Yami Qaghan

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Yami Khagan
First Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate
Predecessor Tardu
Successor Shibi Qaghan
BornAshina Rangan
SpousePrincess Anyi (安义公主) Princess Yicheng (義成公主)
Regnal name
Yìlì Zhēndòu Qǐmín Kěhàn
El Ïduk Jamï(r) Qağan
House Ashina
Father Ishbara Qaghan
Religion Tengrism

Yami Qaghan [1] [2] [3] (Old Turkic : 𐰖𐰢𐰃:𐰴𐰍𐰣Jаmï qağan [lower-alpha 1] ; Chinese: 啓民可汗, 啟民可汗/启民可汗; Pinyin: Qǐmín Kěhàn, Wade-Giles: Ch'i-min K'o-han, Middle Chinese (Guangyun): [kʰiei˥mi̯en˩ kʰɑ˥ɣɑn˩˥] ), personal name Ashina Rangan (阿史那染幹/阿史那染干, pinyin Āshǐnà rǎngān; Wade-Giles A-shih-na jan-kan, [ʔɑʃi̯ə˥nɑ˩ nʑi̯ɛm˥kɑn˩˥] ), at one point known as Tolis Qaghan (突利可汗, 𐱅𐰇𐰠𐰾𐰴𐰍𐰣, Töles qaγan) and later El Ïduk Jamï(r) Qağan [8] (意利珍豆啟民可汗/意利珍豆启民可汗, Yìlì Zhēndòu Qǐmín Kěhàn) was the first qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.



His parentage is uncertain as he was either son of Bagha Qaghan [10] or Ishbara Qaghan. [11] He was a subordinate khagan under Tulan Qaghan with title of Tolis Qaghan, ruling eastern tribes.

He sent an ambassador to Sui dynasty in 597, requesting to marry to a Chinese princess. Pei Ju saw this as opportunity and told him to kill Tulan Qaghan's Zhou origin khatun Princess Qianjin (who was styled as Princess Dayi by Sui dynasty). Princess was murdered and emperor fulfilled his promise, sending Princess Anyi (安义公主) to marry him.

However, Tolis' ambitious behaviour caused outrage to khagan. Tulan started to gather invasion party to attack Sui repeatedly in 597 and 599, only to be reported to emperor beforehand by Tolis every occasion. As a reaction, Tulan approached to Tardu to combine forces and attack Tolis. Attack was a success and Tolis had to flee to China after his brothers and nephews getting killed during invasion.

In winter 599, he was created Qimin Khagan by Emperor Wen. Meanwhile Princess Anyi died and he was married to Princess Yicheng this time, a daughter of Yang Xie (杨谐). Emperor also commissioned Zhangsun Sheng to build the city of Dali (大利, in modern Hohhot) to house Qimin's people, and also sent an army to protect Qimin.

Meanwhile Tulan was killed by his men causing Tardu to assume throne and claim title Bilge Khagan in 599/600.

In winter 601, Emperor Wen commissioned Yang Su to command an army, in association with Qimin Khan as to attack Tardu.


After Tardu's subsequent defeat in 603, he fled to Tuyuhun. Having a cleared way Qimin assumed Turkic throne, definitely starting division between Western and Eastern wings of khaganate.

In spring 607, he went to Luoyang to pay a visit to Emperor Yang. In the summer, he was visited back by Yang. Khagan's display of submission and loyalty caused Emperor Yang to bestow much honor and wealth on him. When the senior officials Gao Jiong, Yuwen Bi (宇文弼), and Heruo Bi privately expressed disapproval, Emperor Yang discovered their criticism and put all of them to death, while removing Su Wei, who also discouraged him from giving excessive rewards to khagan, from his post. [12]

In spring 609, Qimin made another visit to Emperor Yang and was rewarded with much treasure. He died later from an illness.


He was married to Princess Anyi (安义公主) at first and later her death to Princess Yicheng (義成公主). He also had a Tuyuhun concubine or wife. [13] He had several issues:


  1. This first qaghan of the Eastern Turks is identified with Jamï Qağan on Ongin inscription [4] Meanwhile W. Radloff, basing on similarities of letters "b" and "y", identifies Ongin inscription's Yiamy kagan as Bumyn kagan (d. 552 AD)), the founder of the First Turkic Khaganate (H.N.Orkhun); Bumyn kagan (S.E Malov), [5] G.Aidarov, [6] Yamï qaγan (T.Tekin), [7] Yamï qaγan (L.Bold), according I. Markwart, Yiamy kagan is Bumyn/Tumen. [8] Ünal (2014) proposes that Ongin's Yama Qaghan corresponds to Chinese 射摩 Shè-mó (< MC *ʑia-ma) and Old Tibetan transcription Zhama [9]

Related Research Articles

Bumin Qaghan (Old Turkic: 𐰉𐰆𐰢𐰣:𐰴𐰍𐰣, romanized: Bumïn qaγan, also known as Illig Qaghan or Yamï Qaghan was the founder of the Turkic Khaganate. He was the eldest son of Ashina Tuwu. He was the chieftain of the Turks under the sovereignty of Rouran Khaganate. He is also mentioned as Tumen of the Rouran Khaganate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bilge Qaghan</span> Fourth Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate

Bilge Qaghan was the fourth Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate. His accomplishments were described in the Orkhon inscriptions.

Taspar Qaghan or Tatpar Qaghan was the third son of Bumin Qaghan and Wei Changle (長樂公主), and the fourth khagan of the Turkic Khaganate (572–581).

Ishbara Qaghan or Erfu Kehan ; personal name: Chinese: 阿史那攝圖/阿史那摄图, pinyin Āshǐnà Shètú/Niètú; Wade–Giles A-shih-na she-t'u/nie-t'u) was the first son of Issik Qaghan, grandson of Bumin Qaghan, and the sixth khagan of the Turkic Khaganate (581–587). His name is non-Turkic.

Tulan Qaghan was the seventh qaghan (Khaqan) of the Turkic Khaganate and the son of Ishbara Qaghan.

Shibi Khagan succeeded Yami Qaghan as the second khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

Ashina Xichun, also known as Chuluo Khagan, was the khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, and second son of Yami Qaghan. He succeeded his elder brother Shibi and ruled for 18 months.

Illig Qaghan, born Ashina Duobi, posthumous name Prince Huang of Guiyi (歸義荒王), was the last qaghan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xueyantuo</span> Tribal confederation in the Eurasian Steppe (3rd cen. BC – 4th cen. CE)

The Xueyantuo were an ancient Tiele tribe and khaganate in Northeast Asia who were at one point vassals of the Göktürks, later aligning with the Tang dynasty against the Eastern Göktürks.

Heshana Qaghan or Heshana Khagan (Chinese: 曷娑那可汗, : hésuōnà kěhàn, : ho-so-na k'o-han, Middle Chinese [ɣɑt.sɑ˥˩nɑ˩ kʰɑ˥ɣɑn˩˥] or 曷薩那可汗/曷萨那可汗, hésànà kěhàn, ho-sa-na k'o-han; at one point known as Chuluo Kehan and Nijue Chuluo Khagan, personal name Ashina Daman - was the second khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate. He was the son of Niri Qaghan. He appeared as Čôl χâɣân in The Provincial Capitals of Iran.

Qapaghan or Qapghan Qaghan was the second khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate during Wu Zetian's reign and was the younger brother of the first kaghan, Ilterish Qaghan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">First Turkic Khaganate</span> 552–603 khaganate founded by the Göktürks

The First Turkic Khaganate, also referred to as the First Turkic Empire, the Turkic Khaganate or the Göktürk Khaganate, was a Turkic khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan and his brother Istämi. The First Turkic Khaganate succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the hegemonic power of the Mongolian Plateau and rapidly expanded their territories in Central Asia, and became the first Central Asian transcontinental empire from Manchuria to the Black Sea.

Tardu or Tardush Yabghu was the second yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate, and ninth Khagan of the First Turkic Khaganate (599–603). He was the son of Istämi.

Inäl Qaγan was the third khagan of Second Turkic Khaganate.

Ishbara Tolis was the ruler of Western Turkic Khaganate (empire) between 634–639. His full title was Shābōluō xìlìshī (~diélìshī) kèhán 沙钵罗咥利失可汗, personal name Ashina Tong-e 阿史那同俄).

Tolis Qaghan or Tolis Khagan may refer to:

Khan of Heaven or Tian Kehan, Celestial Kha(ga)n, Heavenly Kha(ga)n, Tengri Kha(ga)n was a title addressed to the Emperor Taizong of Tang by various Turkic nomads. It was first mentioned in accounts on May 20, 630 and again on October 24, 646, shortly after the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and Xueyantuo were annihilated by the Tang dynasty.

El Külüg Shad Irbis Qağan was Khagan of the Western Turkic Kaghanate.

Ashina Shibobi — was a lesser khagan, who ruled the eastern wing of Eastern Turkic Khaganate.

Princess Yicheng was a Chinese princess of the Sui dynasty and a khatun of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate. She spent at least 30 years of her life among the Turks.


  1. 薛宗正, 突厥史, 中国社会科学出版社, 北京 (Xue Zongzheng, Tujie Shi, Chinese Social Sciences Press, Beijing, 1992, ISBN   7-5004-0432-8 / K-49 (精), p. 265.
  2. Zhenping Wang, Ambassadors from the islands of immortals: China-Japan relations in the Han-Tang period, University of Hawaii Press, 2005, ISBN   978-0-8248-2871-4, p. 140.
  3. Zhu Zhenhong, "Taohuashi and Tiankehan (Tangri Qaghan)", Eurasian History 朱振宏,「桃花石」與「天可汗」, 欧亚学研究
  4. Baumer's History of Central Asia (2016), p 324.
  5. S.E. Malov Onginsky monument; Monuments of ancient Türkic writing of Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, M., L., 1959, p. 7-11
  6. G. Aydarov On the language of the Kutlug Kagan monument; News of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, Series of social sciences, 1963, issue-6. p. 81-88
  7. Orhun H.N. Eski turk yazitlarі. Turk Tarih Kurumu basimevi, Ankara, 1986, p.127-132
  8. 1 2 "Memorial Complex Eletmiš Yabgu (bilge atačim)", Note 106 at Türik Bitig
  9. Ünal, Orçun. (2014) "Extended Summary" p. 3 of "Once Again on the Etymology of the Old Turkic Yaŋa ~ Yaŋan ~ Yagan 'Elephant'" Hacettepe University Journal of Turkish Studies Vol. 11 Issue 21, pp. 229-249.
  10. Zizhi Tongjian , vol. 178
  11. Zizhi Tongjian , vol. 175
  12. Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2012). Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty: His Life, Times, and Legacy. SUNY Press. p. 39. ISBN   9780791482681.
  13. Ahmet., Taşağil (1995–2004). Gök-Türkler. Atatürk Kültür, Dil, ve Tarih Yüksek Kurumu (Turkey). Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. ISBN   975161113X. OCLC   33892575.
  14. 1 2 3 Mau-tsai, Liu (1958). Die chinesischen Nachrichten zur Geschichte der Ost-Türken (T'u-küe). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.


Yami Qaghan
Preceded by Khagan of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate
Succeeded by