Yangtse Incident: The Story of H.M.S. Amethyst

Last updated

Yangtse Incident: The Story of H.M.S. Amethyst
Yangtse Incident trade.JPG
Directed by Michael Anderson
Produced by Herbert Wilcox
Written by Eric Ambler
Starring Richard Todd
William Hartnell
Akim Tamiroff
Production
company
Wilcox-Neagle
Distributed by British Lion Films (UK)
Distributors Corporation of America (US)
Release date
1 April 1957 (London)
Running time
113 min
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish

Yangtse Incident: The Story of H.M.S. Amethyst (1957) is a British war film that tells the story of the British sloop HMS Amethyst caught up in the Chinese Civil War and involved in the 1949 Yangtze Incident. Directed by Michael Anderson, it stars Richard Todd, William Hartnell, and Akim Tamiroff.

Contents

It was based upon the book written by Lawrence Earl. The film was known in the US by the alternative titles Battle Hell, Escape of the Amethyst, Their Greatest Glory and Yangtze Incident. Non-English language titles include the direct German translation of Yangtse-Zwischenfall, and Commando sur le Yang-Tse in France. In Belgium it was known as Feu sur le Yangtse (French) and Vuur op de Yangtse (Flemish/Dutch), both meaning "Fire on the Yangtse".

The film was entered into the 1957 Cannes Film Festival. [1]

Plot

On 19 April 1949, the Royal Navy sloop HMS Amethyst sails up the Yangtze River on her way to Nanking, the Chinese capital, to deliver supplies to the British Embassy. Suddenly, without warning, People's Liberation Army (PLA) shore batteries open fire and after a heavy engagement, Amethyst lies grounded in the mud and badly damaged. HMS Consort attempts to tow Amethyst off the mud bank, but is herself hit several times and has to depart. A further rescue attempt by two other ships also comes under heavy fire and has to be aborted.

Fifty-four of Amethyst's crew are dead, dying or seriously wounded, while others deteriorate from the tropical heat and the lack of essential medicines, including the ship's captain, who dies of his wounds. An attempt to evacuate the wounded is only partially successful - the officers of the Amethyst become aware that two petty officers have been captured by the PLA and are being held at a nearby military hospital. Lieutenant Commander John Kerans (Richard Todd), a naval attaché in nearby Nanking, is ordered to go to the beleaguered ship and take command.

Kerans decides to risk steaming down the Yangtze at night without a pilot or suitable charts. Before they can leave, however, the local communist official Colonel Peng (Akim Tamiroff) makes contact with the Amethyst and at a meeting between senior officers makes his position clear: either the British government releases an apology accepting all responsibility for the entire incident, or the Amethyst will remain his prisoner. Similarly, he will not allow the two wounded sailors to leave unless they give him statements declaring the British to have been the transgressors, which they refuse to do. Kerans dismisses his demands but is able to manipulate Peng into the release of the Petty Officers; meanwhile, as talks progress he has the ship patched up and its engines restored. After some subtle alterations to the ship's outline to try to disguise her, Amethyst slips her cable and heads downriver in the dark following a local merchant ship, which Amethyst uses to show the way through the shoals and distract the PLA. When the shore batteries finally notice the frigate escaping downriver, the merchantman receives the brunt of the PLA artillery and catches fire, while Amethyst presses on at top speed.

Encountering an obstruction in the river in the form of several sunken ships, and having no proper equipment for charting a safe course, Kerans uses both intuition and luck to slip through before then reaching the guns and searchlights of Woosung. After she is inevitably spotted, the Amethyst is forced into a lengthy fight with the PLA batteries as she flees with all guns blazing, heading for the mouth of the river just beyond. As day dawns, she finally reaches the open ocean, where she greets HMS Concord with the message "Never repeat never has another ship been so welcome". She also sends a signal to headquarters: "Have rejoined the fleet south of Woosung ... No major damage... No casualties....God save the King!" The film then ends with scrolling text reciting verbatim the message sent the very same day from King George VI, commending the crew for their "courage, skill and determination". [2]

Cast

Production

The film was produced by Herbert Wilcox who raised part of the budget from RKO and American investors. [3] At one stage the film was called The Sitting Duck [4] and The Greatest Glory. [5]

HMS Amethyst was due to be broken up; however the filmmakers got to her in time, and she was brought out of store to participate in the film as herself. As the Amethyst's main engines were no longer operational, her sister Black Swan-class sloop HMS Magpie stood in for shots of the ship moving and firing her guns.

John Kerans, by then promoted to commander, served as technical advisor during the production. All shipping between the Ipswich and Harwich Estuary was halted for two hours in September 1956 to allow filming. [6]

During production live charges detonated and the Amethyst almost sank but Kerans managed to save the ship. [7] [3]

The destroyer HMS Teazer stood in for both HMS Consort and HMS Concord. As Consort, down from Nanking, she wore the correct pennant number D76; as Concord, up from Shanghai, her pennant number was covered by Union flags. Teazer is depicted firing her guns broadside and turning at speed in the narrow confines of the Stour estuary as Consort attempts to get a towing line to Amethyst under heavy gunfire.

The rivers Orwell and Stour - which run between Ipswich and Manningtree, in Suffolk, England - doubled as the Yangtze River during the making of this film. The Chinese PLA gun batteries - depicted by old Royal Navy field guns on land carriages - were deployed on the sloping banks of the Boys' Training Establishment HMS Ganges which was sited at Shotley Gate, facing Felixstowe on the Orwell, and Harwich on the Stour, where the rivers converge.

During filming, Wilcox's bank told him they would not accept a guarantee of £150,000 from RKO London unless supported by its parent company in New York. This did not happen and Wilcox had already spent £70,000 of the £150,000. He went personally into debt for £150,000. The National Film Finance Corporation stepped in to make up the short fall. However Wilcox would be plagued with financial troubles for the rest of his career. [8]

Reception

The film had its premiere with the Lords of the Admiralty and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in attendance. It also screened at the Cannes Film Festival. [3]

The film was the 15th most popular movie at the British box office in 1957. [9] [10]

Wilcox thought the film's box office performance was hurt by the fact that its general release came so long after the premiere and after release of The Battle of the River Plate (1956). In 1967, when he wrote his memoirs, Wilcox said the film had yet to recover its production costs. [3]

See also

Related Research Articles

River Orwell

The River Orwell flows through the county of Suffolk in England. Its source river, above the tidal limit at Stoke Bridge, is known as the River Gipping. It broadens into an estuary at Ipswich, where the Ipswich dock has operated since the 7th century, and then flows into the North Sea at Felixstowe, the UK's largest container port, after joining the River Stour at Shotley forming Harwich harbour.

<i>The Battle of the River Plate</i> (film)

The Battle of the River Plate is a 1956 British war film in Technicolor and VistaVision by the writer-director-producer team of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger. The film stars John Gregson, Anthony Quayle, and Peter Finch. It was distributed worldwide by Rank Film Distributors Ltd.

USS <i>Panay</i> incident Japanese attack on a US gunboat in 1937

The USS Panay incident was a Japanese attack on the American gunboat Panay while it was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking, China on December 12, 1937. Like the infamous attack on Pearl Harbor four years later, Japan and the United States were not at war at the time. The Japanese claimed that they did not see the US flags painted on the deck of the gunboat, apologized, and paid an indemnity. Nevertheless, the attack and the subsequent Allison incident in Nanking caused U.S. opinion to turn against the Japanese.

Edward Youde

Sir Edward Youde was a British administrator, diplomat and Sinologist. He served as Governor of Hong Kong between 20 May 1982 and his death on 5 December 1986.

HMS <i>Icarus</i> (D03)

HMS Icarus was one of nine I-class destroyers built for the Royal Navy during the 1930s.

USS <i>Panay</i> (PR-5) River gunboat

The second USS Panay (PR–5) of the United States Navy was a river gunboat that served on the Yangtze Patrol in China until sunk by Japanese aircraft on 12 December 1937 on the Yangtze River.

HMS <i>Amethyst</i> (F116)

HMS Amethyst was a modified Black Swan-class sloop of the Royal Navy. She was laid down by Alexander Stephen and Sons of Linthouse, Govan Scotland on 25 March 1942, launched on 7 May 1943 and commissioned on 2 November 1943, with the pennant number U16. After the Second World War she was modified and redesignated as a frigate, and renumbered F116.

<i>Amethyst</i> Incident Incident during the Chinese civil war involving the British navy

The Amethyst Incident, also known as the Yangtze Incident, was a historic event which involved the Royal Navy ships HMS Amethyst, HMS Consort, HMS London and HMS Black Swan on the Yangtze River for three months during the Chinese Civil War in the summer of 1949.

Six ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Amethyst, whilst another was planned:

Nanking incident of 1927 1927 anti-foreigner riots in Nanjing

The Nanking Incident occurred in March 1927 during the capture of Nanjing by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) in their Northern Expedition. Foreign warships bombarded the city to defend foreign residents against rioting and looting. Several ships were involved in the engagement, including vessels of the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. Marines and sailors were also landed for rescue operations. Both Nationalist and Communist soldiers within the NRA participated in the rioting and looting of foreign-owned property in Nanjing.

Simon (cat) Ships cat on HMS Amethyst

Simon was a ship's cat who served on the Royal Navy sloop-of-war HMS Amethyst. In 1949, during the Yangtze Incident, he received the PDSA's Dickin Medal after surviving injuries from a cannon shell, raising morale, and killing off a rat infestation during his service.

Commander John Simon Kerans was an officer in the Royal Navy and later a Conservative Party politician. He is also the author of the 1964 book The World's Greatest Sea Adventures, Publisher: Odhams Books Ltd.

QF 12-pounder 8 cwt gun Type of Light field gun

The Ordnance QF 12-pounder 8 cwt was a Royal Navy "landing gun" intended for navy use ashore. "8 cwt" refers to the weight of the gun and breech, approximately 8 cwt = 8 x 112 lb (51 kg) = 896 lb. This was how the British often differentiated between guns of the same calibre or weight of shell. This gun had a short barrel and was of relatively low power compared to the 12 pounders of 12 and 18 cwt, although it fired the same shells.

HMS <i>Concord</i> (R63)

HMS Concord was a C-class destroyer of the Royal Navy.

Steamboats on the Yangtze River

After thousands of years of junk and sampan traffic on the Yangtze River (Jiang), river steamers were introduced by Europeans during the mid- to late-nineteenth century. The age of the steamer lasted nearly 150 years—from 1835 to 1980—and had lasting impacts on China, where river trade was essential to the economy due to the poor road network and few railways.

<i>You Know What Sailors Are</i> (1954 film)

You Know What Sailors Are is a 1954 British comedy film directed by Ken Annakin from a screenplay by Peter Rogers. It starred Donald Sinden, Michael Hordern, Bill Kerr, Dora Bryan and Akim Tamiroff.

Number 88 Squadron was an aircraft squadron of the Royal Air Force. It was formed at Gosport, Hampshire in July 1917 as a Royal Flying Corps (RFC) squadron.

Raymond Durie of Durie, until 1988 known as Raymond Dewar-Durie, was a British army officer involved in the Yangtze incident who later became chief of the Clan Durie.

Patrick Brind Royal Navy admiral (1892–1963)

Admiral Sir Eric James Patrick Brind, was a senior officer in the Royal Navy who served as the first Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Northern Europe from 1951 to 1953.

Vice Admiral Sir Peter Egerton Capel Berger, was a Royal Navy officer who served as Flag Officer Plymouth from 1979 to 1981.

References

  1. "Festival de Cannes: Yangtse Incident". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
  2. "HMS Amethyst Breaks Out Of The Yangtze River (MP168)". maritimeprints.com. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Wilcox, Herbert (1967). Twenty Five Thousand Sunsets. South Brunswick. pp. 196–200.
  4. Gossip Filmer, Fay. Picture Show; London Vol. 67, Iss. 1739, (Jul 28, 1956): 3-4, 13.
  5. MOVIELAND EVENTS: 'FBI Story' Placed on Warner Schedule Los Angeles Times 25 Jan 1957: 22.
  6. MINES EXPLODED FOR FILM: Shipping Delayed The Manchester Guardian (1901-1959); Manchester (UK) [Manchester (UK)]12 Sep 1956: 8.
  7. The opening film credits state: "Technical advisor Commander J. S. Kerans D.S.O, R.N. who commanded H.M.S. Amethyst during much of the period of the story, and whose exceptional help is gratefully acknowledged."
  8. Harper, Sue; Porter, Vincent (2003). British Cinema of the 1950s: The Decline of Deference. Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN   9780198159346.
  9. Lindsay Anderson, and David Dent. "Time For New Ideas." Times, 8 January 1958: 9. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 11 July 2012.
  10. Thumim, Janet. "The popular cash and culture in the postwar British cinema industry". Screen. Vol. 32 no. 3. p. 259.