Yang Zengxin

Last updated
Yang Zengxin
Yang Tseng-hsin.jpg
Yang Zengxin
Governor of Sinkiang
In office
1912 July 7, 1928
Preceded by Yuan Dahua [1]
Succeeded by Jin Shuren
Personal details
BornMarch 6, 1864
Mengzi, Yunnan
DiedJuly 7, 1928(1928-07-07) (aged 64)
Ürümqi, Xinjiang
Cause of death Assassination
Nationality China
Political party Xinjiang clique
Residence Urumqi
Profession Magistrate
Awards Order of the Precious Brilliant Golden Grain Order of Wen-Hu
Military service
AllegianceFlag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg  Qing Dynasty
Flag of the Republic of China 1912-1928.svg Republic of China

Yang Zengxin (traditional Chinese :楊增新; simplified Chinese :杨增新; pinyin :Yáng Zēngxīn; Wade–Giles :Yang Tseng-hsin; March 6, 1864 July 7, 1928) was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.

Contents

Life

Yang Zengxin was born in Mengzi, Yunnan Province, in 1864. Though a Han Chinese, he had connections with the leading Muslim families of Yunnan. He was knowledgeable about Islam and Islamic culture. [2] He passed the imperial examination and became a jinshi degree holder in 1899. [3]

Magistrate in Gansu

Hezhou Prefecture Magistrate Yang Zengxin wrote an essay on Sufi menhuan dated 1897. [4]

Governorship of Xinjiang

Yang Zengxin General Yang Zengxin.jpg
Yang Zengxin

In 1907 Xinjiang was where the Qing assigned Yang Zengxin. [5] He effectively fabricated Xinjiang's boundaries in its modern form by having the posts of Altay minister, Tarbagatai councilor and Ili general destroyed and having their self-rule directly to Beijing removed. [6]

Ma Yuanzhang, a Sufi Jahriyya Shaykh, gave his support to Yang Zengxin to seize power in Xinjiang. This enabled Yang to immediately raise a massive army of Hui Muslim troops, mainly from Jahriyya mosque communities.

Muslim Gen. Ma Anliang, in cooperation with Yang, attempted to arrest and execute Yihewani (Ikhwan in Arabic) leader Ma Wanfu. Ma Qi, one of Ma Anliang's subordinates, staged a rescue operation and brought Ma Wanfu to Xining. [7] Ma Anliang and Yang Zengxin were both monarchists and did not trust republicanism, and had served in the Qing military together.

Yang came to power after he defeated the revolutionaries who caused the last Qing dynasty governor, Yuan Dahua, to flee during the Xinhai Revolution in Xinjiang. The Ili revolutionaries and the Gelaohui were eliminated by Yang. He appointed Ma Fuxing military commander of 2,000 Chinese Muslim troops, whose purpose was to crush Yang's rivals. In 1913 the revolt of Tömür Khälphä in Qumul was crushed by Yang with the help of the Turpan-based Ma Yuanzhang's religious representative "ra'is" Jin Yunlun (金云仑). [8] President Yuan Shikai recognized his rule and in return he supported Yuan's revival of the monarchy by inviting Republican anti-Yuan rebels to a banquet and decapitating them on New Year's Day, 1916. Yang believed a monarchy was the best system for China, and some western travelers noted — with approval— that Yang was a former Mandarin, unlike the Republican governors of the other provinces.

Yang was made a Count of the First Rank (一等伯; Yī děng bó) by Yuan Shikai.

In 1917 President Li Yuanhong assigned Fan Yaonan ( 樊耀南 ) to observe Yang and, if possible, replace him. Yang always recognized whichever faction was in power in the Beiyang government to avoid trouble. His rule kept the region relatively peaceful, compared to other parts of China which were war-torn. However, he ruled dictatorially and executed many dissidents. Taxes for Kazakhs, Uighurs and other minorities were lowered. People were forbidden to abuse minorities, and he warned his Muslim subjects on the Soviet Russians, saying, "Beware of associating themselves with a people who are entirely without religion and who would harm them and mislead their women". [9]

During the Russian Civil War, Yang had a friendly stance towards the new Soviet state. In 1920–21, more than thirty thousand White Russians. Some of them were disarmed and interned, other were offered a safe return, while others, those who fled to the Altai mountains, were persecuted with the help from the Red troops. [10]

He recognised Russian economic dominance in Xinjiang, while concluding a provisional trade deal which established Soviet consulates in the Ili Valley and two Chinese consulates in Semipalatinsk and Verkhne-Udinsk. The Chinese government initially denied the impacts of the unrecognised agreement, but later accepted it. In 1924, Soviet economic advantages over Xinjiang were expanded by the new agreement, which also established Soviet consulates in Ürümqi, Kulja, Chuguchak, Shara-Sume and Kashgar, in return, Chinese consulates were opened in Semipalatinsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, Zaysan and Andijan. As of 1927, these Chinese officials acted independently from the Chinese government, following instead orders from Ürümqi. [11]

Yang relied heavily on Hui people—Chinese Muslims—to enforce his rule in Xinjiang. They were disliked by both Han and Uighurs because they had high positions within the Xinjiang military and government under Yang. [12]

A Tungani (Hui) was the military commander at Khotan in 1920. [13]

On July 1, 1928, he recognized the Nationalist Government in Nanjing. Six days later he was killed in a coup attempt by Fan Yaonan during a banquet. Fan had risen high in Yang's regime, but Yang never trusted him. The motive seemed to be Yang's denial of the pro-Nationalist Fan to a Nationalist advisory council designed to keep Xinjiang in check. Yang's death was avenged by Jin Shuren almost immediately. Lacking resources to oust Jin, Nanjing recognized his succession to the governorship.

Ma Fuxing was appointed Titai of Kashgar from 1916–24 by Yang, who ordered Ma Shaowu to assassinate Ma Fuxing in 1924. Ma Shaowu was then appointed Daotai of Kashgar.

Yang Zengxin's Statement on Hui people

The third reason is that at the time that Turkic Muslims were waging rebellion in the early years of the Guangxu reign, the ‘five elite divisions’ that governor general Liu Jintang led out of the Pass were all Dungan troops [Hui dui 回队]. Back then, Dungan military commanders such as Cui Wei and Hua Dacai were surrendered troops who had been redeployed. These are undoubtedly cases of pawns who went on to achieve great merit. When Cen Shuying was in charge of military affairs in Yunnan, the Muslim troops and generals that he used included many rebels, and it was because of them that the Muslim rebellion in Yunnan was pacified. These are examples to show that Muslim troops can be used effectively even while Muslim uprisings are still in progress. What is more, since the establishment of the Republic, Dungan have demonstrated not the slightest hint of errant behaviour to suggest that they may prove to be unreliable.

[2]

Related Research Articles

Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) Muslim minority revolt against Qing dynasty China

The Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) or Tongzhi Hui Revolt or Hui (Muslim) Minorities War was a war fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor of the Qing dynasty. The term sometimes includes the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan, which occurred during the same period. However, this article relates specifically to the uprising by members of the Muslim Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups in China's Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces, as well as in Xinjiang, between 1862 and 1877.

First East Turkestan Republic Former country

Turkic Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was a short-lived breakaway Islamic republic founded on 12 November 1933; it was the first state to style itself an "Islamic republic." It was centred on the city of Kashgar in what is today China-administered Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The ETR was primarily the product of an independence movement of the Uyghur population living there and more broadly of Turkic-ethnicity in character, including Kyrgyz and other Turkic peoples in its government and its population.

Ma Hualong

Ma Hualong, was the fifth leader of the Jahriyya, a Sufi order (menhuan) in northwestern China. From the beginning of the anti-Qing Muslim Rebellion in 1862, and until his surrender and death in 1871, he was one of the main leaders of the rebellion.

National Protection War

The National Protection War, also known as the anti-Monarchy War, was a civil war that took place in China from 1915–1916. Only three years earlier the last Chinese dynasty, the Qing dynasty, had been overthrown and the Republic of China established in its place. The cause of the war was the proclamation by Yuan Shikai, the President of the Republic, of himself as the Hongxian Emperor, Emperor of the Empire of China.

Ma Qi

Ma Qi was a Chinese Muslim General in early 20th-century China.

Islam during the Qing dynasty

During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Qing rulers were Manchu, not Han, and were themselves a minority in China. The Qing dynasty witnessed five Muslim rebellions. The first and last rebellions were caused by sectarian infighting between rival Sufi Muslim orders.

Sabit Damolla

Sabit Damolla was a Uyghur independence movement leader who led the Hotan rebellion against the Xinjiang Province government of Jin Shuren and later the Uyghur leader Khoja Niyaz. He is widely known as the first and only prime minister of the short-lived Islamic Republic of East Turkestan from November 12, 1933 until the republic's defeat in May 1934.

The Xinjiang clique was a military faction that ruled Xinjiang during China's warlord era. Unlike other cliques, its leaders were from outside the province.

Ma Mingxin

Ma Mingxin (1719–1781) was a Chinese Sufi master, the founder of the Jahriyya menhuan.

Khoja Niyaz

Khoja Niyaz, also Khoja Niyaz Haji, was a Uyghur independence movement leader who led several rebellions in Xinjiang against the Kumul Khanate, the Chinese governor Jin Shuren and later the Hui warlord Ma Chung-ying. He is best remembered as the first and only president of the short-lived Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan from November 1933 until the republic's defeat in 1934.

Ma Anliang

Ma Anliang was a Hui born in Hezhou, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhan'ao, and his younger brothers were Ma Guoliang and Ma Suiliang 馬遂良. Ma was educated in Chinese and Islamic education. His Muslim name was Abdul Majid 阿卜都里默直底.

Ma Shaowu

Ma Shaowu was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing Dynasty China. He was a member of the Xinjiang clique during the Republic of China.

Ma Fuxing

Ma Fuxing was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing dynasty China. He was an ex-convict. During Yang Zengxin's reign in Xinjiang, Ma was appointed as a military commander, and then Titai of Kashgar.

Ma Fulu, a Chinese Muslim, was the son of General Ma Qianling and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fushou and Ma Fuxiang. He was a middle born son.

Ma Yuanzhang was a Chinese Sufi master, of the Jahriyya menhuan.

The Kumul Rebellion was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs from 1931 to 1934 who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen. Ma Zhongying to overthrow Jin Shuren, governor of Xinjiang. The Kumul Uyghurs were loyalists of the Kumul Khanate and wanted to restore the heir to the Khanate and overthrow Jin. The Kuomintang wanted Jin removed because of his ties to the Soviet Union, so it approved of the operation while pretending to acknowledge Jin as governor. The rebellion then catapulted into large-scale fighting as Khotanlik Uyghur rebels in southern Xinjiang started a separate rebellion for independence in collusion with Kirghiz rebels. Various groups rebelled, and were not united. The main part of the war was waged by Ma Zhongying against the Xinjiang government. He was supported by Chiang Kai-shek, the Premier of China, who secretly agreed to let Ma seize Xinjiang.

The Panthay rebellion (1856–1873), known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion, was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other ethnic groups against the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.

The Qing reconquest of Xinjiang was the event when the Qing dynasty in China reconquered Xinjiang after the Dungan Revolt in the late 19th century. After a century of Qing rule, the Uzbek adventurer Yakub Beg conquered almost all of Xinjiang during the revolt, but it was eventually defeated by the Qing General Zuo Zongtang. Furthermore, Qing China recovered the Gulja region through diplomatic negotiations with the Russian Empire and the Treaty of Saint Petersburg in 1881. Xinjiang was converted into a province in 1884.

Xinjiang Province, Republic of China Former province of the Republic of China

Xinjiang Province or Sinkiang Province refers to a former province of the Republic of China. First set up in 1884 as a province of the Qing dynasty, it was replaced in 1955 by the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The original provincial government was relocated to Taipei as the Sinkiang Provincial Government Office (新疆省政府辦事處) until its dissolution in 1992.

Yettishar Turkic state ruled from Kashgar

Yettishar, commonly known as Kashgaria, was a short-lived Sunni Muslim Turkic state that existed in Xinjiang between 1865 and 1877 during the Dungan Revolt against the Qing dynasty. The seven cities were Kashgar, Khotan, Yarkand, Yangishahr, Aksu, Kucha and Korla. In 1873, the state was recognized by the Ottoman Empire as a vassal. On 18 December 1877, the army of the Qing entered Kashgar bringing the state to an end.

References

  1. James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 168. ISBN   978-0-231-13924-3 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  2. 1 2 Garnaut, Anthony. "From Yunnan to Xinjiang: Governor Yang Zengxin and His Dungan Generals" (PDF). Australian National University). Retrieved 2010-07-14.
  3. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia
  4. Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Routledge. pp. 113–114. ISBN   0-7007-1026-4. One of Dillon's main sources is: Ma, Tong (馬通) (1983). 中国伊斯兰教派与门宦制度史略[A sketch of the history of Chinese Islamic sects and the menhuan system]. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Publishing House.
  5. Justin M. Jacobs (18 April 2016). Xinjiang and the Modern Chinese State. University of Washington Press. pp. 26–. ISBN   978-0-295-80657-0.
  6. Justin M. Jacobs (18 April 2016). Xinjiang and the Modern Chinese State. University of Washington Press. pp. 23–. ISBN   978-0-295-80657-0.
  7. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 207. ISBN   0-295-97644-6 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  8. Garnaut, Anthony (1 er semestre 2008). "From Yunnan to Xinjiang: Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals" (PDF). Études orientales (25): 108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-09.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 17. ISBN   0-521-25514-7 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  10. Whiting & Shicai 1958, p. 8.
  11. Whiting & Shicai 1958, p. 89.
  12. Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 34. ISBN   0-521-25514-7 . Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  13. Ella Constance Sykes; Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes (1920). Through Deserts and Oases of Central Asia. Macmillan. pp.  242–.