|Historical era||Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period|
• Liu Shouguang's death
Yan (燕), also called Jie Yan(桀燕), was a very short lived kingdom in the vicinity of present-day Beijing at the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which is traditionally dated as being from 907 to 960. Yan, established by Liu Shouguang in 911, only lasted for two years before destroyed by Li Cunxu the prominent leader of Later Tang.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-979) was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere, mainly in South China. It was the last prolonged period of multiple political division in Chinese imperial history.
Liu Shouguang (劉守光) was a warlord early in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period who controlled Lulong and Yichang Circuits, after seizing control from his father Liu Rengong and defeating his brother Liu Shouwen. He claimed the title of Emperor of Yan in 911, but was subsequently defeated and executed by Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin, who absorbed Yan into his Jin state.
As the only ruler of Yan, Liu was noted for his cruelty, so this Yan was also called Jie Yan, which compared the regime to a former one under the cruel king Jie in Xia Dynasty.
King Jie was the 17th and last ruler of the Xia dynasty of China. He is traditionally regarded as a tyrant and oppressor who brought about the collapse of a dynasty.
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China". The four are Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang and Xi'an (Chang'an).
Emperor Zhao of Han, born Liu Fuling, was the emperor of the Western Han dynasty from 87 to 74 BC.
Yan was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. Its capital was Ji. During the Warring States period, the court was also moved to another capital at Xiadu at times.
Emperor Guangwu, courtesy name Wenshu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han. He ruled over parts of China at first, and through suppression and conquest of regional warlords, the whole of China was consolidated by the time of his death in 57.
The Southern Yan was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Its territory roughly coincided with modern Shandong. Its founder Murong De was a son of Murong Huang and brother of Murong Jun and Murong Chui and therefore was an imperial prince during both Former Yan and Later Yan.
Yanjing was an ancient city and capital of the State of Yan in northern China. It was located in modern Beijing.
You Prefecture or Province, also known by its Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (zhou) in northern China during its imperial era.
Yan is a Chinese surname, it is the pinyin romanization for several Chinese characters such as "严 (嚴)", "晏 (晏)", "偃 (偃)", "颜 (顏)", "言 (言)", "燕 (燕)", "阎 (閻)", "闫 (閆)", "鄢 (鄢)" in simplified (traditional) form. Note that these characters are spelled as Yen in the Wade–Giles romanization system which was the prevalent one before the early 80s. From such, individuals and institutions who have had to romanize their Chinese names prior to that time, such as when having their books translated or publishing manuscripts outside of China, used "Yen" instead of "Yan". Such examples include Yenching University and the Harvard-Yenching Institute. The Yan surname in Taiwan is mostly spelled as Yen since only until recently has the government approved the use of pinyin romanization of names. The Cantonese romanization of these surnames is "Yim". As such, most people from Hong Kong and Chinese diaspora that emigrated prior to 1949 from Guangdong use the name Yim. On many occasions, "甄 (甄)" in Cantonese is also romanized as Yan.
Lu Wan was an official and vassal king of the early Western Han dynasty. He served under Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty.
Three Kingdoms is a 2010 Chinese television series based on the events in the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. The plot is adapted from the 14th century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms and other stories about the Three Kingdoms period. Directed by Gao Xixi, the series had a budget of over 160 million RMB and took five years of pre-production work. Shooting of the series commenced in October 2008, and it was released in China in May 2010.
Zang Tu was a Chinese warlord who lived in the late Qin Dynasty and the early Han Dynasty.
The Uprising of the Five Barbarians, is a Chinese expression referring refers to a series of uprisings between 304 and 316 by non-Han Chinese peoples living in Northeast Asia against the Jin dynasty (265–420). The uprisings helped topple Emperor Huai of Jin in Luoyang and ended the Western Jin dynasty. Rulers from five ethnic groups, the Xiongnu, Xianbei, Jie, Qiang and Di, then established a series of independent kingdoms in what is now northern China. This period of Chinese history, known as the Sixteen Kingdoms, lasted until the Northern Wei dynasty united northern China in the 5th century.
The Wei–Jie war was a conflict in North China in 350 CE. Following the fall of the ethnic-Jie Later Zhao regime in 350 to the Chinese state of Ran Wei, tensions were high. The Jie people, who had formed the Later Zhao Dynasty, did not accept Ran Min's rule and rose against him; they were joined by many other Wǔ Hú nations also opposed to Ran Min. The resulting war ended with a decisive victory for Ran Min, who then proceeded to issue his famous "extermination order", which resulted in the extermination of virtually all of the Jie and most of the Wu Hu.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from AD 304 to 439, when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians," ethnic minority peoples who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Han Chinese and other ethnicities, fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty that evolved from a kingdom founded by ethnic Xianbei.
Prince or King of Yan was a Chinese feudal title referring to the ancient Chinese State of Yan and to fiefs including its former capital of Yanjing.
Empress Li was one of the two wives of Liu Shouguang, the only emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Yan.
Empress Zhu was one of the two wives of Liu Shouguang, the only emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Yan.
The Western Zhou Yan State Capital Museum is an archaeological museum in southwestern Beijing Municipality at the site of the capital of the ancient State of Yan during the Western Zhou Dynasty. The site is located in Dongjialin Village, just north of Liulihe Township (琉璃河镇), in Fangshan District, 43 km (27 mi) south of Beijing's city centre. During the Western Zhou Dynasty, over 3,000 years ago, the walled settlement at Liulihe, as the site is also known, served as the capital of the Yan, a vassal state of the Zhou Dynasty. The discovery of the site in 1962 is considered to be one of the 100 major archaeological discoveries in China during the 20th century. Artifacts from the site including engraved bronze ware and chariots provide the earliest archaeological evidence of urban settlement in Beijing Municipality. The museum at the site, operated by the municipal government, opened in 1995.
Ji or Jicheng was an ancient city in northern China, which has become the longest continuously inhabited section of modern Beijing. Historical mention of Ji dates to the founding of the Zhou Dynasty in about 1045 BC. Archaeological finds in southwestern Beijing where Ji was believed to be located date to the Spring and Autumn period. The city of Ji served as the capital of the ancient states of Ji and Yan until the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. Thereafter, the city was a prefectural capital for Youzhou through the Han Dynasty, Three Kingdoms, Western Jin Dynasty, Sixteen Kingdoms, Northern Dynasties, and Sui Dynasty. With the creation of a Jizhou (蓟州) during the Tang Dynasty in what is now Tianjin Municipality, the city of Ji took on the name Youzhou. Youzhou was one of the Sixteen Prefectures ceded to the Khitans during the Five Dynasties. The city then became the southern capital of the Liao Dynasty and then main capital of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234). In the 13th Century, Kublai Khan built a new capital city for the Yuan Dynasty adjacent to Ji to the north. The old city of Ji became a suburb to Dadu. In the Ming Dynasty, the old and new cities were merged by Beijing's Ming-era city wall.
The military history of the Jin dynasty encompasses the period of Chinese military activity from the 266 AD to 420 AD. The Jin dynasty is usually divided into Western and Eastern Jin eras. Western Jin lasted from its usurpation of Cao Wei in 266 to 316 when the Uprising of the Five Barbarians split the empire and created a number of barbarian states in the north. The Jin court fled to Jiankang, starting the era of Eastern Jin, which ended in 420 when it was usurped by the Liu Song dynasty.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.