Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)

Last updated
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Part of the Arab Winter, the Yemeni Crisis and the Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict/Qatar–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict
Yemeni Civil War.svg
Military situation in Yemen on 13 February 2019
  Controlled by the Supreme Political Council (Houthis)
  Controlled by the Hadi-led government and allies
(For a map of the military situation in Yemen and border areas in Saudi Arabia, see here.)
Date19 March 2015 – ongoing
(3 years and 11 months)
Location
Status

Ongoing

Territorial
changes
As of May 2016: AQAP controls 36% of the country (193,000 km²) [1]
Main belligerents

Flag of Yemen.svg Supreme Political Council

Flag of Yemen.svg Hadi government

Saudi-led coalition
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia [15]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates [16]
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal [17]
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan [18] [19]
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco [20] (2015–19) [21]
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar [18] (2015–17) [22]
Academi security contractors [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

Contents

Flag of the United States.svg Green Berets [28] [29]
Flag of France.svg French Army Special Forces Command [30] [31] [32]
Academi


Flag of South Yemen.svg Southern Transitional Council (from 2017) [38]
Flag of Yemen.svg Tareq Saleh forces (from 2017) [39] [40]

ShababFlag.svg Al-Qaeda [45] [46] [47]
ShababFlag.svg Ansar al-Sharia

Support:
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates [49] [50]


AQMI Flag asymmetric.svg ISIL-YP [51] [52]
Commanders and leaders

Flag of Yemen.svg Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi
Flag of Yemen.svg Ali Mohsen (2016–)
Flag of Yemen.svg Khaled Bahah (2015–16)
Flag of Yemen.svg Hussein Arab (until 2017)
Flag of Yemen.svg Ahmed Saleh (2017–) [12]
Flag of Yemen.svg Tareq Saleh (2017–)
Saudi-led coalition:
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg King Salman
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Muhammad bin Salman
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Khalifa bin Zayed
Flag of Qatar.svg Tamim bin Hamad (2015–17)
Flag of Sudan.svg Omar al-Bashir
Flag of Senegal.svg Macky Sall
Flag of Morocco.svg Mohamed VI

ShababFlag.svg Nasir al-Wuhayshi  
ShababFlag.svg Qasim al-Raymi
ShababFlag.svg Nasser al-Ansi  
ShababFlag.svg Ibrahim al-Rubaish  
ShababFlag.svg Khalid Batarfi
ShababFlag.svg Ibrahim al Qosi [90]


ShababFlag.svg Abu Bilal al-Harbi [91]
Strength

Flag of Yemen.svg Supreme Political Council:

Houthis Logo.png 150,000–200,000 fighters [92]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg 100 warplanes and 150,000 soldiers (claim) [93]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg 30 warplanes [94]
Flag of Bahrain.svg 15 warplanes [94] and 300 troops [95]
Flag of Kuwait.svg 15 warplanes [94]
Flag of Qatar.svg 10 warplanes and 1,000 soldiers [94] [96]
Flag of Jordan.svg 6 warplanes [94]
Flag of Morocco.svg 6 warplanes [94] and 1,500 troops [94] [20]
Flag of Sudan.svg 4 warplanes and 6,000 troops [97] [98]
Flag of Senegal.svg 2,100 troops [94]
Flag of Egypt.svg 4 warships [99] and warplanes [100]
Academi: 1,800 security contractors [101]

ShababFlag.svg Ansar al-Sharia


ShababFlag.svg ISIL: 300 [106]
Casualties and losses

"Thousands" killed (per Al Jazeera; as of May 2018) [107]

11,000+ killed (Arab Coalition claim; as of December 2017) [108]

Flag of Yemen.svg Unknown
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg 1,000 [107] –3,000 [109] soldiers killed
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg 120–200 soldiers killed [110] [111]
Flag of Sudan.svg 1,000 soldiers killed [112]
Flag of Bahrain.svg 8 soldiers killed [113]

Flag of Qatar.svg 4 soldiers killed [114]
Flag of Morocco.svg 1 soldier killed [115]
15 Academi security contractors killed (Dec. 2015) [116]
ShababFlag.svg 1,000 killed, 1,500 captured [117]

60,223–83,700 killed overall in Yemen [118] [119] (6,592 civilians) [120]
500+ killed overall in Saudi Arabia [121]
49,960 wounded overall in Yemen [122]
3,154,572 people displaced [123]

84,701 children died from starvation (per Save the Children) [124] and 2,556 people died due to a cholera outbreak (April 2017–October 2018) [125]

The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the internationally recognized Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen. [126] Houthi forces controlling the capital Sana'a, and allied with forces loyal to the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, have clashed with forces loyal to the government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, based in Aden. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have also carried out attacks, with AQAP controlling swathes of territory in the hinterlands, and along stretches of the coast. [127]

Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi Yemeni mashal and politician

Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi is a Yemeni politician and former Field Marshal of the Yemeni Armed Forces. He has been the President of Yemen since 27 February 2012, and was Vice President from 1994 to 2012.

Yemen Republic in Western Asia

Yemen , officially known as the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Yemen is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands.

Ali Abdullah Saleh President of North Yemen from 1978 to 1990; President of Yemen from 1990 to 2011

Ali Abdullah Saleh was a Yemeni politician who served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic from July 1978, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi, to 22 May 1990, when he became the first President of Yemen following Yemeni unification. He led the country until his resignation on 25 February 2012 following the Yemeni Revolution.

On 21 March 2015, after taking over Sana'a and the Yemeni government, the Houthi-led Supreme Revolutionary Committee declared a general mobilization to overthrow Hadi and further their control by driving into southern provinces. [128] The Houthi offensive, allied with military forces loyal to Saleh, began on the next day with fighting in Lahij Governorate. By 25 March, Lahij fell to the Houthis and they reached the outskirts of Aden, the seat of power for Hadi's government; [129] Hadi fled the country the same day. [130] [131] Concurrently, a coalition led by Saudi Arabia [18] launched military operations by using airstrikes to restore the former Yemeni government; the United States provided intelligence and logistical support for the campaign. [15] According to the UN and other sources, from March 2015 to December 2017, 8,670–13,600 people were killed in Yemen, including more than 5,200 civilians, as well as estimates of more than 50,000 dead as a result of an ongoing famine due to the war. [122] [132] [133] The conflict has widely been seen as an extension of the Iran-Saudi Arabia proxy conflict and as a means to combat Iranian influence in the region. [134] [135] In 2018, the United Nations warned that 13 million Yemeni civilians face starvation in what it says could become "the worst famine in the world in 100 years." [136]

Houthi takeover in Yemen takeover by the Houthis

The Houthi takeover in Yemen, also known as the September 21 Revolution, or 2014–15 coup d'état, was a gradual armed takeover by the Houthis and supporters of former Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh that pushed the Yemeni government from power. It had origins in Houthi-led protests that began the previous month, and escalated when the Houthis stormed the Yemeni capital Sana'a on 21 September 2014, causing the resignation of Prime Minister Mohammed Basindawa, and later the resignation of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and his ministers on 22 January 2015 after Houthi forces seized the presidential palace, residence, and key military installations, and the formation of a ruling council by Houthi militants on 6 February 2015.

Supreme Revolutionary Committee

The Supreme Revolutionary Committee, sometimes referred to as the Revolutionary Council or the Revolutionary Committee, is an interim body in Yemen formed by the Zaidiyyah Shia group Ansar Allah. In their 6 February 2015 "constitutional declaration" after seizing control of the Yemeni capital and much of former North Yemen, and the failure of Thursday talks between the Houthis and Yemen’s many political parties that were aimed at forming a government to replace Hadi and his cabinet, the group declared the committee would act as Yemen's interim authority. The committee was given the task of forming a new 551-seat parliament, which would then select a five-member presidential council to rule the country for two years.

Lahij Governorate Governorate in Republic of Yemen

Lahij is a governorate of Yemen.

The international community have sharply condemned the Saudi Arabian-led bombing campaign, which has included widespread bombing of civilian areas. [137] Despite this, however, the crisis has not gained as much international media attention as compared to the Syrian civil war until recently. [138] [139]

Background

Ansar Allah (sometimes Anglicised as Ansarullah), known popularly as the Houthis, is a Zaidi group with its origins in the mountainous Sa'dah Governorate on Yemen's northern border with Saudi Arabia. They led a low-level insurgency against the Yemeni government in 2004 [140] after their leader, Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, was killed in a government military crackdown [141] [142] following his protests against government policies. [143] [144] The intensity of the conflict waxed and waned over the course of the 2000s, with multiple peace agreements being negotiated and later disregarded. [145] [146] The Houthi insurgency heated up in 2009, briefly drawing in neighbouring Saudi Arabia on the side of the Yemeni government, but quieted the following year after a ceasefire was signed. [147] [148] During the early stages of the Yemeni Revolution in 2011, Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Houthi declared the group's support for demonstrations calling for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. [149] Later in the year, as Saleh prepared to leave office, the Houthis laid siege to the Salafi-majority village of Dammaj in northern Yemen, a step toward attaining virtual autonomy for Sa'dah. [150]

Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam

Zaidiyyah or Zaidism is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadhi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah emerged in the eighth century out of Shi'a Islam. Zaidis are named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī, the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī and the son of their fourth Imam Ali ibn 'Husain. Followers of the Zaydi Islamic jurisprudence are called Zaydi and make up about 30% of Muslims in Yemen, with the vast majority of Shia Muslims in the country being Zaydi.

Saudi Arabia Country in Western Asia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, geographically the fifth-largest in Asia, second-largest in the Arab world after Algeria and 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south. It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East as of October 2018 and the 18th largest in the world. The total number of population of Saudi Arabia is 33.4 million with 50% of youth population are under 25.

Houthi insurgency in Yemen civil war in Northern Yemen

The Houthi insurgency in Yemen, also known as the Houthi rebellion, Sa'dah War, or Sa'dah conflict, was a military rebellion pitting Zaidi Shia Houthis against the Yemeni military that began in Northern Yemen and has since escalated into a full-scale civil war. The conflict was sparked in 2004 by the government's attempt to arrest Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, a Zaidi religious leader of the Houthis and a former parliamentarian on whose head the government had placed a $55,000 bounty. Initially, most of the fighting took place in Sa'dah Governorate in northwestern Yemen, but some of the fighting spread to neighbouring governorates Hajjah, 'Amran, al-Jawf and the Saudi province of Jizan. Since 2014 the nature of the insurgency has changed with the Houthi takeover in Yemen and then into the ongoing Yemeni civil war (2015–present) with a major Saudi-led intervention in Yemen beginning in 2015.

The Houthis boycotted a single-candidate election in early 2012 meant to give Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi a two-year term of office. [151] They participated in a National Dialogue Conference, but withheld support from a final accord in early 2014 that extended Hadi's mandate in office for another year. [152] [153] Meanwhile, the conflict between the Houthis and Sunni tribes in northern Yemen spread to other governorates, including the Sana'a Governorate by mid-2014. [154] After several weeks of street protests against the Hadi administration, which made cuts to fuel subsidies that were unpopular with the group, the Houthis came to blows with Yemen Army forces under the command of General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar. In a battle that lasted only a few days, Houthi fighters seized control of Sana'a, the Yemeni capital, in September 2014. [155] The Houthis forced Hadi to negotiate an agreement to end the violence, in which the government resigned and the Houthis gained an unprecedented level of influence over state institutions and politics. [156] [157]

National Dialogue Conference

The National Dialogue Conference (NDC) was a transitional dialogue process held at the Movenpick Hotel in Sana'a, Yemen from March 18, 2013 to January 24, 2014, as part of the Yemeni crisis reconciliation efforts.

Ali Mohsen Saleh al-Ahmar, sometimes spelled "Muhsin", is the Vice President of Yemen. He is a general of the Yemeni army and was the commander of the northwestern military district and the 1st Armoured Division. He played a leading role in the creation of the General People's Congress. Mohsen has a good relationship with Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

In January 2015, unhappy with a proposal to split the country into six federal regions, [158] Houthi fighters seized the presidential compound in Sana'a. The power play prompted the resignation of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and his ministers. [153] [159] The Houthi political leadership then announced the dissolution of parliament and the formation of a Revolutionary Committee to govern the country on 6 February 2015. [160]

Federalization of Yemen

The federalization of Yemen or the Federal Republic of Yemen was the final outcome of the National Dialogue Conference, the Dialogue members also agreed that Yemen would be transformed into a 6-region federal system. The regions would be Azal, Saba, Janad and Tihama in the north, Aden and Hadramawt in the south. Sana’a will have a special status and not be part of any region. Aden, the former southern capital, would also have a special status but will be part of Aden region. Azal, Saba, Janad and Tihama would be northern provinces where Aden and Hadramawt would be southern. The proposal also includes changing the title of "Governorate" to "state".

House of Representatives (Yemen) legislature of Yemen

The House of Representatives is the legislature of Yemen. The Assembly of Representatives has 301 members, elected for a six-year term in single-seat constituencies. The last election took place in 2003. The election was set for 27 April 2009, but president Saleh postponed them by two years on 24 February 2009. However, they did not take place on 27 April 2011 either and they were planned to be held alongside the next presidential election, sometime in February 2014. In January 2014, the final session of the National Dialogue Conference (NDC) announced that both elections had been delayed, and would occur within 9 months of a referendum on a new constitution which had yet to be drafted. However both the GPC and Houthi representatives on the National Authority for Monitoring the Implementation of NDC Outcomes have refused to vote on the new constitution drafted by the constitution drafting committee, which submitted it in January 2015.

On 21 February, one month after Houthi militants confined Hadi to his residence in Sana'a, he slipped out of the capital and traveled to Aden. In a televised address from his hometown, he declared that the Houthi takeover was illegitimate and indicated he remained the constitutional president of Yemen. [161] [162] [163] His predecessor as president, Ali Abdullah Saleh—who had been widely suspected of aiding the Houthis during their takeover of Sana'a the previous year—publicly denounced Hadi and called on him to go into exile. [164]

Allegations of outside support

On April 2015, United States National Security Council spokeswoman Bernadette Meehan stated that: "It remains our assessment that Iran does not exert command and control over the Houthis in Yemen" [165] [166]

The Houthis have long been accused of being proxies for Iran, since they both follow Shia Islam (although the Iranians are Twelve-Imam Shias and the Houthis are Zaidi Shia). The United States and Saudi Arabia have alleged that the Houthis receive weapons and training from Iran. [167] The Houthis and Iranian government have denied any affiliation. [168] The African nation of Eritrea has also been accused of funneling Iranian material to the Houthis, [169] as well as offering medical care for injured Houthi fighters. [170] The Eritrean government has called the allegations "groundless" and said after the outbreak of open hostilities that it views the Yemeni crisis "as an internal matter". [169]

The Yemeni government, meanwhile, has enjoyed significant international backing from the United States and Persian Gulf monarchies. U.S. drone strikes were conducted regularly in Yemen during Hadi's presidency in Sana'a, usually targeting Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. [171] The United States was also a major supplier of weapons to the Yemeni government, although according to the Pentagon, hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of that material has gone missing since it was delivered. [172] Saudi Arabia provided financial aid to Yemen until late 2014, when it suspended it amid the Houthis' takeover of Sana'a and increasing influence over the Yemeni government. [173] According to Amnesty International, the United Kingdom also supplied weaponry used by Saudi-led coalition to strike targets in Yemen. [174]

Timeline

Conflict begins

Troops loyal to Hadi clashed with those who refused to recognise his authority in the Battle of Aden Airport on 19 March 2015. The forces under General Abdul-Hafez al-Saqqaf were defeated, and al-Saqqaf himself reportedly fled toward Sana'a. [175] In apparent retaliation for the routing of al-Saqqaf, warplanes reportedly flown by Houthi pilots bombed Hadi's compound in Aden. [176]

After the 2015 Sana'a mosque bombings on 20 March 2015, in a televised speech, Abdul-Malik al-Houthi, the leader of the Houthis, said his group's decision to mobilize for war was "imperative" under current circumstances and that Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and its affiliates—among whom he counts Hadi—would be targeted, as opposed to southern Yemen and its citizens. [177] President Hadi declared Aden to be Yemen's temporary capital while Sana'a remained under Houthi control. [178] [179]

Also, the same day as the mosque bombings, al-Qaeda militants captured the provincial capital of Lahij, Al Houta District, after killing about 20 soldiers, before being driven out several hours later. [180]

Political developments

Hadi reiterated in a speech on 21 March that he was the legitimate president of Yemen and declared, "We will restore security to the country and hoist the flag of Yemen in Sana'a, instead of the Iranian flag." [181] He also officially declared Aden to be Yemen's "economic and temporary capital" due to the Houthi occupation of Sana'a, which he pledged would be retaken. [182]

In Sana'a, the Houthi Revolutionary Committee appointed Major General Hussein Khairan as Yemen's new defence minister and placed him in overall command of the military offensive. [183] [184]

Control of Taiz

Houthi forces backed by troops loyal to Saleh entered Taiz, Yemen's third-largest city, on 22 March and quickly took over its key points. They encountered little resistance, although one protester was shot dead and five more were injured. [185] [186] [187] Western media outlets began to suggest Yemen was sliding into civil war as the Houthis from the north confronted holdouts in the south. [188] [189] [190]

Western Yemen advance

On 23 March 2015, Houthi forces advanced towards the strategic Bab-el-Mandeb strait, a vital corridor through which much of the world's maritime trade passes. [191] The next day, fighters from the group reportedly entered the port of Mocha. [192] [193] On 31 March, Houthi fighters entered a coastal military base on the strait after the 17th Armoured Division of the Yemen Army opened the gates and turned over weapons to them. [194]

On 2 April, Mahamoud Ali Youssouf, the foreign minister of Djibouti, said the Houthis placed heavy weapons and fast attack boats on Perim and a smaller island in the Bab-el-Mandeb strait. He warned that the weapons posed "a big danger" to his country, commercial shipping traffic, and military vessels. [195]

Southern offensive

Battle of Dhale

Houthi forces seized administrative buildings in Dhale (or Dali) amid heavy fighting on 24 March, bringing them closer to Aden. [196] However, Houthi fighters were swiftly dislodged from Ad Dali' and Kirsh by Hadi-loyal forces. [197]

Fighting over Dhale continued even as the Houthis advanced further south and east. On 31 March, Hadi loyalists clashed with the Houthis and army units loyal to Saleh. [198] The next day, a pro-Houthi army brigade was said to have "disintegrated" after being pummeled by coalition warplanes in Ad Dali. The commander of the 33rd Brigade reportedly fled, and groups of pro-Houthi troops withdrew to the north. [199]

Three Saudi F-15Cs from 13th Squadron Three F-15C Saudi from 13 Squadron.jpg
Three Saudi F-15Cs from 13th Squadron

The city reportedly fell into pro-government hands by the end of May. [200]

Fighting in Lahij

In the Lahij Governorate, heavy fighting erupted between Houthis and pro-Hadi fighters on 24 March. [196] The next day, Al Anad Air Base, 60 kilometers from Aden, was captured by the Houthis and their allies. The base had recently been abandoned by United States of America US SOCOM troops. [201] [202] Defence Minister Mahmoud al-Subaihi, one of Hadi's top lieutenants, was captured by the Houthis in Al Houta and transferred to Sana'a. [203] [204] Houthi fighters also advanced to Dar Saad, a small town, 20 km north of Aden. [205]

On 26 March, after clashes erupted in Aden, Hadi loyalists counterattacked as a Saudi-led military intervention got underway. Artillery shelled Al Anad Air Base, forcing some of its Houthi occupants to flee the area. [206] Saudi airstrikes also hit Al Anad. [207] Despite the airstrikes, the southern offensive continued. [208] [209]

Fighting reaches Aden

Houthi offensive on Aden Battle of Aden 2015 (Houthi attack).svg
Houthi offensive on Aden
Pro-government counteroffensive Battle of Aden 2015 (Hadi attack).svg
Pro-government counteroffensive

In Aden, military officials said militias and military units loyal to Hadi had "fragmented" by 25 March, speeding the rebel advance. They said the rebels were fighting Hadi's troops on five different fronts. [210] Aden International Airport suspended all flights. [211] Fighting reached Aden's outskirts on 25 March, with pro-Saleh soldiers taking over Aden International Airport and clashes erupting at an army base. [212] [213] Hadi reportedly fled his "temporary capital" by boat as the unrest worsened. [204] The next day, he resurfaced in the Saudi capital, Riyadh, where he arrived by plane and was met by Saudi Prince Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud. [130]

Over the following days, Houthi and allied army forces encircled Aden [214] [215] and hemmed in Hadi's holdouts, although they encountered fierce resistance from the embattled president's loyalists and armed city residents. They began pressing into the city center on 29 March despite coalition airstrikes and shelling from Egyptian Navy warships offshore. [216] On 2 April, the compound that has been used as a temporary presidential palace was taken by the Houthis, [217] and fighting moved into the central Crater and Al Mualla districts. [218]

A small contingent of foreign troops were reportedly deployed in Aden by early May, fighting alongside anti-Houthi militiamen in the city. Saudi Arabia denied the presence of ground troops, [219] while Hadi's government claimed the troops were Yemeni special forces who had received training in the Persian Gulf and were redeployed to fight in Aden. [220]

President Hadi meets U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 7 May 2015 Secretary Kerry Shakes Hands With Yemeni President Hadi Before Bilateral Meeting in Saudi Arabia (17212641020).jpg
President Hadi meets U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 7 May 2015

It is reported that forces loyal to Hadi have recaptured Aden with support from the Saudi Arabian government, this has allowed supplies to finally reach the port city giving civilians well needed aid. Pro-government fighters fully recaptured Aden from Houthi fighters on 21 July in Operation Golden Arrow after months of fighting. At this point, the pro-government fighters had recaptured more than 90% of the Province of Aden.

On 22 July a Saudi military plane landed in Aden international airport filled with relief aid. On 21 July, a UN ship docked in Aden carrying much-needed relief supplies, the first UN vessel to reach the city in four months. Another ship sent by the UAE also delivered medical aid. On 21 July a UAE technical team had arrived to repair the tower and passenger terminal at Aden international airport, heavily damaged in clashes. On 24 July a military plane from the UAE arrived filled with relief aid. [221] On 4 August, Houthi rebels were pushed back from the Al-Anad airbase, by Pro-Hadi forces. [222] On 17 October, Saudi Arabia confirmed the arrival of Sudanese troops into Aden for the purpose of bolstering the Saudi-led coalition. [223] [224] In January 2016, new conflict began in Aden, with ISIL and AQAP controlling neighborhoods in the city. [225]

Other campaigns

Abyan Governorate

The Houthis racked up a series of victories in the Abyan Governorate east of Aden in the days following their entrance into Hadi's provisional capital, taking control of Shuqrah and Zinjibar on the coast and winning the allegiance of a local army brigade, but they also encountered resistance from both pro-Hadi army brigadiers and al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula militants. [226] Zinjibar and Jaar were recaptured by AQAP on 2 December. [227] In 20 February 2016 the southern Abyan also captured by AQAP linked them with their headquarters in Mukalla. [228]

Sana'a Governorate

As of February 2016, loyalist forces have managed to enter Sana'a governorate by capturing the Nihm District killing dozens of Houthi fighters. They continued advance capturing some cities and villages. [229]

Hadhramaut Governorate

Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula took control of Mukalla in the eastern Hadhramaut Governorate on 2 April, driving out soldiers defending the city with mortar fire and springing some 300 inmates from prison, including a local al Qaeda leader. [230] [231] Local tribal fighters aligned with Hadi surrounded and entered Mukalla two days later, retaking parts of the city and clashing with both al-Qaeda militants and army troops. [232] Still, the militants remained in control of about half of the town. In addition, al-Qaeda fighters captured a border post with Saudi Arabia in an attack that killed two soldiers. [233]

On 13 April 2015, Southern militia said they took control of the army base loyal to the Houthis near Balhaf. [234]

Mukalla City was recaptured from AQAP in late April 2016, after UAE and Hadi loyalists troops entered the city, killing some 800 AQAP fighters. [235]

Lahij Governorate

Although the Houthis took control of Lahij on the road to Aden, resistance continued in the Lahij Governorate. Ambushes and bombings struck Houthi supply lines to the Aden front, with a landmine killing a reported 25 Houthi fighters on their way to Aden on 28 March. [236]

Shabwah Governorate

Fighting also centered on the Shabwa Province, in the oil-rich Usaylan region, where Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and Ansar al-Sharia hold sway. On 29 March, 38 were killed in fighting between the Houthis and Sunni tribesmen. Tribal sources confirmed the death toll, and claimed only eight of them were from their side, with the other 30 either Houthis or their allies from the Yemeni military. [237]

On 9 April, the Houthis and their allies seized the provincial capital of Ataq. The takeover was facilitated by local tribal chiefs and security officials. [238] AQAP seized Azzan, and Habban in early February 2016. [239] [240]

Elsewhere

In the province of Ma'rib, six members of pro Hadi tribes were killed during fighting against Houthis on 22 March. [186] The next day, 15 Houthis and 5 tribesmen were killed in clashes in the Al Bayda Governorate. [241] During fighting between Hadi loyalists and Houthi militiamen in Sana'a, the Ethiopian embassy was reportedly struck by shelling on 3 April. The Ethiopian government said the attack appeared to be unintentional. No injuries at the embassy were reported. [242]

Armed tribesmen drove off Houthis who had set up a makeshift camp in southern Ibb Governorate and seized their weapons on 7 April. [243] Between 17 and 18 April, at least 30 people were killed when the Houthis and allied army units attacked a pro-Hadi military base in Taiz. The dead included 8–16 pro-Hadi and 14–19 Houthi fighters, [244] [245] as well as three civilians. [246] Another report put the number of dead at 85. [247] On the morning of 19 April, 10 more Houthi and four pro-Hadi fighters were killed. [248]

A pro-Hadi official claimed 150 pro-Houthi and 27 tribal fighters had been killed in fighting in Ma'rib province between 2 and 21 April. [249] On 4 September a Houthi missile hit an ammunition dump at a military base in Ma'rib killing 45 UAE, 10 Saudi and 5 Bahraini soldiers. [250] On 16 October, Houthis and allied forces reportedly seized control of a military base in the town of Mukayris, pushing opponents out of southern Bayda. [251] On 6 January 2016, Hadi loyalists captured the strategic port of Midi District, but insurgents backed by the Houthi government continued making attacks in and around the city.

Military intervention

Saudi-led intervention in Yemen

Saudi soldier from the First Airborne Brigade conversing with an Emirati soldier in Yemen, June 2016. Saudi soldier from the First Brigade Airborne near to Emirates soldier.jpg
Saudi soldier from the First Airborne Brigade conversing with an Emirati soldier in Yemen, June 2016.
A pro-Saleh protest in Sana'a against the Saudi-led intervention, March 2016 Yemenites voulaient arreter les bombardements F-16 avions de combat - panoramio.jpg
A pro-Saleh protest in Sana'a against the Saudi-led intervention, March 2016

In response to rumours that Saudi Arabia could intervene in Yemen, Houthi commander Ali al-Shami boasted on 24 March 2015 that his forces would invade the larger kingdom and not stop at Mecca, but rather Riyadh. [252]

The following evening, answering a request by Yemen international recognized government, Saudi Arabia began a military intervention alongside eight other Arab states and with the logistical support of the United States against the Houthis, bombing positions throughout Sana'a. In a joint statement, the nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council (with the exception of Oman) said they decided to intervene against the Houthis in Yemen at the request of Hadi's government. [253] [254] [255] King Salman of Saudi Arabia declared the Royal Saudi Air Force to be in full control of Yemeni airspace within hours of the operation beginning. [256] The airstrikes were aimed at hindering the Houthis' advance toward Hadi's stronghold in southern Yemen. [257]

Al Jazeera reported that Mohammed Ali al-Houthi, a Houthi commander appointed in February as President of the Revolutionary Committee, was injured by an airstrike in Sana'a on the first night of the campaign. [258]

Reuters reported that planes from Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Sudan, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain are also taking part in the operation. [18] Iran condemned the Saudi-led airstrikes and urged an immediate end to attacks on Yemen. [259] Saudi Arabia requested that Pakistan commit forces as well, but Pakistan's parliament officially voted to remain neutral. [260] However, Pakistan agreed to provide support in line with a United Nations Security Council resolution, dispatching warships to enforce an arms embargo against the Houthis. [94] [261]

The bombing campaign was officially declared over on 21 April 2015, with Saudi officials saying they would begin Operation Restoring Hope as a combination of political, diplomatic, and military efforts to end the war. [262] Even still, airstrikes continued against Houthi targets, and fighting in Aden and Ad Dali' went on. [263]

The United Arab Emirates has also spearheaded an active role against fighting AQAP and ISIL-YP presence in Yemen through a partnership with the United States. In an Op-Ed in The Washington Post Yousef Al Otaiba, the UAE ambassador to the United States, described that the intervention has reduced AQAP presence in Yemen to its weakest point since 2012 with many areas previously under their control liberated. [264] The ambassador claimed that more than 2,000 militants have been removed from the battlefield, with their controlled areas now having improved security and a better delivered humanitarian and development assistance such as to the port city of Mukalla and other liberated areas. [264] An Associated Press investigation outlined that the military coalition in Yemen actively reduced AQAP in Yemen without military intervention, instead by offering them deals and even actively recruiting them in the coalition because "they are considered as exceptional fighters". [265] UAE Brigadier General Musallam Al Rashidi responded to the accusations by stating that Al Qaeda cannot be reasoned with and cited that multiple of his soldiers have been killed by them. [266] The UAE military stated that accusations of allowing AQAP to leave with cash contradicts their primary objective of depriving AQAP of its financial strength. [267] The notion of the coalition recruiting or paying AQAP has been thoroughly denied by the United States Pentagon with Colonel Robert Manning, spokesperson of the Pentagon, calling the news source "patently false". [268] The governor of Hadramut Faraj al-Bahsani, dismissed the accusations that Al Qaeda has joined with the coalition rank, explaining that if they did there would be sleeper cells and that he would be "the first one to be killed". According to The Independent, AQAP activity on social media as well as the number of terror attacks conducted by them has decreased since the Emirati intervention. [267]

A certification and assurance was announced by US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo stating that maximum efforts are being taken by the Saudi-led coalition to avoid civilian casualties in order to legally authorize American military to refuel coalition military aircraft and has affirmed to continued its support. [269] The Spanish government initially cancelled the sale of 400 laser-guided bombs to Saudi Arabia, however they have since reversed the decision. [270]

Arab League

In Egypt, the Yemeni foreign minister called for an Arab League military intervention against the Houthis. [253] Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi floated the idea of a unified military force. [271]

The Arab League announced the formation of a unified military force to respond to conflict in Yemen and Libya. [272]

Drone strikes

President Barack Obama and CIA Director John O. Brennan met with Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) leaders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on April 21, 2016

Since the mid-2000s, the United States has been carrying out targeted killings of Al-Qaeda militants in Yemen, although the U.S. government generally does not confirm involvement in specific attacks conducted by unmanned aerial vehicles as a matter of policy. The Bureau of Investigative Journalism documented 415 strikes in Pakistan and Yemen by 2015 since the September 11 attacks, and according to the organization's estimates, between 423 and 962 deaths are believed to have been civilians. However, Michael Morell, former deputy director of the CIA, affirmed that the numbers were significantly lower. [273]

During the civil war in Yemen, drone strikes have continued, targeting suspected leaders of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. Ibrahim al-Rubeish and Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi, two leading AQAP figures, were killed by U.S. drone strikes in the vicinity of Mukalla in 2015. [274] [275] Approximately 240 suspected AQAP militants have been killed by American drone strikes since the civil war began. [276]

In 2013 Radhya Al-Mutawakel and Abdelrasheed Al-Faqih, Directors of Mwatana, published a joint report with Open Society Foundation s titled 'Death by Drone', detailing evidence of civilian casualties and damage to civilian objects in nine US drone strikes. [277]

Islamic State presence and operations

The Islamic State (IS) has proclaimed several provinces in Yemen and has urged its adherents to wage war against the Houthi movement, as well as against Zaydis in general. [278] ISIS militants have conducted bombing attacks in various parts of the country, particularly against mosques in Sana'a. [279] [280]

On 6 October 2015, IS militants conducted a series of suicide bombings in Aden that killed 15 soldiers affiliated with the Hadi-led government and the Saudi-led coalition. [281] The attacks were directed against the al-Qasr hotel, which had been a headquarters for pro-Hadi officials, and also military facilities. [281] Yemeni officials and UAE state news agency declared that 11 Yemeni and 4 United Arab Emirates soldiers were killed in Aden due to 4 coordinated Islamic State suicide bombings. Prior to the claim of responsibility by the Islamic State, UAE officials blamed the Houthis and former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, for the attacks. [281]

May 2015 truce

A five-day ceasefire proposed by Saudi Arabia was accepted by the Houthis and their allies in the military on 10 May 2015. The ceasefire was intended to allow the delivery of humanitarian aid to the country. [282] The temporary truce began on the night of 12 May to allow the delivery of food, water, medical, and fuel aid throughout the country. [283]

On the fourth day of the truce, the fragile peace unraveled as fighting broke out in multiple southern governorates. At least three civilians in Aden and 12 in Taiz were killed on 16 May, despite the ceasefire. [284] Agence France-Presse reported that "dozens" were killed in southern Yemen by the clashes, including 26 Houthi and 12 pro-Hadi fighters. [285]

Omani Initiative

Around the same time reports surfaced in the media suggesting that Oman, which is the only Middle Eastern Monarchy not taking part in the coalition and has a border with Yemen, has presented a 7-point plan to both Houthis and Saudi Arabia. The Houthis accepted the peace talks and the 7-point plan while Saudi Arabia and Hadi government refused negotiations with the Houthis. [286] It has also been suggested that Oman was responsible to mediate a 24-hour ceasefire although analysts doubted if Oman could help bring about more rigid negotiations. [287] [288]

The following parts constituted the planned initiative:

  • The withdrawal of the Houthis and forces loyal to deposed president Ali Abdullah Saleh from all Yemeni cities and the return of military hardware and munitions seized from the Yemeni Army.
  • The restoration of the president Abd Rabbo Mansour Hadi and the government of Khalid Bahah.
  • Early parliamentary and presidential elections.
  • An agreement signed by all Yemeni parties.
  • The conversion of Ansarullah into a political party.
  • An international aid conference attended by donor states.
  • Yemen entering the Gulf Cooperation Council.

Sabeen square mass demonstration

On Saturday, 20 August 2016, there were demonstrations at Satin Sana'a's Sabeen square to show support for the Higher Political Council, the Shia Houthi rebel governing body and former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh. The head of council pledged to form a full government within days. [289] [290] The crowd size was variously placed at tens of thousands [289] and hundreds of thousands. [290] The crowd's demands were "quickly rejected by the United Nations and the country's internationally recognized government." [290] Meanwhile, Saudi planes roared above the population and bombed nearby leaving an unknown number of casualties. [291]

2017

On 29 January, the Yakla raid occurred. U.S. Navy SEALs executed a raid, President Barack Obama’s national security aides had reviewed the plans for a risky attack. Mr. Obama did not act because the Pentagon wanted to launch the attack on a moonless night and the next one would come after his term had ended. With only 5 days in Office President Trump was given the task; the raid caused several civilian casualties, with "a chain of mishaps and misjudgments" leading to a 50-minute shootout that led to the killing of one SEAL, the wounding of three other SEALs, and the deliberate destruction of a $75 million U.S. MV-22 Osprey aircraft that had been badly damaged on landing. [292] The U.S. government reported that 14 Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula fighters were killed and acknowledged that "civilian noncombatants likely were killed" as well. [293] Human Rights Watch, citing witness statements, reported the death of 14 civilians, including nine children. [294]

From 1 to 8 March 2017, the US conducted 45 airstrikes against AQAP, a record amount of airstrikes conducted against the group by the US in recent history. The airstrikes were reported to have killed hundreds of AQAP militants. [295] [296]

On 25 March 2017 a court in the Houthi-controlled Sana'a sentenced Hadi and six other government officials to death in absentia for "high treason" in the form of "incitement and assistance to Saudi Arabia and its allies". [297] [298] The sentence was announced by the Houthi-controlled Saba News Agency. [297]

In May 2017, ISIL's Wilayats in Yemen released their videos, claiming attacks upon both government, Houthi and AQAP targets. One, they recorded their attack upon a Houthi target, then assassinating government troops and tribal members. Then posting their suicide attacks.

On 22 July 2017, Houthis and forces loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh launched a retaliation missile (called Volcano H-2) on Saudi Arabia targeting the oil refineries in the Yanbu Province of Saudi Arabia. Houthis and Ali Saleh media have claimed that the missile hit its target causing a major fire, while Saudi Arabia has claimed that it was due to the extreme heat that caused one of the generators to blow up. [299]

On 27 July 2017, Houthis and forces loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh launched approximately 4 Volcano 1 missiles at King Fahad Air Base, the Houthis and Saleh said that the missiles had successfully hit their targets, whereas Saudi Arabia said that it was able to shoot down the missiles claiming that the Houthis real goal was to hit Mecca. [300]

CNN reported that on 1 October 2017, a US MQ-9 Reaper drone was shot down north of Sanaa, the Houthi-controlled Defense Ministry said that it had "downed" the drone. [301] Also, sometime in late 2017, in a gradual escalation of U.S. military action, a group of U.S. Army commandos arrived to seek and destroy Houthi missiles near the Saudi Arabian border. In public statements, the U.S. government has tried to keep secret the extent of its involvement in the conflict since the Houthis pose no direct threat to America. [302]

CNN reported that on 16 October 2017, the US carried out its first airstrikes specifically targeting ISIS-YP, the strikes targeted two ISIS training camps in Al Bayda Governorate. A US Defense official told CNN that there were an estimated 50 fighters at the camps, the Pentagon said in a statement that the camps’ purpose was to "train militants to conduct terror attacks using AK-47s, machine guns, rocket-propelled grenade launchers and endurance training." strikes disrupted the organization's attempts to train new fighters; the strikes were carried out in cooperation with the government of Yemen. [303]

On 2 December 2017, Ali Abdullah Saleh formally split with the Houthis, calling for a dialogue with Saudi Arabia to end the civil war. [304] Clashes in Saana ensued. [305] On 4 December 2017, Saleh was attacked and later killed by Houthi fighters while trying to flee Sanaa. [306] Shortly after his death, Saleh's son, Ahmed Saleh, called for Saleh's forces to split from the Houthis. [307]

On 7 December 2017, troops loyal to Hadi captured the strategic coastal town of Al-Khawkhah in western Yemen (115 km south of Al Hudaydah) from the Houthis. It was the first time in 3 years forces loyal to Hadi had entered the Al Hudaydah Governorate. [308]

On 16 December 2017, troops loyal to Hadi captured the cities of Beihan and Usaylan, officially ending Houthi Presence in any major city that is a part of the Shabwah Governorate.

The Arab coalition placed the number of enemy fighters killed at 11,000 as of December 2017. [108]

2018

The southern separatists represented by the Southern Transitional Council were backing the Hadi government against the Houthis, but tensions erupted in January 2018 with the separatists accusing the government of corruption and discrimination. Gun battles erupted in Aden on 28 January 2018 after the deadline set by the separatists for Hadi to dismiss his cabinet elapsed. Pro-STC forces seized a number of government offices, including the Hadi government's headquarters. [309] By 30 January, the STC had taken control of most of the city. [310]

On 3 March 2018, fighting between Yemen's Houthi Ansarullah movement and Saudi-backed troops left over 55 people dead in the Nihm District in Yemen's north, with many more wounded; on the same day, fighting between the opposing groups killed at least 25 people along the western coast of Yemen. [311] Also in early March 2018, Houthi fighters killed four Saudi "sharpshooters" in retaliation for Saudi Arabia's numerous attacks on Yemen. [312]

On 8 March 2018, the Saudi-led coalition conducted airstrikes across Yemen that left 9 Yemeni civilians (including women and children) dead. [313] The following day, Houthi rebels launched an attack on a military site in Jizan. [314]

On 2 April 2018, the Saudi-led coalition bombed a residential housing area in Al Hudaydah, killing at least 14 civilians and wounding nine. [315]

On 7 April 2018, according to pro-Houthi Shiite News, dozens of Sudanese troops were ambushed and killed by Houthis which led to calls for Sudan to stop fighting in the war in Yemen. [316]

On 9 April 2018, another series of airstrikes by Saudi Arabia killed at least 22 civilians in Yemen, with more injured. [317] A few days later, on 12 April, Saudi Arabia bombed the set of a TV series in western Yemen, killing two people. [316] Another series of airstrikes by Saudi Arabia hit Yemen on 16 April, which left at least six civilians (including at least one child) dead, with several others wounded. [318]

On 19 April 2018, another series of Saudi killed at least five civilians and injured several others. [319] In response to Saudi Arabia's aggression against Yemen, Houthi forces hit a "mercenary camp" in Saudi Arabia with artillery and rocket fire (which killed and wounded some people at the mercenary camp), targeted a power plant in the Najran region of Saudi Arabia, and targeted an airport in Jizan. [320] Saudi Arabia later carried out a series of airstrikes in northwestern Sa'ada that destroyed three houses, as well as an aerial attack in southwestern Yemen that left 20 people dead. [321] The same day, two leaders of Al-Qaeda in Yemen were killed on Thursday after a security raid was carried out by Yemeni forces in the province of Abyan. The security sources said that the leaders of al-Qaeda in Yemen, Murad Abdullah Mohammed al-Doubli, nicknamed "Abu Hamza al-Batani" and Hassan Baasrei were killed after a raid by security forces in the Al-Qaeda stronghold. Also known as Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula or AQAP, Al-Qaeda are primarily active in Yemen. The U.S government believes AQAP to be the most dangerous al-Qaeda brands. [322]

On 22 April 2018, the Saudi-led coalition carried out airstrikes on a wedding in Hajjah, a town in northwestern Yemen; the airstrikes left at least 33 people dead and 41 wounded. The attack consisted of two missiles that hit several minutes apart. [323] Most of the people killed were women (including the bride at the wedding) and children. Ambulances were not able to get to the site of the attack at first, because, as jets were continuing to fly overhead after the attack, there were concerns about further airstrikes. [324]

Houthi media outlets announced on 23 April 2018 that a Houthi political leader had been killed in an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition the previous week. [323] Also on 23 April, an aerial attack by Saudi Arabia in Hajjah killed 18 people and wounded 13 others, while another airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition in Saada killed at least three people and wounded two others. [325] The same day, Yemen announced that it had fired two missiles at an oil facility in Jizan, a Saudi province near the Saudi-Yemeni border. [326]

On 25 April 2018, Houthi forces destroyed a tank of the Saudi-led coalition on the western coast of Yemen. It was also reported by Yemen's official news agency that 13 Saudi led troops had been killed or wounded in several parts of Yemen. [326] Later in April 2018, another series of Saudi airstrikes across a period of 24 hours killed at least eight civilians across Yemen, seven of whom were women and children. At least 10 other civilians were injured as a result of the airstrikes. [327]

On 6 May 2018, a Yemeni ballistic missile hit Saudi military positions in Asir. Two Saudi troops were also killed by Houthi snipers in the Haskul military base in Jizan. At around the same time, Saudi Arabia was bombing various parts of northern Yemen: a Saudi bombing in Sa'ada killed five members of a family, and Saudi air raids in Hudaydah left two civilians killed. Saudi Arabia also bombed Hajjah, which ended up being bombed 10 times over a 24-hour period. [328]

On 7 May 2018, airstrikes by the Saudi-led coalition hit Yemen's presidency building. The attack left at least 6 people dead, all of whom were civilians. 30 people were also wounded in the airstrikes. [329] The following day, clashes between the Houthis and pro-Hadi forces in Taiz allegedly left dozens of Hadi militants killed, with several others wounded. [330]

On 9 May 2018, Houthi forces fired ballistic missiles at "economic targets" in Riyadh. According to Colonel Aziz Rashed, a military spokesman for the Houthi Ansarullah movement, the missile attack was revenge for Saudi Arabia's airstrikes in Yemen. [331]

On 10 May 2018, separate Saudi-led airstrikes on Yemeni residential areas killed two entire families. One of the airstrikes, which targeted a house in Sana'a, killed a father, mother, and two children from the same family, as well as two other civilians, in addition to wounding six people (including three children). [332] Also on 10 May, Houthi forces claimed to have destroyed two Abrams tanks of the Saudi army in Jizan. [333]

On 11 May 2018, it was reported that cluster bombs made by the United States were being used by Saudi Arabia on their airstrikes that were targeting civilians. [334] Also on 11 May, the United Nations Human Rights office reported that April had been the deadliest month to date in 2018 in Yemen, with 236 civilian deaths and 238 civilian injuries in April alone; this was an increase from the 180 civilian casualties in March of that year. [335] On 14 May, the Houthis fired a ballistic missile (that had been domestically manufactured) at a Saudi Aramco oil facility in Jizan. Pro-Houthi forces also shot down a Saudi reconnaissance drone in Jizan (in southwestern Saudi Arabia). [336] On 17 May, Houthi forces fired another ballistic missile at a military base in Lahij, in southwestern Yemen, that was run by Saudi soldiers. [337] Also on 17 May, Amnesty International said that heavy fighting near Al Hudaydah has displaced tens of thousands of people. It also warned that "the worst could be yet to come," as Saudi-backed militants were advancing towards the Houthi-controlled area. Amnesty International also said that clashes along the western coast of Yemen had displaced around 100,000 people in recent months, with most people from Al Hudaydah Governorate. It added that it was "a glimpse of what potentially lies in store on a wider scale if the fighting encroaches on the densely populated port city." [338] On 18 May, another Houthi missile was fired into Jizan, in southwestern Saudi Arabia. The missile was reported to have struck Jazan Economic City. Also on 18 May, over a dozen Saudi soldiers were killed and injured by Houthi snipers and their allies. [339] On 21 May, Houthi forces fired a ballistic missile targeting Jizan Airport. [340] Also on 21 May, the Saudi-led coalition launched 11 airstrikes on the Kitaf district of Saada, in northern Yemen. Saudi rockets and artillery shells also hit several border areas, which inflicted heavy casualties on houses and farms of citizens. [341] Further, on the night of 21 May, clashes were reported to have started between forces of the UAE and Qatar in the Taiz province of Yemen. [342]

On 22 May, 10 Saudi soldiers and five Saudi commanders were allegedly killed in an attempt to restore a series of mountains in Jizan. [343] On 24 May, it was reported that a Houthi missile targeted a Saudi port in Jizan, [344] at dawn on 25 May, Yemeni forces fired a ballistic missile at a Saudi military camp in Najran. [345] It was also reported on 25 May that airstrikes by the Saudi-led coalition killed 7 civilians, in addition to injuring some other civilians, in the Taiz and Saada provinces of Yemen. [346] On 26 May, Houthi forces announced that military drones had bombarded a Saudi airport in Asir for the second time in over a month. The attack led to the suspension of flights to and from the airport. Also on 26 May, a Saudi bulldozer near the Alab border crossing was destroyed by Houthi artillery fire. [347] Further, also on that day, eight airstrikes by the Saudi-led coalition hit Al Hudaydah Governorate, while another airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition on a gas station in Sana'a killed at least four people and wounded at least 10 others. [348] Also towards the end of May 2018, dozens of pro-Hadi troops were killed and injured along Yemen's western coast. [349] On 28 May, a Saudi commander was killed in Jizan, and a military vehicle with troops in Najran was destroyed. [350] On 30 May, Houthi air forces downed a spy plane in Asir. [351] Also on 30 May, Houthi fighters destroyed Saudi military vehicles. [352]

In late May 2018, pro-Hadi troops prepared to launch a siege on Hudaydah. Colonel Sadiq Duwaid of the pro-Hadi forces stated, "First, we will cut off supply lines, especially between [the capital] Sana'a and Hudaydah, then we will place the Houthis under siege." The spokesperson of the United Nations Secretary-General warned that "increased fighting would unleash even more internally displaced people," and Amnesty International warned that fighting near the port of Hudaydah had already displaced tens of thousands of people. It also warned against clashes spreading to urban areas. [352]

On 1 June 2018, Houthi forces shot down a Saudi helicopter gunship of the Saudi army in an attack that killed all those on board. [353] Also on 1 June, the spokesman for the pro-Houthi forces warned the United Arab Emirates that Abu Dhabi was no longer safe from retaliatory missiles. [354] On 4 June, the leader of Houthi movement claimed that Israeli warplanes had been detected flying over Hudaydah. [355] [356]

On 4 June 2018, Yemen's Red Sea Ports Corporation said that a vessel used by the United Nation's World Food Programme was attacked after it delivered a shipment in Hudaydah, which is under a blockade by the Saudi-led coalition. Mark Lowcock, the United Nations aid chief, said that no one was injured, but criticized anyone who was attempting to disrupt aid delivery in Hudaydah. The suspect was not known at the time. [357]

On 8 and 9 June 2018, heavy fighting began in al-Durayhmi and Bayt al-Faqih, 10 and 35 kilometers from the port city of al-Hudaydah, respectively. The United Nations warned that a military attack or a siege on the city could cost up to 250,000 lives. [358] On 10 June, it was reported that the United Nations had withdrawn from Hudaydah. [359] Also on 10 June, it was reported that so far, 600 people had died in recent days as the battle intensified. [360] Further, also on 10 June, Al Jazeera published an article containing reports of alleged torture in Houthi prisons in Yemen. [361]

On 12 June, it was reported that an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition hit a Doctors Without Borders building. This was despite markings on the roof of the building identifying it as a building of health care and despite the fact that its coordinates had been shared with the coalition. No one was hurt in the attack, but the newly constructed building suffered significant damage. [362]

On 4 July 2018, a United Nations report stated that over 121,000 Yemenis had fled Hudaydah due to the attack on the port city by the Saudi-led coalition. [363] On 6 July, Houthi forces fired a domestic ballistic missile at a "strategic economic target" in Jizan in southwestern Saudi Arabia. [364]

On 9 August, a Saudi-led airstrike attack on a school bus in Yemen killed 40 young school children and 11 adults. The 227 kg laser-guided bomb used in the attack was purchased by Saudi Arabia from the US, which has also been supporting the coalition with intelligence and refueling. [365]

On 13 December, a truce was called in Hudaydah, a port city in Yemen. [366] Warring parties agreed to have a ceasefire in the crucial place, which is a lifeline for half the country. The Houthi rebels agreed to have all forces withdraw from Hudaydah in the following days, same as those from the Yemeni government alliance who were fighting them there, both being replaced by United Nations-designated "local troops".

2019

On January 8, 2019, the Council on Foreign Relations listed this conflict as a conflict to watch during 2019. [367] Similarly, the Italian Institute for International Political Studies also claimed it to be a conflict to watch in 2019. [368]

Sporadic exchanges of fire and other ceasefire violations have been reported between Houthi forces and coalition troops around Hudaydah in January. [369]

Humanitarian situation

CNN reported on 8 April 2015 that almost 10,160,000 Yemenis were deprived of water, food, and electricity as a result of the conflict. The report also added per sources from UNICEF officials in Yemen that within 15 days, some 100,000 people across the country were dislocated, while Oxfam said that more than 10 million Yemenis did not have enough food to eat, in addition to 850,000 half-starved children. Over 13 million civilians were without access to clean water. [370]

A medical aid boat brought 2.5 tonnes of medicine to Aden on 8 April 2015. [371] A UNICEF plane loaded with 16 tonnes of supplies landed in Sana'a on 10 April. [372] The United Nations announced on 19 April 2015 that Saudi Arabia promised to provide $273.7 million in emergency humanitarian aid to Yemen. The UN appealed for the aid, saying 7.5 million people had been affected by the conflict and many were in need of medical supplies, potable water, food, shelter, and other forms of support. [373]

On 12 May 2015, Oxfam warned that the five days a humanitarian ceasefire was scheduled to last would not be sufficient to fully address Yemen's humanitarian crisis. [283] It has also been said that the Houthis are collecting a war tax on goods. The political analyst Abdulghani al-Iryani affirmed that this tax is: "an illegal levy, mostly extortion that is not determined by law and the amount is at the discretion of the field commanders". [374]

As the war dragged on through the summer and into the fall, things were made far worse when Cyclone Chapala, the equivalent of a category 2 Hurricane, [375] made landfall on 3 November 2015. According to the NGO Save the Children, the destruction of healthcare facilities and a healthcare system on the brink of collapse as a result of the war will cause an estimated 10,000 preventable child deaths annually. Some 1,219 children have died as a direct result of the conflict thus far. Edward Santiago, the NGO's Yemen director, asserted in December 2016: [376]

Even before the war tens of thousands of Yemeni children were dying of preventable causes. But now, the situation is much worse and an estimated 1,000 children are dying every week from preventable killers like diarrhoea, malnutrition and respiratory tract infections.

On March 2017, the World Food Program reported that while Yemen was not yet in a full-blown famine, 60% of Yemenis, or 17 million people, were in "crisis" or "emergency" food situations. [377]

In June 2017 a cholera epidemic resurfaced which was reported to be killing a person an hour in Yemen by mid June. [378] News reports in mid June stated that there had been 124,000 cases and 900 deaths and that 20 of the 22 provinces in Yemen were affected at that time. [379] UNICEF and WHO estimated that, by 24 June 2017, the total cases in the country exceeded 200,000, with 1,300 deaths. [380]

On 7 June 2018, it was reported that the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) had pulled 71 of its international staff out of Yemen, and moved the rest of them to Djibouti, with some 450 ICRC employees remaining in the country. The partial evacuation measure came on the eve of an ICRC worker, a Lebanese national, being killed on 21 April by unknown gunmen in the southwestern city of Taiz. The ICRC stated "our current activities have been blocked, threatened and directly targeted in recent weeks, and we see a vigorous attempt to instrumentalise our organisation as a pawn in the conflict." In light of the serious security deterioration for ICRC personnel, the international organisation has called for all parties of the conflict "to provide it with concrete, solid and actionable guarantees so that it can continue working in Yemen." Since the beginning of the conflict, more than 10,000 people have been killed and at least 40,000 wounded, mostly from air raids. [381]

War crime accusations

Destroyed house in the south of Sanaa, 13 June 2015 Destroyed house in the south of Sanaa 12-6-2015-4.jpg
Destroyed house in the south of Sanaa, 13 June 2015

According to Farea Al-Muslim, direct war crimes have been committed during the conflict; for example, an IDP camp was hit by a Saudi airstrike, while Houthis have sometimes prevented aid workers from giving aid. [382] The UN and several major human rights groups discussed the possibility that war crimes may have been committed by Saudi Arabia during the air campaign. [383]

Human Rights Watch (HRW) wrote that the Saudi-led air campaign that began on 26 March 2015, had "conducted airstrikes in apparent violation of the laws of war, such as the March 30 attack on a displaced persons camp in Mazraq, northern Yemen, that struck a medical facility and a market". HRW also said that the Houthis had "unlawfully deployed forces in densely populated areas and used excessive force against peaceful protesters and journalists". In addition, HRW said that by providing logistical and intelligence assistance to coalition forces, "the United States may have become a party to the conflict, creating obligations under the laws of war". [384] Other incidents noted by HRW that had been deemed as "indiscriminate or disproportionate" or "in violation of the laws of war" were: a strike on a dairy factory outside the Red Sea port of Hodaida (31 civilian deaths); [385] a strike that destroyed a humanitarian aid warehouse of the international aid organization Oxfam in Saada; [386] the Saudi Arabia-led coalition's blockade of Yemen which kept out fuel desperately needed for the Yemeni population's survival. [387]

Amnesty International said that several Saudi Arabian–led airstrikes, documented by it, hit five densely populated areas (Sa'dah, Sana'a, Hodeidah, Hajjah and Ibb), and "raise concerns about compliance with the rules of international humanitarian law". [388] [389] Amnesty International added, that according to its research, at least 139 people, including at least 97 civilians (33 of whom were children) were killed during these strikes, and 460 individuals were injured (at least 157 whom are civilians). [388] HRW also said that pro-Houthi fighters may have committed war crimes when two women were killed in Yemen and aid workers were arrested for two weeks. [390]

U.N. Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen, Johannes van der Klaauw, said that air strikes by the Saudi-led coalition on Sa'ada city in Yemen, where many civilians were trapped, were in breach of international humanitarian law, despite calls for civilians to leave the area. Scores of civilians were reportedly killed and thousands forced to flee their homes after the Saudi-led coalition declared the entire governorate a military target, he said. [391] [392] Van der Klaauw also said that coalition strikes had targeted schools and hospitals, in breach of international law, [393]

Yemeni capital Sanaa after airstrikes, 9 October 2015 Months after an airstrike on a neighborhood populated by black Yemenis or "Muhamasheen" more than a hundred buildings still remain in rubble and survivors continue to search for any valuables - Sanaa - Yemen - Oct-9-2015.png
Yemeni capital Sanaa after airstrikes, 9 October 2015

A group of 17 aid agencies working in Yemen condemned the growing intensity of airstrikes in the north of Yemen on 8 and 9 May 2015. Save the Children's Country Director in Yemen, Edward Santiago, said that the "indiscriminate attacks after the dropping of leaflets urging civilians to leave Sa'ada raises concerns about the possible pattern being established in breach of International Humanitarian Law". [394] Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Monitor has claimed that Houthi militias in alliance with the militants of exiled former president Ali Abdullah Saleh killed purposely at least 22 civilians in Taiz. According to eyewitnesses, the militants launched Katyusha rockets targeting the markets and residential neighbourhoods in the center of Taiz. As a result, many civilians were killed and wounded. On the other hand, local media belonging to Houthi militias have denied such accusation, accusing Saudi and ISIS for committing these attacks. [395]

In December 2015, HRW claimed that six "unlawful airstrikes" were carried out in the capital by the Saudi-led coalition in September and October, which killed 60 civilians. They also criticized the United States, a party to the conflict, for refusing to investigate the attacks. [396] In January 2016, local sources in the Yemeni capital of Sana'a reported that a Saudi-led coalition airstrike targeted the Noor Center for the Blind. [397] On 8 October 2016, a Saudi-led airstrike on a funeral ceremony that killed roughly 100 people and injured 500, including children. HRW is calling the attack an apparent war crime. [398]

In November 2017, U.S. Senator Chris Murphy accused the United States of complicity in war crimes and the humanitarian crisis on the Senate floor, stating "there is a humanitarian catastrophe inside this country – that very few people in this nation can locate on a map – of absolutely epic proportion. This humanitarian catastrophe – this famine … is caused, in part, by the actions of the United States of America." [399]

On 28 August 2018, at a Pentagon news conference in Washington, US Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said that the US would continue to support the Saudi-led coalition. In spite of a commitment by Saudi that "everything humanly possible" would be done and no damage to innocent lives would be caused, the increased civilian casualties in Yemen war remain unexplained. [400] UN's first report after the coalition claims this to be the world's worst humanitarian crisis, where more than 10,000 have been killed. The report also claims that the governments of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen, may be responsible for war crimes, such as rape, torture and use of child soldiers. [401]

Refugees

Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa across the Bab-el-Mandeb strait from Yemen, has received an influx of refugees since the start of the campaign. [195] [402] [403] Refugees also fled from Yemen to Somalia, arriving by sea in Somaliland and Puntland starting 28 March. [404] [405] On 16 April 2015, 2,695 refugees of 48 nationalities were reported to have fled to Oman in the past two weeks. [406]

According to Asyam Hafizh, an Indonesian student who was studying in Yemen, Al-Qaeda of Yemen has rescued at least 89 Indonesian civilians which trapped in the conflict. Later on he arrived in Indonesia and he told his story to local Media. [407] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported in August 2015 that a total of almost 100,000 people fled Yemen, especially to regional countries, like Saudi Arabia and Djibouti. [408] In September 2016, UNHCR estimated displacement of 2.4 million Yemenis within the country and 120,000 seeking asylum. [409]

Evacuation of foreign nationals from Yemen

Registration of Indian citizens evacuating from Yemen in March, 2015 Registration of Indian citizens evacuating from Yemen in progress (2015) - 1.jpg
Registration of Indian citizens evacuating from Yemen in March, 2015

The Royal Saudi Navy evacuated diplomats and United Nations staff from Aden to Jeddah on 28 March 2015. [410]

Pakistan dispatched two special PIA flights to evacuate some 500 stranded Pakistanis on 29 March 2015. [411] Several UN staff members and Arab diplomats were also evacuated following the airstrikes. [412]

The Indian government responded by deploying ships and planes to Yemen to evacuate stranded Indians. India began evacuating its citizens on 2 April by sea. [413] An air evacuation of Indian nationals from Sana'a to Djibouti started on 3 April, after the Indian government obtained permission to land two Airbus A320s at the airport. [414] The Indian Armed Forces carried out rescue operation codenamed Operation Raahat and evacuated more than 4640 overseas Indians in Yemen along with 960 foreign nationals of 41 countries. [415] The air evacuation ended on 9 April 2015 while the evacuation by sea ended on 11 April 2015. [416] The United States has assets in the region, but through its Yemen diplomatic mission website, instructed its citizens to evacuate using Indian assistance. [417]

A Chinese missile frigate docked in Aden on 29 March to evacuate Chinese nationals from Yemen. [418] The ship reportedly deployed soldiers ashore on 2 April to guard the evacuation of civilians from the city. [419] Hundreds of Chinese and other foreign nationals were safely evacuated aboard the frigate in the first operation of its kind carried out by the Chinese military. [420] The Philippines have announced that 240 Filipinos were evacuated across the Saudi border to Jizan, before boarding flights to Riyadh and then to Manila. [421]

The Malaysian government have deployed two Royal Malaysian Air Force C-130 aircraft to evacuate their citizens. [422] On 15 April, around 600 people have been evacuated by Malaysia which also comprising other Southeast Asian countries citizens such as 85 Indonesians, 9 Cambodians, 3 Thais and 2 Vietnamese. [423] The Indonesian Air Force also sent a Boeing 737-400 and a chartered aircraft to evacuate Indonesian citizens. [424]

The Ethiopian Foreign Ministry said it would airlift its citizens out of Yemen if they requested to be evacuated. [425] There were reportedly more than 50,000 Ethiopian nationals living and working in Yemen at the outbreak of hostilities. [426] More than 3,000 Ethiopians registered to evacuate from Yemen, and as of 17 April, the Ethiopian Foreign Ministry had confirmed 200 evacuees to date. [427]

Throughout April, Russian military forces evacuated more than 1,000 people of various nationalities, including Russian citizens, to the Chkalovsky Airport, a military air base. [428]

Impact on citizens

Children and women

Anti-war activists protest U.S. Senators supporting Saudi-U.S. arms deals, December 2017 161 Code Pink at Senator Nelson (39025312181).jpg
Anti-war activists protest U.S. Senators supporting Saudi-U.S. arms deals, December 2017

Yemeni refugee female and children are extremely susceptible to smuggling and human trafficking. [429] NGOs report that vulnerable populations in Yemen were at increased risk for human trafficking in 2015 because of ongoing armed conflict, civil unrest, and lawlessness. Migrant workers from the Somalia who remained in Yemen during this period suffered from increased violence, and women and children became most vulnerable to human trafficking. Prostitution on women and child sex workers is social issue in Yemen. Citizens of other gulf states are beginning to be drawn into the sex tourism industry. The poorest people in Yemen work locally and children are commonly sold as sex slaves abroad. While this issue is worsening, the plight of Somali's in Yemen has been ignored by the government. [430] Children are recruited between the ages of 13 and 17, and as young as 10 years old into armed forces despite a law against it in 1991. The rate of militant recruitment in Yemen increases exponentially. According to an international organization, between 26 March and 24 April 2015, armed groups recruited at least 140 children. [431] According to the New York Times report, 1.8 million children in Yemen are extremely subject to malnutrition in 2018. [432]

Both the Saudi-led coalition and the Houthis were blacklisted by the UN over the deaths of children during the war. In 2016 Saudi Arabia was removed from the list after alleged pressure from Gulf countries who threatened to withdraw hundreds of millions of dollars in assistance to the UN, the decision was criticized by Human rights groups and the coalition added again in 2017 and was accused of killing or injuring 683 children, and attacking many of schools and hospitals in 38 confirmed attacks, while the Houthis were accused of being responsible for 414 child casualties in 2016. [433] [434] [435]

Education

The civil war in Yemen severely impacted and degraded the country's education system. The number of children who are out of school increased to 1.8 million in 2015–2016 out of more than 5 million registered students according to the 2013 statistics released by the Ministry of Education. [436] Moreover, 3600 schools are directly affected; 68 schools are occupied by armed groups, 248 schools have severe structural damage, and 270 are used to house refugees. The Yemen government has not been able to improve this situation due to limited authority and manpower. Some of the education system's problems include: not enough financial resources to operate schools and salaries of the teachers, not enough materials to reconstruct damaged schools, and lack of machinery to print textbooks and provide school supplies. These are caused by the unstable government that cannot offer enough financial support since many schools are either damaged or used for other purposes. Due to warfare and destruction of schools, the education ministry, fortunately, was able to send teams to oversee primary and secondary schools' final exam in order to give students 15-16 school year certificates. [436] Currently, the UNICEF is raising money to support students and fix schools damaged by armed conflicts.

Residential condition

The Yemeni quality of life is affected by the civil war and people have suffered enormous hardships. Although mines are banned by the government, the Houthi forces have placed anti-personnel mines in many parts of Yemen including Aden. [437] Thousands of civilians are injured when they accidentally step on mines; many lose their legs and injure their eyes. It is estimated that more than half a million mines have been laid by the rebels during the conflict. The Yemen army was able to remove 300,000 mines planted by the Houthi militia in liberated areas, including 40,000 mines on the outskirts of Marib province, according to official sources. [438] In addition, the nine-country coalition led by Saudi Arabia launched many airstrikes against the Houthi forces; between 2015 and 2016 more than 1920 civilians have been killed and much of the civilian infrastructure for goods and food production, storage, and distribution has been destroyed. [439] Factories have ceased production and thousands of people have lost their jobs. Due to decreased production, food, medicines, and other consumer staples have become scarce. The prices of these goods have gone up and civilians can no longer afford them for sustenance.

United Nations response

The United Nations representative Baroness Amos, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, said on 2 April that she was "extremely concerned" about the fate of civilians trapped in fierce fighting, after aid agencies reported 519 people killed and 1,700 injured in two weeks. The UN children's agency reported 62 children killed and 30 injured and also children being recruited as soldiers. [440]

Russia called for "humanitarian pauses" in the coalition bombing campaign, bringing the idea before the United Nations Security Council in a 4 April emergency meeting. [441] However, Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the United Nations questioned whether humanitarian pauses would be the best way of delivering humanitarian assistance. [442]

On 14 April 2015, the United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution placing sanctions on Abdul-Malik al-Houthi and Ahmed Ali Saleh, establishing an arms embargo on the Houthis, and calling on the Houthis to quit Sana'a and other areas they seized. [443] The Houthis condemned the UN resolution and called for mass protests. [444]

Jamal Benomar, the UN envoy to Yemen who brokered the deal that ended Ali Abdullah Saleh's presidency during the 2011–12 revolution, resigned on 15 April. [445] Mauritanian diplomat Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed, formerly the head of the UN's Ebola response mission, was confirmed as the new UN Envoy to Yemen on 25 April. [446] The Panel of Experts on Yemen mandated by the Security Council, UN submitted a 329-page report to the latter's President on 26 January 2018 denouncing the UAE, the Yemeni government and the Houthi Rebels for torturing civilians in the Yemeni conflict. [447]

In December 2018, UN-sponsored talks between the rebels and the Saudi-backed government are expected to start. The UN has also started using its jets to carry wounded Houthi rebels out of the Yemeni capital, Sanaa, for Oman, paving the way for planned peace talks after nearly four years of civil war. [448]

Other calls for ceasefire

On 4 April 2015, the International Committee of the Red Cross called for a 24-hour ceasefire to deliver aid and supplies after the Saudi-led coalition blocked three aid shipments to Yemen. [253] [449] On 5 April, Reuters quoted a Houthi leader as saying the group would be willing to sit down for peace talks if the airstrikes stopped and a neutral party acted as mediator. [450] On 7 April, China added its support of a ceasefire in Yemen, following an appeal by the ICRC and Russia for a humanitarian pause. [451]

Despite Saudi Arabia asking for Pakistan's support to join the coalition, [452] the Pakistan government has also called for a ceasefire in order to help negotiate a diplomatic solution. [453] Alongside Turkey, Pakistan has taken initiatives to arrange a ceasefire in Yemen. [454] According to analysis written in U.S. News, Pakistan's strategic calculations firmly believes that if the Saudis enter into a ground war in Yemen – with or without Pakistani military – it will become a stalemate; therefore, Pakistan is increasing its efforts to potentially help engineer a face-saving solution to achieve a ceasefire and end the war. [452]

On 12 April, Saudi Arabia rejected Iran's request about a ceasefire in Yemen. Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud al-Faisal said in the Saudi capital, Riyadh, at a news conference with his French counterpart Laurent Fabius, that "Saudi Arabia is a responsible for establishing legitimate government in Yemen and Iran should not interfere." [455] Australia called for the ceasefire in Yemen, because of the civilian casualties numbers. [456] On 16 April, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon requested an immediate ceasefire in Yemen. Also he said all parties must stop war as soon as possible. [457]

Iranian foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif submitted four-point Yemen peace plan to United Nations. In this letter he pointed to enormous civilian casualties and destruction of civilian infrastructure. He said the only way to stop the war is to require that Yemeni parties form a national unity government without any foreign military intervention. [458] Furthermore, since 21 April 2016, peace talks have started in Kuwait at the Bayan Palace. [459] In June 2015, a solution to ending the Saudi intervention in Yemen sought the participation of a Yemeni delegation to the Geneva peace talks; the delegation came under attack in the Geneva peace talks. [460]

In 10 April 2016, cease fire agreement reached in Yemen, after months of negotiation, [461] but peace talks were suspended on 6 August. [462]

Second Yemeni ceasefire attempt on 21 November 2016, collapsed within 48 hours. [463]

The U.S. and U.K. have put immense pressure on Saudi Arabia following the bombing campaign in Yemen and the brutal killing of Jamal Khashoggi, a Washington Post journalist. On 30 October 2018, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said "It is time to end this conflict, replace conflict with compromise, and allow the Yemeni people to heal through peace and reconstruction." Pompeo emphasized that the Houthi rebels must stop firing missiles at Saudi and the UAE, but he also added that "subsequently, coalition airstrikes must cease in all populated areas in Yemen," aiming at Saudi Arabia. [464] Defense Secretary Jim Mattis said all the parties involved in the war need to take part in peace talks initiated by the UN within 30 days. [465] On November 10, 2018, the U.S. announced it would no longer refuel coalition aircraft operating over Yemen. The Saudi-led coalition issued a statement confirming the decision, saying the cessation of aerial refueling was made at the request of the coalition due to improvements in their own refueling capabilities. The move is expected to have minimal impact on the Saudi effort. [466] The U.S. still provides support for the Saudi-led intervention via weapons sales and intelligence sharing. [467]

Many US Senators are upset with Trump's response on the murder of Khashoggi. The disapproval on Trump administration's support has now taken another turn as US senators have advanced a motion to withdraw American support from the Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen. The senators voted 63–37 to take forward the bipartisan motion, giving a severe blow to Trump administration, which is apparently in favour of Saudi Arabia. [468]

Other developments

Armed Houthis ransacked Al Jazeera's news bureau in Sana'a on 27 March 2015, amid Qatar's participation in the military intervention against the group. The Qatar-based news channel condemned the attack on its bureau. [469] On 28 March, Ali Abdullah Saleh stated neither he nor anyone in his family would run for president, despite recent campaigning by his supporters for his son Ahmed to seek the presidency. He also called on Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi to step down as president and said new elections should be held. [470]

Rumours about Saleh's whereabouts have swirled during the conflict. Foreign Minister Riyad Yassin, a Hadi loyalist, claimed on 4 April that Saleh left Yemen aboard a Russian aircraft evacuating foreign nationals from Sana'a International Airport. [471] Later in the month, Saleh reportedly asked the Saudi-led coalition for a "safe exit" for himself and his family, but the request was turned down. [472]

King Salman reshuffled the Saudi cabinet on 28 April, removing Prince Muqrin as his designated successor. The Saudi royal palace said Muqrin had asked to step down, without giving a reason, but media speculation was that Muqrin did not demonstrate sufficient support for the Saudi-led military campaign in Yemen. [473] A spokesman for Yemen's exiled government told Reuters on 29 April that the country would officially seek membership in the Gulf Cooperation Council. [474] Media reports have noted that the civil war has reached nearly all of Yemen, with one notable exception being the remote Indian Ocean archipelago of Socotra, [475] where the war spread due to the South Yemeni insurgency in 2017. [476] [477]

Environmental impacts

Water

Water availability in Yemen has decreased. [478] Water scarcity with an intrinsic geographical formation in highlands and limited capital to build water infrastructures and provision service caused a catastrophic water shortage in Yemen. In a vicious circulation of dehydration between climate change, the water recharge into aquifers is decreasing and salt water intrusion is increasing. [479] After the civil war began in 2015, the water buckets were destroyed significantly and price of water highly increased. Storing water has demolished by war and supply chains have been occupied by military personnel, which makes the delivery of water far more difficult. In 2015, over 15 million people need healthcare and over 20 million need clean water and sanitation—an increase of 52 percent since the intervention, but the government agencies can not afford to deliver clean water to displaced Yemeni citizens. [480]

Agriculture

The Yemen civil war resulted in a severe lack of food and vegetation. Agricultural production in the country has suffered substantially leaving Yemen to face the threat of famine. Yemen is currently under blockade by land, sea and air which has disrupted the delivery of many of the countries resources. In a country where 90% of the food requirements are met through imports, this blockade has had serious consequences concerning the availability of food to its citizens. [481] It is reported that out of the population of 24 million in Yemen, everyday 13 million are going hungry and 6 million are at risk of starvation. [481] According to reports there is strong evidence suggesting that Yemen's already limited agricultural sector is being deliberately destroyed by warring factions, exacerbating the food shortage and leaving the country dependent solely on imports to meet the food requirements of its citizens. [482]

See also

Related Research Articles

The following lists events that happened in 2015 in Yemen.

Yemeni Crisis (2011–present) began with the 2011–12 revolution against President Ali Abdullah Saleh

The Yemeni Crisis began with the 2011–12 revolution against President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had led Yemen for more than three decades. After Saleh left office in early 2012 as part of a mediated agreement between the Yemeni government and opposition groups, the government led by Saleh's former vice president, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, struggled to unite the fractious political landscape of the country and fend off threats both from Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and Houthi militants that had been waging a protracted insurgency in the north for years. In 2014, Houthi fighters swept into the capital of Sana'a and forced Hadi to negotiate a "unity government" with other political factions. The rebels continued to apply pressure on the weakened government until, after his presidential palace and private residence came under attack from the militant group, Hadi resigned along with his ministers in January 2015. The following month, the Houthis declared themselves in control of the government, dissolving Parliament and installing an interim Revolutionary Committee led by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi, a cousin of Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Houthi. However, Hadi escaped to Aden, where he declared that he remains Yemen's legitimate president, proclaimed the country's temporary capital, and called on loyal government officials and members of the military to rally to him. On 27 March 2015, BBC reported that Hadi had "fled rebel forces in the city of Aden" and subsequently "arrived in Saudi Arabia's capital Riyadh" as "Saudi authorities began air strikes in Yemen". Civil War subsequently erupted between Hadi's government and the Houthis. Since 2017 the separatist Southern Transitional Council (STC) has also fought against the government.

Aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen

The aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen refers to developments following the Houthis' takeover of the Yemeni capital of Sana'a and dissolution of the government, which eventually led to a civil war and the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.

Battle of Aden (2015) battle of the Yemeni Civil War

The Battle of Aden was a battle for the control of Aden, Yemen, between the Houthis and Yemen Army units and militias loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh on one side, and local residents, Southern Movement militias, and Yemen Army units and militias loyal to Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi on the other side.

Saudi Arabian–led intervention in Yemen

A military intervention was launched by Saudi Arabia in 2015, leading a coalition of nine countries from the Middle East and Africa, in response to calls from the internationally recognized pro-Saudi president of Yemen Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi for military support after he was ousted by the Houthi movement due to economic and political grievances, and fled to Saudi Arabia. Code-named Operation Decisive Storm, the intervention is said to be in compliance with Article 2(4) of the UN Charter by the international community; this has been contested by some academics. The intervention initially consisted of a bombing campaign on Houthi rebels and later saw a naval blockade and the deployment of ground forces into Yemen. The Saudi-led coalition has attacked the positions of the Houthi militia, and loyalists of the former President of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh, allegedly supported by Iran. The Houthis who had pressured Mansur Hadi for reforms, say that they took power through a popular revolt and are defending Yemen from a western backed invasion. The Saudi-led bombings soon expanded to most of Western Yemen including civilian targets and was followed by UAE-led deployment of ground forces in the South.

The Battle of Dhale was a key fight for control of Dhale, Yemen, between the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh on one side, and militiamen and Yemen Army units loyal to Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi on the other side.

Abyan campaign (March–August 2015)

The Abyan campaign was a campaign for control of the Abyan Governorate of Yemen, between the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh on one side, and militiamen and Yemen Army units loyal to Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi on the other side, supported by jihadists of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. The Pro-Hadi Forces recaptured the Abyan Governorate on 11 August, after launching an offensive on pro-Houthi forces in early August.

Shabwah campaign (March–August 2015)

The Shabwah campaign was a campaign for control of the Shabwah Governorate of Yemen, between the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh on one side, and militiamen and Yemen Army units loyal to Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi on the other side. The offensive have also launched during a previously started AQAP offensive.

Lahij insurgency

The Lahij insurgency was a guerrilla war waged by tribesmen loyal to Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi against the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh, who controlled most of the Lahij Governorate of Yemen. In late July, Pro-Hadi forces had launched an offensive to recapture Al Anad Air Base and rest of Lahij Governorate. On 4 August, Pro-Hadi forces had retaken full control of the Lahij Governorate.

Taiz campaign (2015–present) Conflicts in and around Taiz, Yemen, in the civil war from 2015–present

The Taiz campaign (2015–present) is a protracted military confrontation between opposing Yemeni forces in the city of Taiz for control of the city and surrounding area. The battle began one month after the start of the Yemeni Civil War.

Fall of Zinjibar and Jaar

In early December 2015, two Yemeni towns, Zinjibar and Ja'ar, were captured by the jihadist group Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). Zinjibar was retaken by pro-government forces 14 August 2016. This was the second capture and occupation of Zinjibar during unrest in Yemen. The town was earlier taken by AQAP’s in May 2011 and held until the summer of 2012.

Aden unrest (2015–present)

The Aden unrest refers to initialy ongoing conflict between Islamist factions, such as al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's Yemen Branch, against the loyalists of president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi and later to conflict between UAE-backed and Saudi-backed factions within the coalition. In 2017, fighting also broke out between factions aligned with different members of the Saudi-led coalition namely Saudi Arabia-backed Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and Al-Islah and UAE-backed separatist Southern Transitional Council and Southern Movement.

The battle of Port Midi refers to a battle between the Saudi coalition backed Hadi loyalists, and the Houthi government. Although the port has been seized by the Hadi loyalists, the Houthi fighters along with the popular committees have managed to conduct some attacks in the Midi area. The conflict also spillovers in the rest of the Hajjah region. By 26 January 2017, Hadi loyalists had extended their control to Harad District in Hajjah Region.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Yemen Province

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Yemen Province, or ISIL-YP, is a branch of the militant Islamist group Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), active in Yemen. ISIL announced the group's formation on 13 November 2014.

There have been many human rights violations committed by various groups after the Yemeni Civil War. There are two main groups involved in the ongoing conflict: forces loyal to the current Yemeni president, Abh Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, and Houthis and other forces supporting Ali Abdullah Saleh, the former Yemeni president. On 29 November 2017, fighting between forces loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh and the Houthis began in Sana'a. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have also carried out attacks in Yemen. All sides of the conflict have been accused of human rights violations. Coalition forces led by Saudi Arabia and backed by the United States and other nations have also been accused of violating human rights and in some cases, breaking international law. The coalition forces intervened at Hadi's request, in an attempt to defeat the Houthis and restore Hadi's government. Coalition attacks, especially airstrikes, have been accused of causing large scale civilian deaths, but Saudi Arabia disputes these claims. The use of force by these groups has exacerbated the humanitarian crisis situation in Yemen, as critical infrastructure has been damaged or destroyed in attacks. In addition to the attacks, blockades of critical resources, such as fuel, to Yemen by Saudi Arabia have hindered the transport of food in Yemen, and the ability of civilians to travel to locations where there are adequate medical facilities. The situation in Yemen has been described as "one of the worst crises in the world" by the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen.

The following lists events that will happen in 2016 in Yemen.

The following is a timeline of the Yemeni Civil War (2015–present), which began in March 2015 and is ongoing.

Marib Campaign

The Ma'rib campaign is a campaign for control of the Ma'rib Governorate of Yemen, between the Houthis and Yemen Army units loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh on one side, and militiamen and Yemen Army units loyal to Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi on the other side.

Battle of Al Hudaydah

The Battle of Al Hudaydah, codenamed as Operation Golden Victory, is a major Saudi-led coalition assault on the port city of Al Hudaydah in Yemen. It is spearheaded by the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia and has been considered as the largest battle since the start of Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen in 2015.

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