Location of Yichang City jurisdiction in Hubei
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Xiling District|
|• CPC Party Secretary||Huang Chuping|
|• Mayor||Ma Xuming|
|• Prefecture-level city||21,338 km2 (8,239 sq mi)|
|• Urban||4,232.4 km2 (1,634.1 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,192 km2 (1,619 sq mi)|
|Elevation||58 m (191 ft)|
|Highest elevation||2,427 m (7,963 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||35 m (115 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,059,686|
|• Density||190/km2 (490/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||330/km2 (860/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||320/km2 (830/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HB-05|
|Licence plate prefixes||鄂E|
"Yichang", as written in Chinese
Yichang (Chinese : 宜昌 ; old postal name 'Ichang') is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the second largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District. As of the 2010 census, its population was 4,059,686 inhabitants whom 1,350,150 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Yiling, Xiling, Wujiagang and Dianjun urban districts as Xiaoting District is not urbanized yet.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city; formerly known as province-administrated city from 1949 to 1983, is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC), ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs (mayors) of prefectural level cities generally have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China.
In ancient times Yichang was known as Yiling. Historical records indicate that in the year 278 BC, during the Warring States period, the Qin general Bai Qi set fire to Yiling. In 222 AD Yichang was also the site of the Battle of Yiling, during the Three Kingdoms Period.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian's choice of 475 BC is the most often cited. The Warring States era also overlaps with the second half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty, though the Chinese sovereign, known as the king of Zhou, ruled merely as a figurehead and served as a backdrop against the machinations of the warring states.
Qin was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. Traditionally dated to 897 B.C., it took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the Rong; its position at the western edge of Chinese civilization permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in the North China Plain. Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified China in 221 BC under Shi Huangdi. The empire it established was short-lived but greatly influential on later Chinese history.
Bai Qi, also known as Gongsun Qi, was a military general of the Qin state in the Warring States period of China. Born in Mei, Bai Qi served as the commander of the Qin army for more than 30 years, being responsible for the deaths of over one million, earning him the nickname Ren Tu. According to the Shiji, he seized more than 73 cities from the other six hostile states, and to date no record has been found to show that he suffered a single defeat throughout his military career. He was named by Chinese historians as one of the four greatest generals of the Warring States period, along with Li Mu, Wang Jian, and Lian Po.
Under the Qing Guangxu Emperor, Yichang was opened to foreign commerce as a trading port after the Qing and Great Britain agreed to the Chefoo Convention, which was signed by Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang in Chefoo on 21 August 1876. The imperial government set up a navigation company there and began building facilities. Since 1949, more than 50 wharves (with a total combined length of over 15 kilometres (9.3 mi)) have been constructed at the port.
The Guangxu Emperor, personal name Zaitian, was the tenth emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. His reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager Cixi's influence, only from 1889 to 1898. He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, but was abruptly stopped when the empress dowager launched a coup in 1898, after which he was put under house arrest until his death. His regnal name, "Guangxu", means "glorious succession".
The treaty ports refers to the port cities in China and Japan that were opened to foreign trade by the "unequal treaties" with the Western powers, as well as cities in Korea opened up in similar fashion by the Japanese Empire.
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Yichang was a primary supply depot for the defending Chinese army. In October 1938, as the Japanese moved up the Yangtze River towards the strategic city of Chongqing, it became clear that Yichang needed to be evacuated. In 40 days, under the direction of businessman Lu Zuofu, more than 100,000 tons of equipment and 30,000 personnel were transported upstream by steamship or by porters pulling smaller vessels through the Three Gorges rapids to Chongqing.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle.
In 1940, the Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang took place in the area.
Administratively, it is a prefecture-level city; its municipal government has jurisdiction over five counties, five urban districts, and three satellite county-level cities (Yidu, Dangyang, Zhijiang).
Dangyang is a city in western Hubei province, People's Republic of China, lying 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River. During the Western Han Dynasty. Emperor Jing of Han established an administration in Dangyang on an area of 2,000 square kilometres (770 sq mi). In 1988 the State Council of the People's Republic of China elevated this from a county to a county-level city, and is currently under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yichang.
Zhijiang is a county-level city of Yichang City, in the west of Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Until the 1990s Zhijiang was a county. It is located on the left (northern) shore of the Yangtze River, downstream from Yichang center city.
The prefecture-level city of Yichang has direct jurisdiction over 14 divisions: 5 districts ( 区 ; qū), 3 county-level cities ( 县级市 ; xiànjí shì), 3 counties ( 县 ; xiàn), and 3 autonomous counties ( 自治县 ; zìzhì xiàn).:
|Xiling District||西陵 区||Xīlíng Qū||512,074||68.14||7,515.03|
|Wujiagang District||伍家岗 区||Wǔjiāgǎng Qū||214,194||84.03||2549.02|
|Dianjun District||点军 区||Diǎnjūn Qū||103,696||533.23||194.47|
|Xiaoting District||猇亭 区||Xiāotíng Qū||61,230||130.40||469.55|
|Yiling District||夷陵 区||Yílíng Qū||520,186||3,416.57||152.25|
|Yidu||宜都 市||Yídū Shì||384,598||1,354.83||283.87|
|Dangyang||当阳 市||Dāngyáng Shì||468,293||2,148.82||217.93|
|Zhijiang||枝江 市||Zhījiāng Shì||644,835||2,010.00||321|
|Yuan'an County||远安 县||Yuǎn'ān Xiàn||184,532||1,741.06||105.99|
|Xingshan County||兴山 县||Xīngshān Xiàn||2,315.36||480.20||73.69|
|Zigui County||秭归 县||Zǐguī Xiàn||367,107||2,273.80||161.45|
| Changyang Tujia|
|长阳 土家族 自治县||Chángyáng Tǔjiāzú|
| Wufeng Tujia|
|五峰 土家族 自治县||Wǔfēng Tǔjiāzú|
Like most prefecture-level cities, Yichang includes both an urban area (what's labeled on less detailed maps as "Yichang") and the surrounding country area. It covers 21,084 square kilometres (8,141 sq mi) in Western Hubei Province, on both sides of the Yangtze River. The Xiling Gorge (西陵峡), the easternmost of the Three Gorges on the Yangtze, is located within the prefecture-level city.
Within the prefecture-level city of Yichang, the Yangtze is joined by a number of tributaries, including the Qing River (right), Xiang Xi and Huangbo Rivers (left).
The central urban area of Yichang is split between several districts. On the right (northeastern) bank of the Yangtze are located Xiling District (where the city center is located), Yiling District (neighborhoods north of the center) and Wujiagang District (southern area). The city area on the opposite (southeastern) bank of the river is included into Dianjun District. All these districts, with the exception of the central Xiling, also include a fair amount of suburban/rural area outside of the city urban core.
Yichang has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, damp and generally overcast winters, and hot, humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 4.9 °C (40.8 °F) in January to 27.7 °C (81.9 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 16.85 °C (62.3 °F). Close to 70% of the annual precipitation of 1,140 mm (45 in) occurs from May to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in January to 49% in August, the city receives 1,568 hours of bright sunshine annually, and summer is the sunniest season.
|Climate data for Yichang (1971−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.9|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.0|
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.8|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22.6|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||7.5||8.7||12.2||12.9||13.5||14.1||15.1||13.1||11.4||11.4||8.6||6.9||135.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74||72||74||74||74||77||80||78||76||75||74||73||75|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||77.0||78.9||96.8||133.2||154.1||153.0||186.2||201.3||143.6||132.6||113.6||97.2||1,567.5|
|Percent possible sunshine||24||25||26||35||37||36||43||49||39||38||36||31||35|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
Yichang Sanxia Airport is located in the Xiaoting District of Yichang City, 26 km (16 mi) away from the city center and 55 km (34 mi) from the Three Gorges Dam site. The airport is conveniently located, which borders Yihuang Highway in the north, Long River Golden Waterway in the south and Jiaozhi Railway in the east.
Several provincial highways connect Yichang center city with most counties.
Several bridges span the Yangtze River within the prefecture-level city of Yichang, including (upstream to downstream):
There are several ferry crossings as well.
Yichang is an important river port on the Yangtze river. Maoping Town (the county seat of Zigui County), has an active passenger wharf as well.
The Qing River in the southern part of the prefecture, with its cascade of dams, is an important waterway as well.
Yichang is served by several railway lines.
Yichang Railway Station, located in downtown Yichang, opened in 1971, was the city's first railway station. In 2012 it closed for a renovation project.
The Yichang East Railway Station, opened in the late 2010 in the eastern suburbs of Yichang, is presently the city's main train station. It is the junction point of two segments of the Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, one of China's new east–west rail mainlines. To the east, the Hanyi Railway(opened June 29, 2012) provides frequent service to Wuhan, with some trains continuing to Nanjing and Shanghai. To the west, the Yiwan Railway (Yichang-Wanzhou; opened December 2010) serves as the gateway to Hubei's southwestern panhandle (Enshi), with some service continuing to Chongqing and Chengdu.
The Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway, a north–south line, crosses the eastern part of the prefecture-level city. It crosses the Yangtze at Zhicheng in Yidu County-level City.
Yichang has a population of 4,150,000 with urban population of 1,338,000.Yichang prefecture-level city, is home to many members of the Tujia ethnic group, who mostly live in several counties in the south-west of the prefecture.
Yichang also formed the border between the cultures of Ba in the west (an ancient state in the eastern part of what is now Sichuan Province) and the Chu State in the east (an ancient state in what is now Hubei Province and northern Hunan Province).
Since 2002, Yichang City has been home of the China Three Gorges University (the result of the merger of the University of Hydraulic & Electric Engineering, Yichang and of Hubei Sanxia University), the largest comprehensive university in Hubei Province outside Wuhan, with over 20,400 full-time students.
There are 170 secondary schools in Yichang enrolling 150,700 students. 53,900 of the citizens in Yichang hold a secondary school degree. There are 282 elementary schools being located in Yichang enrolling 156,900. 27,600 of the citizens hold secondary school degrees. 383 kindergartens located in Yichang with 78,500 children.
Yichang has long been a major transit port and distribution center of goods, and serves as the economic hub of western Hubei province and an intermediary between the major cities of Chongqing and Wuhan. Its primary industries are shipping and shipbuilding, taking advantage of its location on the Yangtze River.
Yichang prefecture is the site of many major hydroelectricity projects. The best known of them are the two huge dams on the Yangtze River: the Gezhouba Dam (located just upstream of Yichang central city) and Three Gorges Dam, which is 40 kilometres (25 mi) upstream. The Geheyan Dam and Gaobazhou Dam on the Qing River are important as well. Besides those, a huge number of medium-sized and small power plants operate on smaller rivers and streams within the prefecture.
Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Hubei, China, located on the banks of the Yangtze River. Based on the 2010 census, its total population was 5,691,707, 1,154,086 of whom resided in the built-up area comprising the two urban districts.
Tongren is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guizhou province, People's Republic of China, located within a tobacco planting and crop agricultural area. Tongren was known as Tongren Prefecture (铜仁地区) until November 2011, when it was converted into a prefecture-level city.
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is located in the mountainous southwestern corner of Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It forms Hubei's southwestern "panhandle", bordering on Hunan in the south and Chongqing Municipality in the west and northwest. The Yangtze River crosses the prefecture's northeastern corner in Badong County.
The Xiling Yangtze River Bridge, is a suspension bridge over the Yangtze River, just a few kilometers downstream from the Three Gorges Dam. The bridge is located within Yiling District of the prefecture-level city of Yichang, connecting the towns of Taipingxi and Letianxi with Sandouping.
Xiling is a district of Yichang, Hubei, People's Republic of China. It includes the central part of Yichang's urban area, on the left (northwestern) bank of the Yangtze River.
The Hunan–Hubei–Sichuan–Guizhou Soviet, was a revolutionary base area and constituent part of the Chinese Soviet Republic (1930–1935).
Yiling District is a district of the prefecture-level city of Yichang, Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Created on July 30, 2001, the district includes most of the former Yichang County, with the exception of Yichang center city and certain southern and western suburbs.
Sandouping is a town in Yiling District of Yichang prefecture-level city in the Chinese province of Hubei. It is located on the right (southern) bank of the Yangtze River, next to Yiling District's border with Zigui County to the west. Sandouping is best known as the location of the Three Gorges Dam, which is the world's largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.
Dianjun District is a district of the city of Yichang, Hubei, People's Republic of China. In 2004 it had 105,175 residents.
Yidu is a county-level city in western Hubei Province, China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yichang. It has a population of 395,000 residents, and covers an area of 1,357 square kilometres (524 sq mi), divided into 1 subdistrict, 8 towns, and 1 township. Its GDP in 2015 was 50 billion yuan.
Changyang Tujia Autonomous County is an autonomous county in western Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yichang.
Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County, formerly Changle County, is a county in the west of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hunan province to the south. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yichang. It is twinned with Westfield, Massachusetts, United States.
Baojing County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture.
Qianjiang District is a district in the southeastern part of Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China, bordering Hubei province to the east and northeast. While it is governed as a district, in practice Qianjiang is its own city proper far removed from the urban centre of Chongqing. The Miao and Tujia ethnic groups constitute 50.03% of the Qianjiang population, the other half being mostly Han (49.94%). Qianjiang is nicknamed "The Throat of Sichuan and Hubei" (川鄂咽喉) because it sits on the intersection of Sichuan-Hubei and Sichuan-Hunan Roads.
Dzao Min, is a Hmong–Mien language of China. Mao (2004:306) reports a total of more than 60,000 speakers in Liannan County and Yangshan County of Guangdong, and in Yizhang County of Hunan. The speakers from Bapai, Guangdong are also called Bapai Yao (八排瑶族).
Taipingxi Town is a town in Yiling District of Yichang Prefecture-level city of China's Hubei Province. It is located on the left (northern) side of the Yangtze River, near the northern end of the Three Gorges Dam.
统计用区划代码 名称 420501000000 市辖区 420502000000 西陵区 420503000000 伍家岗区 420504000000 点军区 420505000000 猇亭区 420506000000 夷陵区 420525000000 远安县 420526000000 兴山县 420527000000 秭归县 420528000000 长阳土家族自治县 420529000000 五峰土家族自治县 420581000000 宜都市 420582000000 当阳市 420583000000 枝江市
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yichang .|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Yichang .|