Yana-Indigirka Lowland

Last updated
Yana-Indigirka Lowland
Яно-Индигирская низменность
Omulyakhskaya and Khromskaya Bays, Northern Siberia.jpg
NASA picture of the Khroma and Omulyakh bays at the northern end of the lowland.
Relief Yakutia.png
Red pog.svg
Location in Sakha, Russian Far East
Location Sakha Republic, Russia
Coordinates 71°N142°E / 71°N 142°E / 71; 142 Coordinates: 71°N142°E / 71°N 142°E / 71; 142
Part of Yana-Kolyma Lowland
Elevation80 meters (260 ft)
Length600 kilometers (370 mi)
Width300 kilometers (190 mi)
Area95,000 km2 (37,000 sq mi)

The Yana-Indigirka Lowland (Russian : Яно-Индигирская низменность; Yakut : Дьааҥы - Индигир намтала) is a large, low alluvial plain located in northern Siberia, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.

Contents

Administratively most of the territory of the lowland is part of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). There are inhabited centers of population in the lowlands such as Chokurdakh, Olenegorsk and Nizhneyansk, but these are very few and scattered.

Geography

The lowland is named after the Yana River in the west and the Indigirka River in the east and is crossed by both rivers in their middle and lower courses. [1] The area is mostly flat and very marshy, its northern limits extending for over 600 kilometers (370 mi) from the Buor Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea in the west to the delta of river Indigirka in the East Siberian Sea in the east. It is limited by the Kyundyulyun, the northern end of the Selennyakh Range and the Polousny Range in the south. [2]

The Yana-Indigirka Lowland is roughly crescent-shaped, reaching a maximum width in its central part of 300 kilometers (190 mi). The average height of the plain is between 30 meters (98 ft) and 80 meters (260 ft) above sea level. There is an immense number of lakes dotting the lowlands, the largest of which is Lake Bustakh with an area of 249 square kilometers (96 sq mi). The Yana-Indigirka Lowland also includes the lower course of the Omoloy River at the western end, the vast delta of river Yana, as well as the Byoryolyokh and Allaikha lower course tributaries of the Indigirka in the east. Other important rivers of the lowland are the Chondon, San Yuryakh, Sellyakh, Muksunuokha, Khroma, Sundrun, Dyagarin and Gusinaya, among other smaller rivers and streams. [3] The large rivers meander and widen in the plain, reaching widths between 350 meters (1,150 ft) and 500 meters (1,600 ft). [4]

The Yana-Indigirka Lowland is part of the wider Yana-Kolyma system of lowlands, which includes the Aby Lowland to the south of the Polousny Range and the Kolyma Lowland in the eastern side. [5] There are residual ridges of bedrock, up to 558 meters (1,831 ft) high, rising above the lowland, the northernmost of which is the Kondakov Plateau. [1]

Yana-Indigirka Lowland map section Yana-Indigirka Lowland ONC C-6.jpg
Yana-Indigirka Lowland map section

Soil

The lowlands have a thermokarst ground, composed of various kinds of marine, river and lake sediments with a high content of fossil ice owing to the prevalence of permafrost. The features of the local relief include alas depressions with lakes and swamps, as well as polygonal soils. Along the banks of rivers, seas and lakes there are baydzharakh mounds. [2]

Climate

The climate of the lowland is severe, with long, bitter winters. The vast plain is wholly frozen, under ice and snow, between early October and the end of May or early June, according to the year. Once the ice melts large areas become flooded and some islands and sandbanks completely disappear underwater. After the floods dwindle a period of summer/early autumn low water begins until the winter frost sets in. [4]

The average temperature in January is −32 °C (−26 °F) by the seashore and −36 °C (−33 °F) inland. In July the average temperature reaches 0 °C (32 °F) by the seashore, but stays a chilly −12 °C (10 °F) inland.

Flora and fauna

At the northern limits, above the 69th parallel, the lowland seashores are covered with moss, lichen and shrub tundra. In the southern part there are forest tundra zones, especially along river valleys, the forest cover consisting of thinly scattered larch. [3]

There are reindeer herds in the Yana-Indigirka Lowland, as well as wolves and arctic fox, among other animals. the waters of rivers and lakes are rich in various species of fish, such as Siberian vendace, chir, muksun, nelma and omul. [4]

See also

Related Research Articles

Geography of Russia Overview of the geography of Russia

Russia, the world's largest country, comprises much of northern Eurasia, and stretches over a vast expanse of Europe and Northern Asia. Due to its size, Russia displays both monotony and diversity. As with its topography, its climates, vegetation, and soils span vast distances. From north to south the East European Plain is clad sequentially in tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broadleaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia supports a similar sequence but is predominantly taiga. The country contains forty UNESCO biosphere reserves.

Kolyma (river)

The Kolyma is a river in northeastern Siberia, whose basin covers parts of the Sakha Republic, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and Magadan Oblast of Russia.

East Siberian Sea A marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia

The East Siberian Sea is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the Arctic Cape to the north, the coast of Siberia to the south, the New Siberian Islands to the west and Cape Billings, close to Chukotka, and Wrangel Island to the east. This sea borders on the Laptev Sea to the west and the Chukchi Sea to the east.

Indigirka

The Indigirka is a river in the Sakha Republic in Russia between the Yana to the west and the Kolyma to the east. It is 1,726 kilometres (1,072 mi) long. The area of its basin is 360,000 square kilometres (140,000 sq mi).

Yana (river)

The Yana is a river in Sakha in Russia, located between the Lena to the west and the Indigirka to the east.

Sundrun

The Sundrun is a river in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation. It is 314 kilometres (195 mi) long, and has a drainage basin of 4,170 square kilometres (1,610 sq mi).

Khroma

The Khroma is a river in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation. It is 685 kilometres (426 mi) long, and has a drainage basin of 19,700 square kilometres (7,600 sq mi).

Kolyma Lowland

The Kolyma Lowland is a lowland plain in the northeastern parts of Sakha Republic in the basin of the Alazeya, Bolshaya Chukoch'ya and lower reaches of the Kolyma rivers. The lowland is formed by fluvio-lacustrine loam soil about 120 m thick. The climate is subarctic.

Northeast Siberian taiga

The Northeast Siberian taiga ecoregion is an area of "sparse taiga forest" between the Lena River and the Kolyma River in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The ecoregion's internal borders form a patchwork of territory constituting the southern part of the East Siberian Lowland, as well as lowlands around the East Siberian Mountains, including the ridges and peaks of the Verkhoyansk Range and the Chersky Range. On the southern border of the ecoregion is the north coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, giving the region maritime boreal forests as well as the continental forests situated inland. The ecoregion is one of the largest tracts of virgin boreal forest in the world, due to the very sparse population and difficult access. It is mostly in the Sakha Republic.

Alazeya Plateau

The Alazeya Plateau is a mountain plateau in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia. The area is named after the Alazeya River, which has its source in the plateau.

Polousny Range

The Polousny Range is a mountain range in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.

Aby Lowland

The Aby Lowland is a low alluvial plain located in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia. Administratively most of the territory of the lowland is part of Aby District (Aby Ulus).

Baydzharakh

Baydzharakh, a term based in the Yakut language, is a roughly cone-shaped natural rock formation. They are usually composed of siltstone, silty peat or loam.

Ulakhan-Sis Range

The Ulakhan-Sis Range is a mountain range in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.

Kyun-Tas

Kyun-Tas is a mountain range in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.

Kondakov Plateau

The Kondakov Plateau is a mountain plateau in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia. The town of Chokurdakh is located on the other bank of the Indigirka, facing the plateau. The nearest airport is Chokurdakh Airport.

Kisilyakh-Tas

Kisilyakh-Tas is a mountain in Yakutia, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia. Administratively it belongs to the Lower Kolyma District.

East Siberian Lowland

The East Siberian Lowland, also known as Yana-Kolyma Lowland, is a vast plain in Northeastern Siberia, Russia. The territory of the lowland is one of the Great Russian Regions. Administratively it is part of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia).

East Siberian Mountains Mountain range in Russia

The East Siberian Mountains or East Siberian Highlands are one of the largest mountain systems of the Russian Federation. They are located between the Central Yakutian Lowland and the Bering Strait in the Far Eastern Federal District and Northeast Siberia. The whole area of the East Siberian System has a very low population density. The territory of the mountain system is one of the Great Russian Regions.

Kyundyulyun Mountain range in Sakha Republic, Russia

The Kyundyulyun is a mountain range in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia. The nearest airport is Ust-Kuyga Airport, located in Ust-Yansky District.

References

  1. 1 2 Google Earth
  2. 1 2 Рельеф и геологическое строение (Relief and geological structure)
  3. 1 2 Yana-Indigirka Lowland - Russian Academic Dictionary
  4. 1 2 3 Indigirka / Great Russian Encyclopedia in 35 vols. / Ch. ed. Yu.S. Osipov . - M, 2004—2017.
  5. Oleg Leonidovič Kryžanovskij, A Checklist of the Ground-beetles of Russia and Adjacent Lands. p. 16