|Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia |
يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ
Royal arms of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Royal standard of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
|Style||His Majesty (Malay: Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda)|
|Type||Constitutional elective federal monarchy|
|Status||Elected by rotation in convention|
|Residence||Istana Negara, Jalan Duta, Kuala Lumpur|
|Appointer||Conference of Rulers (rulers of Malay states)|
|Term length||Five years,|
not renewable immediately
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Malaysia, Article 32|
|Inaugural holder||Tuanku Abdul Rahman|
|Formation||31 August 1957|
|Unofficial names||King of Malaysia|
|Deputy||Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah|
|Salary||RM1,054,560.00 per annum|
(Civil List Act 1982)
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (literally "He Who is Made Lord", يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ), also known as the Supreme Head or the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya (now Malaysia) gained independence from the United Kingdom. Malaysia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected monarch as head of state. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is one of the few elected monarchs in the world.Jawi:
Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species.
In Malaysia's constitutional monarchy, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has extensive powers within the constitution on paper. The constitution specifies that the executive power of the Federal government is vested in the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, he is bound to exercise this power on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under Cabinet authority. The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong from among the elected members of Parliament. Among them, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has discretionary powers to choose who he wants as the Prime Minister and is not bound by the decision of the outgoing prime minister if no party has won a majority vote (Article 40). It, however, does not afford him the right and authority to dismiss the prime minister. He also can dismiss or withhold consent to a request for the dissolution of Parliament (Article 40).He may discontinue or dissolve Parliament (Article 55) but he can only dissolve Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister (Article 43). He can reject any new laws or amendments to existing laws but if he still withholds permission, it will automatically become law after 30 days from the initial submission to him (Article 66). The queen consort for the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is known as the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the couple are styled in English as "His Majesty" and "Her Majesty".
The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysia's government. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament. According to the Article 43 of the Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The constitution is amended by repealing the Clause (8) of Article 43, enabling a person who is a member of State Legislative Assembly.
The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government and the highest political office in Malaysia. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints Prime Minister as a Member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs. The Prime Minister chairs the Cabinet of Malaysia, the de facto executive branch of government. On 18 October 2018, 7th Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, announced a two-term limit to all Cabinet Profolio.
The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara (Senate). The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament.
The 16th and current Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Al-Sultan Abdullah of Pahang, replacing Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan, who abdicated on 6 January 2019. He was elected on 24 January, at a special meeting of the Conference of Rulers. He took the oath of office and was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 31 January.
Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta'in Billah is the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and the sixth Sultan of Pahang. He was a member of the FIFA Council from 2015 to 2019. He was proclaimed as Sultan on 15 January 2019, succeeding his father, Sultan Ahmad Shah, whose abdication was decided at a Royal Council meeting on 11 January.
Pahang, officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia. It is the third largest Malaysian state by area and ninth largest by population. The state occupies the basin of the Pahang River, and a stretch of the east coast as far south as Endau. Geographically located in the East Coast region of the Peninsular Malaysia, the state shares borders with the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu to the north, Perak, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan to the west, Johor to the south, while South China Sea is to the east. The Titiwangsa mountain range that forms a natural divider between the Peninsula’s east and west coasts is spread along the north and south of the state, peaking at Mount Tahan, which is 2,187m high. Although two thirds of the state is covered by dense rain forest, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, and along the coast there is a 32-kilometre wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the Kuantan, Pahang, Rompin, Endau, and Mersing rivers.
Sultan Muhammad V is the current Sultan of Kelantan and served as the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 13 December 2016 to 6 January 2019. He was proclaimed Sultan of Kelantan on 13 September 2010, succeeding his father, Sultan Ismail Petra, who was deemed incapacitated by illness. He was proclaimed Yang di-Pertuan Agong on 13 December 2016. In an unprecedented move, Muhammad V became the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong to step down from the throne, effective 6 January 2019 while his term should have ended on 12 December 2021.
The full style and title in Malay is Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia literally means Under the dust of the Almighty referring to how the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's power is dust compared to God's power and the ruler is always subservient to God.
Seri Paduka Baginda refers to Seri as in a person. Paduka means victorious and the term Baginda is in Malay for a royal in the third person.
Yang di-Pertuan Agong in literal English is "He Who is Made Supreme Lord". It is an archaic term for a presiding head which is "Yang di-Pertuan" or literally means "the one-in-charge. "Agong" (or Agung in standard Malay) means "supreme". The term Agong is not translated, as in the Constitution of Malaysia.
The Federal Constitution of Malaysia, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the States of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore became part of the Federation. The Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy having the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State whose roles are largely ceremonial. It provides for the establishment and the organisation of three main branches of the government: the bicameral legislative branch called the Parliament, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate ; the executive branch led by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet Ministers; and the judicial branch headed by the Federal Court.
Common English terms used in the media and by the general public include "King", "Supreme King", "Paramount Ruler", "Head of State", "Head of the Federation" and "Head of State of the Federation".
In Malaysian passports before 2010, the title "The Supreme Head of Malaysia" was used in the English version of the passport note. Since the issuance of ICAO-compliant e-passports in 2010, the untranslated title "His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia" is used.
The Malaysian passport is the passport issued to citizens of Malaysia by the Immigration Department of Malaysia.
But in all English correspondence, the King is referred to as "His Majesty The Yang di-Pertuan Agong"
In August 1957, having rejected the suggested title of Yang di-Pertuan Besar in favour of Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Conference of Rulers elected the first occupant of the throne. By seniority, the 84-year-old major general Ibrahim of Johor, Sultan of Johor since 1895, was first in line, but he declined due to old age. The next in line, Abu Bakar of Pahang, Sultan of Pahang since 1932, was rejected five times by his fellow electors, and did not secure the necessary votes. Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, having been elected to his state throne (Yamtuan Besar) in 1933, was elected by eight votes to one.
The first Conference of Rulers comprised:
The following rulers have served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong:
|1||Tuanku Abdul Rahman||31 August 1957 – 1 April 1960||24 August 1895||1 April 1960 (aged 64)|
|2||Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah||14 April 1960 – 1 September 1960||13 May 1898||1 September 1960 (aged 62)|
|3||Tuanku Syed Putra||21 September 1960 – 20 September 1965||25 November 1920||16 April 2000 (aged 79)|
|4||Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah||21 September 1965 – 20 September 1970||24 January 1907||20 September 1979 (aged 72)|
|5||Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah 1st term||21 September 1970 – 20 September 1975||28 November 1927||11 September 2017 (aged 89)|
|6||Sultan Yahya Petra||21 September 1975 – 29 March 1979||10 December 1917||29 March 1979 (aged 61)|
|7||Sultan Ahmad Shah||26 April 1979 – 25 April 1984||24 October 1930|
|8||Sultan Iskandar||26 April 1984 – 25 April 1989||8 April 1932||22 January 2010 (aged 77)|
|9||Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah||26 April 1989 – 25 April 1994||19 April 1928||28 May 2014 (aged 86)|
|10||Tuanku Ja’afar||26 April 1994 – 25 April 1999||19 July 1922||27 December 2008 (aged 86)|
|11||Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah||26 April 1999 – 21 November 2001||8 March 1926||21 November 2001 (aged 75)|
|12||Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin||13 December 2001 – 12 December 2006||17 May 1943|
|13||Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin||13 December 2006 – 12 December 2011||22 January 1962|
|14||Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah 2nd term||13 December 2011 – 12 December 2016||28 November 1927||11 September 2017 (aged 89)|
|15||Sultan Muhammad V||13 December 2016 – 6 January 2019||6 October 1969|
|16||Al-Sultan Abdullah||31 January 2019 – present||30 July 1959|
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is formally elected to a five-year term by and from the nine rulers of the Malay states (nine of the thirteen states of Malaysia that have hereditary royal rulers), who form the Conference of Rulers (Majlis Raja-Raja). After a ruler has served as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he may not stand for election until all rulers of the other states have also stood for election.
In the event of a vacancy of the office (by death, resignation, or deposition by a majority vote of the rulers), the Conference of Rulers elects a new Yang di-Pertuan Agong as if the previous term had expired. The new Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected for a full five-year term. After his term expires, the Conference holds a new election, in which the incumbent would not be re-elected.
The position de facto rotates among the nine rulers. The selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong initially followed an order based on the seniority (calculated by length of reign) of each ruler in 1957, at the Federation of Malaya's independence from the United Kingdom. The Conference of Rulers, which has the power to disqualify a candidate, has sometimes varied the original seniority order, as noted above. Since then, the states have followed a de facto established rotation order. Minors are automatically disqualified from office.
The Conference of Rulers has met regularly since 1985. The four governors ( Yang di-Pertua Negeri ), or heads of states without hereditary rulers, also attend the Conference, but only Rulers are allowed to vote and stand for election as Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The Constitution provides that a Ruler is not eligible for election as Yang di-Pertuan Agong if:
The election is carried out by a secret ballot. The ballot papers used are not numbered, but marked with the same pen and ink, and are inserted into a ballot box. Only the Rulers participate in the election.
A ruler may appoint another Ruler as his proxy to vote on his behalf if he is unable to attend the Election Meeting.
During the election process, the Keeper of the Rulers' Seal distributes the ballot with only one candidate. Each ruler is requested to indicate whether the candidate is suitable or not to be elected as Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The most junior ruler, who is not listed as nominee for the office of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is appointed to count the ballot papers together with the Keeper of the Rulers' Seal.
The nominee must have obtained five votes before the ruler presiding over the Election Meeting offers him the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong. If the successful nominee declines the offer or the nominated ruler fails to secure the required majority votes, the voting process is repeated with the nomination of the second most senior ruler based on the list of Seniority of States. Rulers are named and stand for election in turn.
The process is completed only after a ruler has accepted the offer of the office of Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Conference declares the ruler as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to hold office for a term of five years. The ballot papers are destroyed in the presence of the rulers as soon as the result of the election is announced.
On taking office as Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he appoints a regent for the duration of his five-year term for the state which he rules. Usually, but not always, the regent is a close relative. The regent acts as head of state in that state for every purpose except for the role of head of Islam, which is retained by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
Since the first cycle of nine Yang di-Pertuan Agong (1957–1994), the order among the eligible state rulers has followed the order established by that cycle, namely:
This cycle was originally established based on seniority. However, the current Rulers are named (and stand as a candidate) according to the cycle, irrespective of whether they are currently the most senior. Since independence from British Colonial Rule, this has been the order of elected Yang di-Pertuan Agong. However, the order is not a precedent and the election to the position of Yang di-Pertuan Agong is at the pleasure of the Conference of Rulers. As an elective monarchy, there is no line of succession to the throne of Malaysia.
Four of the states of Malaysia currently have no hereditary royal rulers. These are Penang and Malacca in Peninsular Malaysia, and Sarawak and Sabah on the island of Borneo in East Malaysia. Sarawak previously had a hereditary ruler until it became a Crown Colony of the British Empire in 1946. These four states, along with Malaysia's three federal territories, do not supply the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong) is elected by the same process immediately after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The office is usually (but not always) held by the ruler next in line after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong exercises the functions of the head of state during the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's absence, or inability to exercise his functions due to illness or infirmity (similar to a regent in other countries).
The Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong does not automatically succeed as Yang di-Pertuan Agong when a vacancy occurs in that office. The Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong acts as head of state before the election of the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The current Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Sultan Nazrin Shah of Perak since 31 January 2019.
The following Rulers have served as Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong as known as the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong:
|1||Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah*||31 August 1957 – 1 April 1960||13 May 1898||1 September 1960 (aged 62)|
|2||Tuanku Syed Putra*||14 April 1960 – 1 September 1960||25 November 1920||16 April 2000 (aged 79)|
|3||Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah*||21 September 1960 – 20 September 1965||24 January 1907||20 September 1979 (aged 72)|
|4||Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah* | 1st term||21 September 1965 – 20 September 1970||28 November 1927||11 September 2017 (aged 89)|
|5||Sultan Yahya Petra*||21 September 1970 – 20 September 1975||10 December 1917||29 March 1979 (aged 61)|
|6||Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah*||21 September 1975 – 29 March 1979||24 October 1930|
|7||Tuanku Ja’afar 1st term||26 April 1979 – 25 April 1984||19 July 1922||27 December 2008 (aged 86)|
|8||Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah*||26 April 1984 – 25 April 1989||19 April 1928||28 May 2014 (aged 86)|
|9||Tuanku Ja’afar* 2nd term||26 April 1989 – 25 April 1994||19 July 1922||27 December 2008 (aged 86)|
|10||Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah*||26 April 1994 – 25 April 1999||8 March 1926||21 November 2001 (aged 75)|
|11||Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin 1st term||26 April 1999 – 12 December 2001||22 January 1962|
|12||Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin* 2nd term||13 December 2001 – 12 December 2006||22 January 1962|
|13||Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah* | 2nd term||13 December 2006 – 12 December 2011||28 November 1927||11 September 2017 (aged 89)|
|14||Sultan Muhammad V*||13 December 2011 – 12 December 2016||6 October 1969|
|15||Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah 1st term||13 December 2016 – 31 January 2019||27 November 1956|
|16||Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah 2nd term||31 January 2019 – present||27 November 1956|
* Denotes those who became the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong, immediately following the end of their tenure as Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong's role is that of a constitutional monarch. The Federal Constitution and Parliamentary Acts made in accordance with it define the extent of his powers as the Federal Head of State.
The monarch's powers are basically divided into two broad categories:
The Constitution vests the executive power of the federal government in the monarch. However, with few exceptions, he is bound to exercise this power on the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority. Thus, in practice, most of the actual day-to-day work of governing is performed by the Cabinet.
The discretionary powers of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong pertain chiefly to appointing the Prime Minister, withholding consent to dissolve Parliament, and calling meetings with the Conference of Rulers "concerned solely with the privileges, position, honours and dignities of Their Royal Highnesses." Under the Westminster System, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is expected to appoint a Prime Minister who will command the confidence of a majority of the elected lower house of Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat . Should the Prime Minister be or become unacceptable, he may be forced out by a vote of no confidence, which would require the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to dissolve Parliament on advice of the Prime Minister, or refuse to dissolve Parliament and appoint someone else as Prime Minister. Conventionally, the Prime Minister is the head of the party with a majority in Parliament. This was the Barisan Nasional (National Front, formerly known as the Alliance) from independence in 1957 until 2018, when Pakatan Harapan took office.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong renews the appointment of a Prime Minister after every general election until the minister decides to step down. Whenever the Prime Minister chooses to dissolve Parliament, he calls for a general election. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong may choose to refuse a Prime Minister's request to dissolve Parliament, as one of his discretionary powers.
The official residence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Istana Negara (the State Palace) located in Jalan Duta in the federal capital Kuala Lumpur. It was completed in 2011. The old Istana Negara will be turned into a royal museum. Other residences include the royal retreat, Istana Melawati (Melawati Palace) in the federal administrative capital Putrajaya. It is also the venue of meetings of the Conference of Rulers (Malay: Majlis Raja-raja), which elects the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints numerous high-ranking office holders in the Federation under the terms of the Constitution and various Acts passed by Parliament. The constitution established procedures for such appointments.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints 44 members of the Dewan Negara, the Malaysian Senate.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the Yang di-Pertua Negeri (Governors), of the states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, at his discretion, after considering the advice of the state's Chief Minister.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong also appoints the Mayor and City Council of Kuala Lumpur, which is a Federal Territory.
In addition, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the Head of Islam in the four states ruled by appointed Governors, in the three Federal Territories, as well as in his own state. In this role, he is advised by the State Islamic Affairs Council in each of the States.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the chairman and members of each council. He also appoints the State Mufti in each of these states. There is a single Islamic Affairs Council with jurisdiction for the three Federal Territories. This council is also appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
In accordance with Article 41 of the Federal Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Commander-in-Chief of the Federation's Armed Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military chain of command.
As the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints the Chief of Defence Forces, on the advice of the Armed Forces Council. He also appoints the service heads of each of the three branches of the military forces.
The first Saturday of June yearly is mandated by law[ citation needed ] as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong's official birthday. It is marked with various activities all over the nation and the celebrations in Kuala Lumpur are the highlights of the national festivities, with the celebrations of it from 2013 onwards lasting a whole week between two weekends.
After the installation of Sultan Muhammad V as King in 2017, the date for the official birthday was amended twice, first to the last Saturday of July,and then to September 9. This amendment will take effect under the rule of Sultan Muhammad V until 2021.
The Istana Negara in Kuala Lumpur serves as the venue for the annual King's Birthday Honours List and Address to the Nation ceremony attended by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the Raja Permaisuri Agong, members of the Federal Government and Parliament, the state diplomatic corps, honoured guests and the Honours List members for the year, in the order of precedence of state medals. The event honours the year's national achievers and heroes with the awarding of state orders, medals and decorations and their accompanying titles. The King addresses the whole nation via radio and television on this day from the Throne Room of the palace complex. It is followed later by the traditional holiday high tea gathering at the palace grounds in the afternoon.
Trooping the Colour in Malaysia, although inherited from the British, has transformed into a grander and more Malaysian celebration on the first Saturday of June annually live on Kuala Lumpur's Independence Square, which is both open to invited guests and the general public. As the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong takes the salute on this day together with the commanders of the three services of the Malaysian Armed Forces, the Joint Forces Command, Malaysia and the members of the Malaysian Armed Forces Council, of which he is the chairman, plus military personnel and veterans in attendance. He wears the No.1 dress uniform on that day, and as each of the 8 state monarchs are Colonel-in-Chief of selected Malaysian Army regiments as well as of the Royal Malaysian Air Force and the Sultan of Selangor serves as Commodore-in-Chief of the Royal Malaysian Navy, he wears that regiment's coloured sash as part of his ceremonial uniform (for the Army), or the RMAF blue or RMN white no.1 dress uniform. The 2013 edition was held on the 2nd Saturday of June for the first time in its history, the 2016 parade was held on the 4th Friday of July (22 July) for the first time in Putrajaya, the national seat of government.
Several features distinguish the Malaysian ceremony from other similar ones:
All three branches of the Armed Forces – the Malaysian Army (represented by the Royal Malay Regiment, the Royal Armoured Corps and others), the Royal Malaysian Navy, and the Royal Malaysian Air Force – participate in the Trooping, in their No. 1 uniforms. The band in attendance is either the Central Band of the Armed Forces or the Band of the National Defence University.
The Colours Party and the Escort for (to) the Colours also reflect the three participant Armed Forces branches. The Colours Party is composed of Ensigns, Colour Sergeants and assistant soldiers making up three Colours Parties from the Army, and there is also a single Colour Party each from the Navy and the Air Force. The Escort for (to) the Colours is a composite company, comprising an Army platoon and a squad each from the Navy and Air Force ready to receive their respective colours during the ceremony. The Parade Field Officer, Brigade Major and Adjutant are also from all the Armed Forces branches, and so too are the Regimental Sergeants-Major and Colour Sergeants.
RTM broadcasts this unique ceremony live, with the telecast starting at 8:50 in the morning with a nationwide simulcast.
In November 2006, the 10th Yang di-Pertuan Agong awarded, for the first time, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong Scholarship to ten outstanding students to pursue postgraduate studies at high-ranking world universities. The award of scholarships was held at the Istana Negara in conjunction with the Independence Day celebrations and the Conference of Rulers.
In 1993, amendments to the Malaysian constitution removed the legal immunity of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong and the rulers in their personal capacity, due to public outrage over their behaviour.A Special Court (Makhamah Khas Raja-raja) is established where civil and criminal proceedings can be made against a ruler with the approval of the Attorney General. The right to sue a ruler is limited to Malaysian citizens following a precedent. The Special Court also have jurisdiction where a ruler initiates legal actions against any party.
When a ruler is charged with an offence in the Special Court, he is required to stop exercising the functions of a ruler. In the event of a ruler being sentenced to imprisonment for more than one day, he will cease to be a ruler unless a free pardon is granted.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong or any ruler cannot pardon himself or his immediate family. In such case, they may request clemency from the Conference of Rulers.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong cannot be sued in court for his actions while carrying out his official duties. Any claims can be made against the federal government.
The Royal Standard of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is royal yellow with the Coat of arms of Malaysia in the centre, surrounded by a rice paddy wreath. The same goes for the Royal Standards of the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, but the designs are different. The Raja Permaisuri Agong's standard is green in colour, with the coat of arms at the centre surrounded by the paddy wreath. The Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong's standard is bicolored, yellow at the top and light blue at the bottom, with the coat of arms at the centre (without the paddy) and below that is the office bearer's title.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
Formal address to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is taken seriously in Malaysia. There are two ways of addressing the Yang di-Pertuan Agong:
|Name||State||In office||Date of birth||Remarks|
|Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah||1979–1984||24 October 1930||The 7th Yang-di Pertuan Agong|
|Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin||2001–2006||17 May 1943||The 12th Yang-di Pertuan Agong|
|Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin||2006–2011||22 January 1962||The 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong|
|Sultan Muhammad V||2016–2019||6 October 1969||The 15th Yang Di-Pertuan Agong|
The most recently deceased former Yang di-Pertuan Agong was Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah of Kedah, 11 September 2017 (aged 89), the 5th (1970–1975) and 14th (2011–2016) Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail is the current Raja of Perlis, reigning since 17 April 2000. He served as the 12th Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 13 December 2001 to 12 December 2006 and 7th Raja of Perlis since 2000.
Al-Sultan Al-Mu’tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Tuanku Al-Haj Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah was the 28th Sultan of Kedah, reigning from 1958 to 2017. He served as the fifth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 1970 to 1975, and as the 14th Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 2011 to 2016. He was the first person to reign as Yang di-Pertuan Agong twice, as well as the oldest elected to the office. Immediately prior to his death, he was the second longest-reigning living monarch in the world after Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad, GCMG was the first Supreme Head of State or Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya of the Federation of Malaya, eighth Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Seri Menanti and second Yang di-Pertuan Besar of modern Negeri Sembilan.
Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah KCMG was the second Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya from 14 April to 1 September 1960, and fifth and seventh Sultan of Selangor between 1938–1942 and again from 1945–1960.
Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Zainal Abidin III Mu’azzam Shah KCMG was the fourth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, and the sixteenth Sultan of Terengganu.
Sultan Yahya Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim, GCMG, was the sixth Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia from 21 September 1975 to his death, and twelfth Sultan of Kelantan (1960–1979).
Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mu'adzam Shah is the fifth and former modern Sultan of Pahang, and also served as the seventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 26 April 1979 to 25 April 1984. His abdication as Sultan was decided by the Royal Council at an extraordinary meeting on 11 January 2019. A special amendment was passed on the state constitution that gave the body more power for this decision, citing the Sultan's incapability to rule due to his failing health. The abdication came into effect on the midnight of 15 January, paving the way to his son, Abdullah to succeed him as Sultan the following day, and subsequently be elected as the next Yang di-Pertuan Agong later the same month.
Raja Perempuan Besar Tengku Budriah binti Almarhum Tengku Ismail was the Raja Perempuan of Perlis, wife of Syed Putra Jamalullail, and the third Raja Permaisuri Agong of Malaysia.
Al-Wathiqu Billah Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah is the 18th and current Sultan of Terengganu. He served as the 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the constitutional monarch of Malaysia, from 2006 to 2011. He is Malay by ethnicity and an adherent of Sunni Islam, both of which are prerequisites for Malaysian royalty.
This article lists important figures and events in Malaysian public affairs during the year 1979, together with births and deaths of notable Malaysians.
This article lists important figures and events in Malaysian public affairs during the year 1967, together with births and deaths of notable Malaysians.
The Conference of Rulers in Malaysia is a council comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, and the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states. It was officially established by Article 38 of the Constitution of Malaysia, and is the only such institution in the world, according to the Malaysian National Library. Its main responsibility is the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) and his deputy, the Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, which occurs every five years or when the positions fall vacant. Although its position in the process of elective monarchy is unique, the Conference of Rulers also plays a role in amending the Constitution of Malaysia and some other policies, in particular, those Articles which have been "entrenched", namely those pertaining to the status of the rulers, the special privileges of the indigenous Bumiputra, the status of the Malay language as the national language, and the clause governing the entrenchment of such Articles.
Yamtuan, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the Undangs. This royal practice has been followed since 1773. The Yamtuan Besar is selected from among the four leading princes of Negeri Sembilan.
Seri Menanti Royal Mausoleum is a Negeri Sembilan royal mausoleum located in the royal town of Seri Menanti, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. This mausoleum is located next to the Tuanku Munawir Royal Mosque.
Kedah Royal Mausoleum or Langgar Royal Mausoleum is a Kedah royal burial grounds. It is located at Langgar, Kota Setar District, Kedah, Malaysia.
The Installation of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is a ceremony that formally marks the beginning of the reign of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Malaysian head of state.
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj (Jawi: سلطان صلاح الدين عبدالعزيز شاه الحاج ابن المرحوم سلطان هشام الدين عالم شاه الحاج ) was the 11th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and eighth Sultan of Selangor.
The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy system as practised in Malaysia. The political system of Malaysia is based on the Westminster parliamentary system, with the features of a federation.
Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Al-Maghfur-Lah is the 35th Sultan of Perak. He became the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, elected on 14 October 2016, before Sultan Muhammad V abdicated on 6 January 2019. He is currently the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
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