Basin of the Yana River
|⁃ location||Confluence of Sartang and Dulgalakh|
|0 m (0 ft)|
|Length||872 km (542 mi)|
|Basin size||238,000 km2 (92,000 sq mi)|
|⁃ average||1,110 m3/s (39,000 cu ft/s)|
The Yana River (Russian :Я́на,IPA: [ˈjanə] ; Yakut : Дьааҥы, Caañı), is a river in Sakha in Russia, located between the Lena to the west and the Indigirka to the east.
It is 872 kilometres (542 mi) long, while the upper Yana is 1,320 kilometres (820 mi) long. Its drainage basin covers 238,000 square kilometres (92,000 sq mi), and its annual discharge totals approximately 35 cubic kilometres (28,000,000 acre⋅ft ). Most of this discharge occurs in May and June as the ice on the river breaks up. The Yana freezes up on the surface in October and stays under the ice until late May or early June. In the Verkhoyansk area, it stays frozen to the bottom for 70 to 110 days, and partly frozen for 220 days of the year.
The river begins at the confluence of the rivers Sartang and Dulgalakh. It flows north across the vast Yana-Indigirka Lowland, part of the greater East Siberian Lowland, shared with the Indigirka to the east. As the river flows into the Yana Bay of the Laptev Sea, it forms a huge river delta covering 10,200 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi). Yarok is a large flat island located east of the main mouths of the Yana.
There are approximately 40,000 lakes in the Yana basin, including both alpine lakes formed from glaciation in the Verkhoyansk Mountains (lowlands were always too dry for glaciation) and overflow lakes on the marshy plains in the north of the basin. The whole Yana basin is under continuous permafrost and most is larch woodland grading to tundra north of about 70°N, though trees extend in suitable microhabitats right to the delta.
The principal tributaries of the Yana are: Adycha, Oldzho, Abyrabyt and Bytantay. Most of these tributaries are short rivers flowing from the Verkhoyansk Mountains or the Chersky Range.
Verkhoyansk, Batagay, Ust-Kuyga, Nizhneyansk are the main ports on the Yana.
The Yana basin is the site of the so-called Pole of Cold of Russia, where the lowest recorded temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere are found. In the winter, temperatures in the centre of the basin average as low as −51 °C (−60 °F) and have reached as low as −71 °C (−96 °F) though in the mountains it is believed that temperatures have reached −82 °C (−116 °F).[ citation needed ] Yakut folklore says that, at such temperatures, if you shout to a friend and they cannot hear you, it is because the words have frozen in the air. However, when spring comes the words "thaw" and one can hear everything that was said months ago.[ citation needed ]
The Yana River hosts the first known site of human habitation in the Arctic, with evidence of habitation found in the delta from as early as 32,000 years ago, some 3500 years before the Last Glacial Maximum).
In 1633–38 Ilya Perfilyev and Ivan Rebrov sailed down the Lena and east along the Arctic coast to the mouth of the Yana and reached the Indigirka River estuary. In 1636–42 Elisei Buza followed essentially the same route. In 1638–40, Poznik Ivanov ascended a tributary of the lower Lena, crossed the Verkhoyansk Range to the upper Yana and then crossed the Chersky Range to the Indigirka.
In 1892–1894 Baron Eduard Von Toll, accompanied by expedition leader Alexander von Bunge, carried out geological surveys in the basin of the Yana (among other Far-eastern Siberian rivers) on behalf of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences. During one year and two days the expedition covered 25,000 kilometres (16,000 mi), of which 4,200 kilometres (2,600 mi) were up rivers, carrying out geodesic surveys en route.
Yakutia or Yakutiya, officially known as Sakha Republic (Yakutia), is a federal Russian republic.
The Verkhoyansk Range is a mountain range of eastern Siberia. Rising from the shores of the Buor-Khaya Gulf in the north, it runs southwards spanning roughly 1000 km (600 mi.) across Yakutia, east of the Central Yakutian Lowland, reaching the Yudoma-Maya Highlands. It forms a vast arc between the Lena and Aldan rivers to the west and the Yana River to the east. Its highest point is an unnamed 2,409 metres (7,904 ft) high peak in the southern reaches of the range. The range lies just west of the boundary of the Eurasian and the North American tectonic plates.
The Lena is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean. With a mean annual discharge of 588 cubic kilometers per year, it is the second largest Arctic river after the Yenisey, and the largest river whose catchment is entirely within Russia. Permafrost underlies most of the catchment, 77% of which is continuous. The Lena is the eleventh-longest river in the world.
The Laptev Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the northern coast of Siberia, the Taimyr Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya and the New Siberian Islands. Its northern boundary passes from the Arctic Cape to a point with co-ordinates of 79°N and 139°E, and ends at the Anisiy Cape. The Kara Sea lies to the west, the East Siberian Sea to the east.
The Kolyma River is a river in northeastern Siberia, whose basin covers parts of the Sakha Republic, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and Magadan Oblast of Russia.
The Indigirka River is a river in the Sakha Republic in Russia between the Yana River and the Kolyma River. It is 1,726 kilometres (1,072 mi) long. The area of its basin is 360,000 square kilometres (140,000 sq mi).
The Chersky Range is a chain of mountains in northeastern Siberia between the Yana River and the Indigirka River. Administratively the area of the range belongs to the Sakha Republic and Magadan Oblast. The highest peak in the range is 3,003 metres (9,852 ft) tall Peak Pobeda, part of the Ulakhan-Chistay Range. The range lies on the boundary between the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates. The Chersky mountains, along with the neighboring Verkhoyansk Range, have a moderating effect on the climate of Siberia. The ridges obstruct west-moving air flows, decreasing the amount of snowfall in the plains to the west.
Eduard Gustav Freiherr von Toll, often referred to as Baron von Toll, was a Baltic German geologist and Arctic explorer. He was most notable for the leading Russian polar expedition of 1900–1902 of the legendary Sannikov Land. He was known as Eduárd Vasílʹevich Tollʹ in Russia.
The Alazeya River is a river in the northeastern part of Yakutia, Russia which flows into the Arctic between the basins of the larger Indigirka River to the west and the Kolyma River to the east.
The Sartang River is a river in the Republic of Sakha in Russia. It is an easterly offshoot of the Yana, and is 620 kilometres (390 mi) long, with a drainage basin of 17,800 square kilometres (6,900 sq mi).
The Selennyakh is a river in Sakha Republic, Russia. It is a left tributary of the Indigirka River.
Alexander von Bunge was a Baltic German physician, zoologist and Arctic explorer in the employ of Russia. He was the son of botanist Alexander Georg von Bunge (1803–1890).
The Northeast Siberian taiga ecoregion is an area of "sparse taiga forest" between the Lena River and the Kolyma River in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The ecoregion's internal borders form a patchwork of territory constituting the lowlands around the ridges and peaks of the Verkhoyansk Range and the Chersky Range of mountains. On the southern border of the ecoregion is the north coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, giving the region maritime boreal forests as well as the continental forests situated inland. The ecoregion is one of the largest tracts of virgin boreal forest in the world, due the very sparse population and difficult access. It is mostly in the Sakha Republic.
Kigilyakh or Kisiliyakh are tall, pillar-like natural rock formations looking like tall monoliths standing more or less isolated. Usually they are composed of granite or sandstone shaped as a result of cryogenic weathering. Most Kigilyakhs formed during the Cretaceous period and are about 120 million years old.
The Moma Range is a range of mountains in far North-eastern Russia. Administratively the range is part of the Sakha Republic of the Russian Federation. The nearest town is Khonuu, served by Moma Airport.
The Kular Range is a range of mountains in far North-eastern Russia. Administratively the range is part of the Eveno-Bytantaysky National District of the Sakha Republic, Russian Federation.
The Yana-Indigirka Lowland is a large, low alluvial plain located in northern Siberia, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.
The Selennyakh Range is a range of mountains in far North-eastern Russia. Administratively the range is part of the Sakha Republic of the Russian Federation. The town of Deputatsky, capital of the Ust-Yansky District, is located in the area of the range.
The Central Yakutian Lowland or Central Yakutian Lowlands, also known as Central Yakut Plain or Vilyuy Lowland, is a low alluvial plain in Siberia, Russia.
The East Siberian Lowland, also known as Yana-Kolyma Lowland, is a vast territory in Northeastern Siberia, Russia. The territory of the lowland is one of the Great Russian Regions. Administratively it is part of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia).