Yantai

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Coordinates: 37°27′53″N121°26′52″E / 37.4646°N 121.4478°E / 37.4646; 121.4478

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Yantai

烟台市

Yentai
Yantai2017.jpg
Yantai Skyline
ChinaShandongYantai.png
Location of Yantai City Jurisdiction in Shandong
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Yantai
Location in China
Coordinates(Yantai Museum): 37°32′14″N121°23′36″E / 37.5371°N 121.3932°E / 37.5371; 121.3932
Country People's Republic of China
Province Shandong
County-level divisions 12
Townships-level divisions 148
Municipal seatLaishan District
Government
  CPC SecretaryZhang Shuping (张术平)
  MayorChen Fei (陈飞)
Area
   Prefecture-level city 13,739.9 km2 (5,305.0 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
   Prefecture-level city 6,968,202
  Density510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
   Urban
2,227,733
   Metro
2,227,733
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
264000-265800
Area code(s) 535
ISO 3166 code CN-SD-06
GDP ¥435.8 billion (2010)
GDP per capita¥62,541 (2010)
License Plate 鲁F & 鲁Y
Website www.yantai.gov.cn
Yantai
YT name.svg
"Yantai" in Chinese
Simplified Chinese 烟台
Traditional Chinese 煙臺
煙台
Hanyu Pinyin Yāntái
Literal meaning"Smoke Tower"
Former names
Yantai (Chefoo), Qing Dynasty postage stamp.gif
A Qing-era postage stamp from Zhifu ("Chefoo")
Zhifu
Chinese 芝罘
Hanyu Pinyin Zhīfú
Postal Chefoo

Yantai, alternately known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a coastal prefecture-level city on the Shandong Peninsula in northeastern Shandong province of People's Republic of China. Lying on the southern coast of the Bohai Strait, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east, with sea access to both the Bohai Sea (via the Laizhou Bay and the Bohai Strait) and the Yellow Sea (from both north and south sides of the Shandong Peninsula). It is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan and Laishan.

Names

The name Yantai (lit. "Smoke Tower") derives from the watchtowers constructed on Mount Qi in 1398 under the reign of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty. The towers were used to light signal fires and send smoke signals, called langyan from their supposed use of wolf dung for fuel. At the time, the area was troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" (Wokou), initially raiders from the warring states in Japan but later principally disaffected Chinese. It was also formerly romanized as Yen-tai. [1]

The major district of Yantai is Zhifu, which used to be the largest independent city in the area. It was variously romanized as Chefoo [note 1] , Che-foo, [1] Chi-fu, [2] and Chih-fou. Although this name was used for the city by foreigners prior to the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, the locals referred to the settlement as Yantai throughout. [1] [2]

History

Moon Bay in Yantai MoonBay.jpg
Moon Bay in Yantai

During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the region was inhabited by indigenous people vaguely known to the Chinese as the "Eastern Barbarians" (Dongyi). Under the Zhou, they were colonized and sinicized as the state of Lai. Lai was annexed by Qi in 567 BC. Under the First Emperor (Shi Huangdi), the area was administered as the Qi Commandery. Under the Han, this was renamed as the Donglai Commandery ( ). Following the Three Kingdoms Period, the area was organized by the Jin as the Donglai Kingdom or Principality, later returning to prefecture status as a jùn and then zhōu . Under the Tang and during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, it was known as Deng Prefecture and organized with the Henan Circuit. It was then organized as the Laizhou ( ) and then, under the Qing, Dengzhou Prefecture ( ).

Up to the 19th century, however, the Zhifu area consisted of nothing but small unwalled fishing villages of little importance. [1] Under the Ming, these were first troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" and then by the overreacting "Sea Ban", which required coastal Chinese to give up trading and most fishing and relocate inland upon pain of death.

Following the Second Opium War, the Qing Empire was obliged to open more treaty ports by the unequal 1858 Treaty of Tianjin, including Tengchow (now Penglai). Its port being found inadequate, Zhifu—about 30 miles (48 km) away—was selected to act as the seat of the area's foreign commerce. [1] The mooring was at considerable distance from shore, necessitating more time and expense in loading and unloading, but the harbor was deep and expansive and business grew rapidly. [1] The harbor opened in May 1861, with its status as an international port affirmed on 22 August. The official decree was accompanied by the construction of the Donghai Customs House ( 東海 ). [3] It quickly became the residence of a circuit intendant ("taotai"), customs house, and a considerable foreign settlement located between the old native town and the harbor. [1] Britain and sixteen other nations established consulates in the town. [3] The town was initially expanded with well-laid streets and well-built stone houses, even for the poorer classes, a Catholic and a Protestant church were erected, and a large hotel did business with foreigners who employed the town as a summer resort. [1]

Original German Post Office in Yantai's old town Yantai - Old German Post Office.jpg
Original German Post Office in Yantai's old town

The principal traders were the British and Americans, followed by the Germans and Thais. [note 2] In the 1870s, the principal imports were woolen and cotton goods, iron, and opium and the principal exports were tofu, soybean oil, peas, coarse vermicelli, vegetables, and dried fruit from Zhifu itself, raw silk and straw braid from Laizhou, and walnuts from Qingzhou. The town also traded Chinese liquors and sundries for the edible seaweed grown in the shallows of the Russian settlements around Port Arthur (now Dalian's Lüshunkou District). [1] In 1875, the murder of the British diplomat Augustus Margary in Tengchong, Yunnan, led to a diplomatic crisis that was resolved in Zhifu by Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang the next year. [4] The resultant Chefoo Convention gave British subjects extraterritoriality throughout China and exempted the foreign merchants' enclaves from the likin tax on internal commerce. Its healthy situation and good anchorage made it a favorite coaling station for foreign fleets, giving it some importance in the conflicts over Korea, Port Arthur, and Weihaiwei. [4]

Yantai received German economic activities and investments for about 20 years. [5] In the run-up to the First World War, its trade continued to grow [note 3] but was limited by the poor roads of the area's hinterland and the necessity of using pack animals for portage. [4] The trade items remained largely the same as before. [4] After the Germans were defeated by Allied forces in World War I, Qingdao and Yantai were occupied by the Japanese, who turned Yantai into a summer station for their Asian fleet. They also set up a trading establishment in the town. [6] The different foreign influences that shaped this city are explored at the Yantai Museum, which used to be a guild hall. However, the city's colourful history has not left a distinctive architectural mark, there has never been a foreign concession, and though there are a few grand 19th-century European buildings, most of the town is of much more recent origin. [7] After 1949, the town's name was changed from Chefoo to Yantai, and it was opened to the world as an ice-free trade port in 1984. [8]

On 12 November 1911, the eastern division of Tongmeng Hui declared itself a part of the revolutionary movement. The next day, it established the Shandong Military Government (山東軍政府) and, the day after that, renamed itself the Yantai Division of the Shandong Military Government (山東煙台軍政分府). In 1914, Jiaodong Circuit (膠東道) was established with Yantai as the capital. Jiaodong Circuit was renamed Donghai Circuit (東海道) in 1925. On 19 January 1938, Yantai participated as part of an anti-Japanese revolutionary committee.

After the creation of the People's Republic of China, Yantai was officially awarded city status with the outlying towns of Laiyang and Wendeng tacked on as "Special Regions" (专区) in 1950. Wendeng was merged into Laiyang six years later, and this larger Laiyang Special Region was combined with Yantai City to become Yantai Prefecture (烟台地区). Yantai is of strategic importance to China's defense, as it and Dalian, directly across the Bohai Sea from it, are primary coastal guard points for Beijing. In November 1983, the prefecture became a prefecture-level city. [9]

Geography

Yantai (labelled as YEN-T'AI (CHEFOO) Yan Tai 
) (1953) Txu-oclc-10552568-nj51-9.jpg
Yantai (labelled as YEN-T'AI (CHEFOO) 煙台) (1953)
Map of Yantai (labeled as YEN-T'AI (CHEFOO)) Txu-oclc-10552568-nj51-9-back.jpg
Map of Yantai (labeled as YEN-T'AI (CHEFOO))

Yantai is located along the north coast of the Shandong Peninsula, south of the junction of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and parallel to the southern coast of Liaoning. The topographical breakdown consists of:

About 2,643.60 km2 (1,020.70 sq mi) is urbanized. Only Qixia City is located entirely inland. All other county-level entities are coastal, with Changdao consisting entirely of islands. The total coastline of the prefecture is 909 kilometers (565 mi).

The summits in the hill country vary from 100–300 meters (330–980 ft); the average peak in the mountainous region is 500 meters (1,600 ft), and the highest point of elevation is the summit of Mount Kunyu ( ) at 922.8 meters (3,028 ft).

There are 121 rivers over 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) in length, the largest being:

The core of the old town of Zhifu was located above the mouth of the Yi ( , Yí Hé). [1]

Climate

Yantai has a monsoon influenced humid subtropical climate ( Cwa ) with hot, humid, and rainy summers along with dry, cold winters.

Climate data for Yantai (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
3.9
(39.0)
9.6
(49.3)
17.5
(63.5)
22.9
(73.2)
26.7
(80.1)
28.6
(83.5)
27.9
(82.2)
24.7
(76.5)
19.3
(66.7)
11.7
(53.1)
5.0
(41.0)
16.7
(62.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−0.9
(30.4)
0.6
(33.1)
5.5
(41.9)
12.7
(54.9)
18.3
(64.9)
22.5
(72.5)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
21.7
(71.1)
15.9
(60.6)
8.5
(47.3)
2.1
(35.8)
13.1
(55.6)
Average low °C (°F)−3.2
(26.2)
−1.9
(28.6)
2.3
(36.1)
8.9
(48.0)
14.4
(57.9)
19.0
(66.2)
22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
19.1
(66.4)
13.1
(55.6)
5.8
(42.4)
−0.2
(31.6)
10.2
(50.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)13.5
(0.53)
8.5
(0.33)
20.9
(0.82)
29.3
(1.15)
50.6
(1.99)
62.6
(2.46)
147.0
(5.79)
140.4
(5.53)
68.6
(2.70)
29.7
(1.17)
22.3
(0.88)
21.6
(0.85)
615.0
(24.21)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)6.45.04.76.26.28.511.710.37.16.26.27.586.0
Average relative humidity (%)59585451596578796759595962
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration [10]
Source 2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971–2000) [11]

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Yantai administers 12 county-level divisions, including 5 districts, 6 county-level cities, and one development zone. (开发区)

These are further divided into 148 township-level divisions, including 94 towns, six townships, and 48 subdistricts.

Map

Economy

Yantai is currently the second largest industrial city in Shandong, next to Qingdao. However, the region's largest industry is agriculture. It is famous throughout China for a particular variety of apple and Laiyang pear, and is home to the country's largest and oldest grape winery, Changyu. [12]

Modern day Chateau Changyu, Yantai, Shandong Chateau-Changyu.jpg
Modern day Chateau Changyu, Yantai, Shandong

The county-level city of Longkou is well known throughout China for its production of cellophane noodles.[ citation needed ]

Power

Yantai derives most of its energy from a large coal power plant using bituminous coal, and fitted with coal gasification technology to minimize pollution. [13] The plant is located close to Yantai port. [14] An attempt to switch northern China from coal to natural gas resulted in shortages, and in 2017 the Chinese government implemented a new plan to convert half of northern China to clean energy for winter heating. [15] Haiyang, a city under Yantai's prefecture, is anticipated to meet its total winter heating needs with nuclear power by 2021. [16]

Industrial Zones

Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area

Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area is one of the earliest approved state-level economic development zones in China. It now has a planned area of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) and a population of 115,000. It lies on the tip of the Shandong Peninsula facing the Yellow Sea. It adjoins downtown Yantai, merely 6 kilometers away from Yantai Port and 6 kilometers away from Yantai Railway Station (not to be confused with Yantai South Railway Station). [17]

Yantai Export Processing Zone

Yantai Export Processing Zone (YTEPZ) is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council. The total construction area of YTEPZ is 4.17 km2 (1.61 sq mi), in which the initial zone covers 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi). After developing for several years, YTEPZ is completely constructed. At present, the infrastructure has been completed, with standard workshops of 120,000 m2 (1,300,000 sq ft) and bonded warehouses of 40,000 m2 (430,000 sq ft). Up to now, owing to an excellent investment environment, YTEPZ has attracted investors from foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden, the United States, Canada, etc., as well as domestic investors, to operate in the zone. [18]

Education

The following is a list of prominent Yantai higher education institutions.

China Agricultural University and Binzhou Medical College house campuses in Yantai.

It houses a Korean international school, Korean School in Yantai.

Chefoo School previously educated foreign children.

Transport

Yantai Penglai International Airport provides scheduled flights to major airports in China as well as Seoul, Osaka, and Hong Kong. [19] The Lancun–Yantai railway ends at Yantai. [20]

Tourism

Yantai Ship Mast Yantai Ship Mast.jpg
Yantai Ship Mast
Temple of the Sea Goddess Yantai Temple of Sea Goddess.jpg
Temple of the Sea Goddess

Penglai City's Dan Cliffs (丹崖) is said to be the departure point of the Eight Immortals on their trip to the Conference of the Magical Peach. [ citation needed ] It is important to note that Penglai is around 80 km from the city centre of Yantai.

Twin towns – sister cities

[ citation needed ]

CountryCity
Brazil Vitória
United States San Diego
Japan Beppu
New Zealand Tauranga
Japan Miyako
South Korea Gunsan
Thailand Phuket
Scotland Angus
South Korea Wonju
South Korea Ulsan
Sweden Örebro
Bulgaria Burgas
France Quimper
France Angers
South Korea Incheon
South Korea Ansan
United States Omaha
Australia Mackay Isaac Whitsunday
Spain Alcala De Henares

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. Postal Map Romanization
  2. In 1872, 233 British vessels entered the port with 97,239 tons of cargo valued at £144,887 and 348 ships of all other nationalities entered with 149,197 tons of cargo valued at £177,168. [1]
  3. Total imports and exports were valued at £2,724,000 in 1880, £4,228,000 in 1899, and £4,909,908 in 1904. The 905 vessels in 1895 had a total tonnage of 835,248; the 1842 in 1905 held 1,492,514 tons. [4]

Related Research Articles

Penglai District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Penglai, formerly known as Dengzhou or Tengchow, is a district belonging to the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong Province, in the People's Republic of China. It lies on the northwest corner of the Shandong Peninsula on the southern coast of the Gulf of Bohai. The city is famous for its mirages out at sea, which are frequent during May and June.

Dongying Prefecture-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Dongying, a prefecture-level city, lies on the northern coast of Shandong province, People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, 2,035,338 people resided within its administrative area of 7,923.26 km2 (3,059.19 sq mi) and 998,968 in the built-up area made up of Dongying district and Kenli County largely being urbanized. Dongying is home to the Shengli Oilfield which after the Daqing oilfield is the second largest oilfield in China.

Muping District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Muping District, formerly also known as Ninghai or Ninghaichow, is a district administered by the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong province, People's Republic of China, and is the easternmost county-level division of Yantai.

Laiyang County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Laiyang city is a county-level city within Yantai bordering Qingdao, located in the middle of the Shandong Peninsula, in Shandong province, China. The majority (70%) of its population are farmers and it is famous for producing the Laiyang pear. As of 2010, it had a population of 923,000.

Longkou County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Longkou, formerly Huang County, is a port city in northeastern Shandong province, China, facing the Bohai Sea to the north and the Laizhou Bay to the west. Longkou, a county-level city, is administered by the prefecture-level city of Yantai. The total population of Longkou is 620,000.

Rushan, Shandong County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Rushan is a county-level city in the prefecture-level city of Weihai, Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the Shandong Peninsula, Rushan borders Yantai to the north and looks out to the Yellow Sea to the south.

Haiyang County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Haiyang, a coastal city in Shandong province in eastern China, located on the Yellow Sea (southern) coast of the Shandong Peninsula. It is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yantai.

Laizhou County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Laizhou, alternately romanized as Laichow, is a county-level city in Yantai Prefecture, Shandong Province, China. As of 2008, Laizhou had a population of 902,000, out of which 188,000 are urban residents.

Yantai Laishan Airport

Yantai Laishan Airport is a military airport in Yantai in Shandong, China. It formerly also served as the civil airport of Yantai, until it was replaced by Yantai Penglai International Airport which was opened on 28 May 2015. It is about 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) from the city center and covers an area over 45.79 acres (185,300 m2).

Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area (YEDA), is an economic development zone established in 1984 in Shandong Province, China. It is near the Yellow Sea coast, and administratively under Yantai Prefecture. It covers 228 km2 and has a population of 400,000. Before its creation, most of the area were fishing villages. Now it is an industrial and famous tourist site in Shandong

Zhifu District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Zhifu District is an urban district of the prefecture-level city of Yantai in Shandong Province, China.

Laixi County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Laixi is a county-level city of Qingdao sub-provincial city, Shandong Province, China.

Fushan District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Fushan is a district of the city of Yantai, Shandong province, near the shore of the Bohai Gulf.

Laishan District District in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Laishan District is a district of the city of Yantai, Shandong province. It has an area of 258 square kilometres (100 sq mi) and around 181,200 inhabitants (2003).

Qixia, Shandong County-level city in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Qixia is a landlocked county-level city of the Shandong Peninsula, and is under the administration of Yantai City, Shandong province.

Yantai Penglai International Airport

Yantai Penglai International Airport is an airport serving the city of Yantai in Shandong Province, China. It is located 43 kilometres (27 mi) from the city center, near the town of Chaoshui in Penglai, a county-level city administered by Yantai.

Ludong University

Ludong University is a public university based in Zhifu district of Yantai, Shandong province, China. Founded in 1958, it was first known as Yantai Teachers College (烟台师范专科学校) and since 1984 as Yantai Normal University (烟台师范学院). The school was awarded full university status in 2006. Ludong University has developed into a comprehensive university, offering 48 majors in arts and sciences.

Shanqiandian Town in Shandong, Peoples Republic of China

Shanqiandian is a town in Laiyang, Yantai, in eastern Shandong province, China.

The Port of Longkou is an artificial deep-water international seaport on the coast of Longkou, Yantai Prefecture, Shandong, People's Republic of China. It is located on the northern shore of Shandong Peninsula, opening to the Laizhou Bay of the Bohai Sea.

Korean School in Yantai is a Korean international school in Laishan District, Yantai, Shandong, China.

References

Citations

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