of which a grant of 54.2 billion Rubles was to be provided, with the remainder to be sourced from investors. The bridge was to be toll-free for cars, with a toll for trucks. [27]

The 2019 completion of a new rail line to the eastern bank of the Lena permitted the start of passenger rail services between Yakutsk and the rest of Russia.

Education and research

M.K.Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University is situated in the city. There is also a branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which contains, among other things, the Institute of Cosmophysical Research, which runs the Yakutsk Extensive Air Shower installation (one of the largest cosmic-ray detector arrays in the world), and the Melnikov Permafrost Institute, founded in 1960 with the aim of solving the serious and costly problems associated with construction of buildings on frozen soil. In 2020, with global heating thawing the ground, the Institute is measuring the rate at which the permafrost is thawing, which affects the city as well as the climate. [28]

At the primary and secondary levels, the city has a number of UNESCO Associated Schools, including the Sakha-Turkish College, Sakha-French School, Sakha-Korean School, and School #16. [29]

Twin towns – sister cities

Yakutsk is twinned with: [30] [31]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sakha First-level administrative division of Russia

Sakha, a federal Russian republic, is also known as Yakutia or Yakutiya, and officially known as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

Tiksi Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Tiksi is an urban locality and the administrative center of Bulunsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, southeast of the delta of the Lena River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 5,063.

Aldan, Russia Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Aldan is a gold-mining town and the administrative center of Aldansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located in the Aldan Highlands, in the Aldan River basin, on the stream Orto-Sala near its mouth in the Seligdar River, about 470 kilometers (290 mi) south of the republic's capital of Yakutsk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 21,275.

Olyokminsk Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Olyokminsk is a town and the administrative center of Olyokminsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Lena River, 651 kilometers (405 mi) southwest of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 9,494.

Lensk Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Lensk is a town and the administrative center of Lensky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 24,966.

Amginsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Amginsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic and borders with Churapchinsky District in the north, Ust-Maysky District in the east and southeast, Aldansky District in the south and southwest, and with Khangalassky and Megino-Kangalassky Districts in the northwest. The area of the district is 29,400 square kilometers (11,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Amga. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 17,183, with the population of Amga accounting for 38.0% of that number.

Bulunsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Bulunsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the north of the republic and borders Ust-Yansky District in the east, Verkhoyansky District in the southeast, Eveno-Bytantaysky and Zhigansky Districts in the south, Olenyoksky District in the west, and Anabarsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 223,600 square kilometers (86,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Tiksi. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 9,054, with the population of Tiksi accounting for 55.9% of that number.

Gorny District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Gorny District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders Vilyuysky and Kobyaysky Districts in the north, Namsky District and the territory of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the east, Khangalassky District in the south, Olyokminsky District in the southwest, and Verkhnevilyuysky District in the west. The area of the district is 45,600 square kilometers (17,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Berdigestyakh. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 11,706, with the population of Berdigestyakh accounting for 55.2% of that number.

Khangalassky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Khangalassky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders Megino-Kangalassky District in the east, Amginsky and Aldansky Districts in the south, Olyokminsky District in the southwest, Gorny District in the northwest, and the territory of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the north. The area of the district is 24,700 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Pokrovsk. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district, excluding its administrative center, was 24,557.

Kobyaysky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Kobyaysky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic on the Vilyuy River, 334 kilometers (208 mi) by road north of the republic's capital of Yakutsk. The area of the district is 107,800 square kilometers (41,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Sangar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 13,680, with the population of Sangar accounting for 32.0% of that number.

Megino-Kangalassky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Megino-Kangalassky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the central part of the republic, on the Lena River opposite Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. It borders Ust-Aldansky District in the north, Churapchinsky District in the east, Amginsky District in the southeast, Khangalassky District in the southwest, and is bounded by the Lena River in the west. The area of the district is 11,700 square kilometers (4,500 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Mayya. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 31,278, with the population of Mayya accounting for 23,.3% of that number.

Mirninsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Mirninsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the west of the republic and borders Olenyoksky District in the north and northeast, Nyurbinsky and Suntarsky Districts in the east, Lensky District in the south, and Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in the west. The area of the district is 165,800 square kilometers (64,000 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Mirny. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 38,802.

Namsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Namsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. The district is located in the center of the republic and borders Ust-Aldansky District in the east, Megino-Kangalassky District in the southeast, the territory of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the south, Gorny District in the west, and Kobyaysky District in the north. The area of the district is 11,900 square kilometers (4,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Namtsy. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 23,198, with the population of Namtsy accounting for 38.3% of that number.

Suntarsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Suntarsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the western central part of the republic and borders with Nyurbinsky District in the north and northeast, Verkhnevilyuysky District in the east, Olyokminsky District in the southeast, Lensky District in the southwest, and with Mirninsky District in the west. The area of the district is 57,800 square kilometers (22,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Suntar. Population: 25,140 (2010 Census); 25,485 ; 26,035 (1989 Census). The population of Suntar accounts for 39.9% of the district's total population.

Verkhnevilyuysky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Verkhnevilyuysky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the western central part of the republic and borders with Vilyuysky District in the east, Gorny District in the southeast, Olyokminsky District in the south, Suntarsky and Nyurbinsky Districts in the west, and with Olenyoksky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 42,000 square kilometers (16,000 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Verkhnevilyuysk. Population: 21,661 (2010 Census); 21,383 ; 20,626 (1989 Census). The population of Verkhnevilyuysk accounts for 29.8% of the district's total population.

Nizhny Bestyakh Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Nizhny Bestyakh is an urban locality in Megino-Kangalassky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the east bank of the Lena River, opposite the republic's capital city of Yakutsk, 34 kilometers (21 mi) from Mayya, the administrative center of the district. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 3,518.

Zhatay Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Zhatay is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Lena River, 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) downstream of Yakutsk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 9,504.

Khonuu Selo in Sakha Republic, Russia

Khonuu is a rural locality and the administrative center of Momsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the right bank of the Indigirka River. Population: 2,476 (2010 Census); 2,494 (2002 Census); 3,057 (1989 Census).

Zhigansk Selo in Sakha Republic, Russia

Zhigansk is a rural locality and the administrative center of Zhigansky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Lena River near where it is joined by its tributary the Nuora, approximately 600 kilometers (370 mi) northwest of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. Population: 3,420 (2010 Census); 3,346 (2002 Census); 4,511 (1989 Census).

Deputatsky Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Deputatsky is an urban locality and the administrative center of Ust-Yansky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located in the Selennyakh Range, about 930 kilometers (580 mi) north-northeast of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 2,983.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  2. 1 2 3 Constitution of the Sakha Republic
  3. http://sakha.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/sakha/resources/a69a3d00450e021f9af8bede4cdebdf4/d2_042017.xls.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Law #174-Z #355-III
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  8. Jessa Gamble. "What's the world's coldest city?". the Guardian.
  9. "Download Limit Exceeded". citeseerx.ist.psu.edu.
  10. "Вечная мерзлота и современный климат (geo.web.ru)". geo.web.ru (in Russian). Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  11. "Greatest temperature range on Earth". Guinness World Records.
  12. Погода в Якутске. Температура воздуха и осадки. Июль 2001 г. (in Russian)
  13. "Погода в Якутске - климатический монитор за январь 2001 года". www.pogodaiklimat.ru.
  14. "Climate Jakutsk". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  15. http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/monitor.php?id=24959&month=3
  16. "JAKUTSK 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  17. "About Us Archived October 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ." Yakutia Airlines. Retrieved on July 18, 2010. "JSC "Air Company Yakutia" Address: 9, Bykovsky st., Yakutsk, Russia, 677014." Russian address: "Contact Us Archived October 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine ." "ОАО «Авиакомпания «Якутия» Адрес: Республика Саха (Якутия), 677014, г. Якутск, ул. Быковского, 9"
  18. "Celebrate Ysyakh festival in Yakutsk…". Air Russia.
  19. Sanna, Jacopo (January 11, 2019). "The Punk Scene in Yakutsk, Russia Turns Isolation Into Inspiration". Bandcamp Daily. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  20. "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010. Национальный состав населения по муниципальным районам и городским округам". Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  21. City of Republic Significance Yakutsk Official website of the Sakha Republic
  22. The population density of the Russian Federation by constituent entities of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010. Gks.ru. Accessed March 29, 2020.
  23. "Lena River Bridge to Provide Hope and Fruit" Link accessed March 15, 2014.
  24. Russia Basel's wins tender to build Yakutia railroad Reuters, Thu Nov 6, 2008
  25. Якутия не исполнила решение Совбеза РФ: мост через Лену повис в воздухе [Yakutia has not implemented the decision of the Security Council of the Russian Federation; the Lena bridge is hanging in the air] (in Russian). REGNUM News Agency. June 4, 2018. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  26. "Russian Berkakit-Tommot-Nizhny Bestyakh line completed".
  27. "По ленинским мостам - Инфраструктурный проект для Якутска одобрен президентом", Коммерсантъ (in Russian) (211), November 18, 2019
  28. Will Vernon (September 18, 2020). "Siberia's bizarre bumps (video)". BBC News.
  29. Nikolaev, Michael E. (January 7, 2007). "The Most Valuable Possession of a Society is Education". Yakutia Today. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
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Bibliography