Yichang

Last updated
Yichang

宜昌市

Ichang
Yichang skyline 5.jpg
Yichang skyline
Location of Yichang-Hubei.gif
Location of Yichang City jurisdiction in Hubei
China Hubei location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Yichang
Location of the city in Hubei
Coordinates(Yichang municipal government): 30°41′31″N111°17′13″E / 30.692°N 111.287°E / 30.692; 111.287 Coordinates: 30°41′31″N111°17′13″E / 30.692°N 111.287°E / 30.692; 111.287
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hubei
Municipal seat Xiling District
Government
  CPC Party Secretary Huang Chuping
  MayorMa Xuming
Area
[1]
   Prefecture-level city 21,338 km2 (8,239 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [2]
91.40 km2 (35.29 sq mi)
   Districts [2] 4,234.3 km2 (1,634.9 sq mi)
Elevation
58 m (191 ft)
Highest elevation
2,427 m (7,963 ft)
Lowest elevation
35 m (115 ft)
Population
 (2010) [3] [1]
   Prefecture-level city 4,059,686
  Density190/km2 (490/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2017) [2]
1,698,400
  Districts [2]
5,410,000
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal codes
443000
Area code(s) 0717
ISO 3166 code CN-HB-05
Licence plate prefixes 鄂E
Website en.yichang.gov.cn
Yichang
YiChang name.svg
"Yichang", as written in Chinese
Chinese 宜昌
Postal Ichang

Yichang (Chinese : 宜昌 ), alternatively romanized as Ichang, is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the second largest city in the province after the capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District. [4] As of the 2010 census, its population was 4,059,686 inhabitants of whom 1,350,150 lived in the built-up (or metro) area consisting of Yiling, Xiling, Wujiagang and Dianjun urban districts. The Xiaoting District has not yet been urbanized.

Contents

History

In ancient times Yichang was known as Yiling. Historical records indicate that in the year 278 BC, during the Warring States period, the Qin general Bai Qi set fire to Yiling. In 222 AD Yichang was also the site of the Battle of Yiling, during the Three Kingdoms Period.

Under the Qing Guangxu Emperor, Yichang was opened to foreign commerce as a trading port after the Qing and Great Britain agreed to the Chefoo Convention, which was signed by Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang in Chefoo on 21 August 1876. The imperial government set up a navigation company there and began building facilities. Since 1949, more than 50 wharves (with a total combined length of over 15 kilometers (9.3 mi)) have been constructed at the port.

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Yichang was a primary supply depot for the defending Chinese army. In October 1938, as the Japanese moved up the Yangtze River towards the strategic city of Chongqing, it became clear that Yichang needed to be evacuated. In 40 days, under the direction of businessman Lu Zuofu, more than 100,000 tons of equipment and 30,000 personnel were transported upstream by steamship or by porters pulling smaller vessels through the Three Gorges rapids to Chongqing. [5] [6]

In 1940, the Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang took place in the area.

Administrative divisions

Administratively, it is a prefecture-level city; its municipal government has jurisdiction over five counties, five urban districts, and three satellite county-level cities (Yidu, Dangyang, Zhijiang). [1] [7] [8]

Administrative map

The prefecture-level city of Yichang has direct jurisdiction over 14 divisions: 5  districts ( ; ), 3  county-level cities ( 县级市 ; xiànjí shì), 3  counties ( ; xiàn), and 3  autonomous counties ( 自治县 ; zìzhì xiàn).:

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census) [9]
Area
(/km²) [10]
Density
(/km²)
Districts
Xiling District 西陵 Xīlíng Qū512,07468.147,515.03
Wujiagang District 伍家岗 Wǔjiāgǎng Qū214,19484.032549.02
Dianjun District 点军 Diǎnjūn Qū103,696533.23194.47
Xiaoting District 猇亭 Xiāotíng 61,230130.40469.55
Yiling District 夷陵 Yílíng Qū520,1863,416.57152.25
County-level cities
Yidu 宜都 Yídū Shì384,5981,354.83283.87
Dangyang 当阳 Dāngyáng Shì468,2932,148.82217.93
Zhijiang 枝江 Zhījiāng Shì644,8352,010.00321
Counties
Yuan'an County 远安 Yuǎn'ān Xiàn184,5321,741.06105.99
Xingshan County 兴山 Xīngshān Xiàn2,315.36480.2073.69
Zigui County 秭归 Zǐguī Xiàn 367,1072,273.80161.45
Autonomous counties
Changyang Tujia
Autonomous County
长阳 土家族 自治县 Chángyáng Tǔjiāzú
Zìzhìxiàn
388,2283418.82113.56
Wufeng Tujia
Autonomous County
五峰 土家族 自治县 Wǔfēng Tǔjiāzú
Zìzhìxiàn
188,9232,370.4179.70
A sand table in Yichang Planning Exhibition Hall. Yi Chang Gui Hua Zhan Lan Guan Sha Pan .jpg
A sand table in Yichang Planning Exhibition Hall.

Geography

Like most prefecture-level cities, Yichang includes both an urban area (which is labeled on less detailed maps as "Yichang") and the surrounding country area. It covers 21,084 square kilometers (8,141 sq mi) in Western Hubei Province, on both sides of the Yangtze River. The Xiling Gorge, the easternmost of the Three Gorges on the Yangtze, is located within the prefecture-level city.

Within the prefecture-level city of Yichang, the Yangtze is joined by a number of tributaries, including the Qing River (right), Xiang Xi and Huangbo Rivers (left).

The central urban area of Yichang is split between several districts. On the right (northeastern) bank of the Yangtze are located Xiling District (where the city center is located), Yiling District (neighborhoods north of the center) and Wujiagang District (southern area). The city area on the opposite (southeastern) bank of the river is included into Dianjun District. All these districts, with the exception of the central Xiling, also include a fair amount of suburban/rural area outside of the city urban core.

Climate

Yichang has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, damp and generally overcast winters, and hot, humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 5.0 °C (41.0 °F) in January to 27.7 °C (81.9 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 17.08 °C (62.7 °F). Close to 70% of the annual precipitation of 1,160 mm (46 in) occurs from May to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in January to 49% in August, the city receives 1,568 hours of bright sunshine annually, and summer is the sunniest season.

Transport

By Plane

Yichang Sanxia Airport is located in the Xiaoting District of Yichang City, 26 km (16 mi) away from the city center and 55 km (34 mi) from the Three Gorges Dam site. The airport is conveniently located, which borders Yihuang Highway in the north, Long River Golden Waterway in the south and Jiaozhi Railway in the east.

Roads and bridges

Yiling Bridge Yiling Yangtze River Bridge.jpg
Yiling Bridge

Several provincial highways connect Yichang center city with most counties.

Several bridges span the Yangtze River within the prefecture-level city of Yichang, including (upstream to downstream):

There are several ferry crossings as well.

Waterways

The Three Gorges Dam is located near Sandouping and Maoping within Yichang prefecture-level city (some 40 km (25 mi) from Yichang central city) 3 gorges dam at night.JPG
The Three Gorges Dam is located near Sandouping and Maoping within Yichang prefecture-level city (some 40 km (25 mi) from Yichang central city)

Yichang is an important river port on the Yangtze river. Maoping Town (the county seat of Zigui County), has an active passenger wharf as well.

The Qing River in the southern part of the prefecture, with its cascade of dams, is an important waterway as well.

Railway

Yichang is served by several railway lines.

Yichang Railway Station, located in downtown Yichang, opened in 1971, was the city's first railway station. In 2012 it closed for a renovation project. [13]

The Yichang East Railway Station, opened in the late 2010 in the eastern suburbs of Yichang, [14] is presently the city's main train station. It is the junction point of two segments of the Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, one of China's new east–west rail mainlines. To the east, the Hanyi Railway [15] (opened June 29, 2012) provides frequent service to Wuhan, with some trains continuing to Nanjing and Shanghai. To the west, the Yiwan Railway (Yichang-Wanzhou; opened December 2010) serves as the gateway to Hubei's southwestern panhandle (Enshi), with some service continuing to Chongqing and Chengdu.

The Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway, a north–south line, crosses the eastern part of the prefecture-level city. It crosses the Yangtze at Zhicheng in Yidu County-level City.

Demographics

Huangling Temple, Sandouping Sandouping-Huangling-Miao-4893.jpg
Huangling Temple, Sandouping

Yichang has a population of 4,150,000 with urban population of 1,338,000. [16] Yichang prefecture-level city, is home to many members of the Tujia ethnic group, who mostly live in several counties in the south-west of the prefecture.

Yichang also formed the border between the cultures of Ba in the west (an ancient state in the eastern part of what is now Sichuan Province) and the Chu State in the east (an ancient state in what is now Hubei Province and northern Hunan Province).

Education

Since 2002, Yichang City has been home of the China Three Gorges University (the result of the merger of the University of Hydraulic & Electric Engineering, Yichang and of Hubei Sanxia University), the largest comprehensive university in Hubei Province outside Wuhan, with over 20,400 full-time students.

There are 170 secondary schools in Yichang enrolling 150,700 students. 53,900 of the citizens in Yichang hold a secondary school degree. There are 282 elementary schools being located in Yichang enrolling 156,900. 27,600 of the citizens hold secondary school degrees. 383 kindergartens located in Yichang with 78,500 children.

Economy

Yichang has long been a major transit port and distribution center of goods, and serves as the economic hub of western Hubei province and an intermediary between the major cities of Chongqing and Wuhan. Its primary industries are shipping and shipbuilding, taking advantage of its location on the Yangtze River.

Yichang prefecture is the site of many major hydroelectricity projects. The best known of them are the two huge dams on the Yangtze River: the Gezhouba Dam (located just upstream of Yichang central city) and Three Gorges Dam, which is 40 kilometers (25 mi) upstream. The Geheyan Dam and Gaobazhou Dam on the Qing River are important as well. Besides those, a huge number of medium-sized and small power plants operate on smaller rivers and streams within the prefecture.

Yichang skyline Yichang skyline.jpg
Yichang skyline
Night view of Yichang Night view of Yichang.jpg
Night view of Yichang

See also

Related Research Articles

Jingzhou Prefecture-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Jingzhou is a prefecture-level city in southern Hubei province, China, located on the banks of the Yangtze River. Based on the 2010 census, its total population was 5,691,707, 1,154,086 of whom resided in the built-up area comprising the two urban districts.

Wushan County, Chongqing County in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Wushan County is a county located in Chongqing municipality. It occupies roughly 2,958 km2 (1,142 sq mi) and has a population of about 600,000.

Tongren Prefecture-level city in Guizhou, Peoples Republic of China

Tongren is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guizhou province, People's Republic of China, located within a tobacco planting and crop agricultural area. Tongren was known as Tongren Prefecture (铜仁地区) until November 2011, when it was converted into a prefecture-level city.

Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Autonomous prefecture in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is located in the mountainous southwestern corner of Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It forms Hubei's southwestern "panhandle", bordering on Hunan in the south and Chongqing Municipality in the west and northwest. The Yangtze River crosses the prefecture's northeastern corner in Badong County.

Xiling Yangtze River Bridge

The Xiling Yangtze River Bridge, is a suspension bridge over the Yangtze River, just a few kilometers downstream from the Three Gorges Dam. The bridge is located within Yiling District of the prefecture-level city of Yichang, connecting the towns of Taipingxi and Letianxi with Sandouping.

Fengjie County County in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Fengjie County is a county of Chongqing Municipality, China. It is on the Yangtze River; located within a couple hundreds kilometers upstream from the Three Gorges Dam, it is within the dam's affected area.

Songzi County-level city in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Songzi is a city in the southwest of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, located in the middle reach and southern bank of the Yangtze River. It is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Jingzhou, and controls 16 townships and 2 development zones, 235,000 households and a population of 765,911. It is a long-historied but young and robust city.

Xiling District District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Xiling is a district of Yichang, Hubei, People's Republic of China. It includes the central part of Yichang's urban area, on the left (northwestern) bank of the Yangtze River.

Yiling District District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Yiling District is a district of the prefecture-level city of Yichang, Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Created on July 30, 2001, the district includes most of the former Yichang County, with the exception of Yichang center city and certain southern and western suburbs.

Shennongjia Forestry district in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Shennongjia Forestry District is a county-level administrative unit in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It occupies 3,253 square kilometres (1,256 sq mi) in western Hubei, and, as of 2007 had the resident population estimated at 74,000. On July 17, 2016, Hubei Shennongjia was listed as World Heritage Site, the 50th World Heritage Site in China.

Sandouping Town in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Sandouping is a town in Yiling District of Yichang prefecture-level city in the Chinese province of Hubei. It is located on the right (southern) bank of the Yangtze River, next to Yiling District's border with Zigui County to the west. Sandouping is best known as the location of the Three Gorges Dam, which is the world's largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.

Dianjun District District in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Dianjun District is a district of the city of Yichang, Hubei, People's Republic of China. In 2004 it had 105,175 residents.

Xingshan County County in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Xingshan County is a county of western Hubei, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Yichang Prefecture-level City.

Changyang Tujia Autonomous County County in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Changyang Tujia Autonomous County or in Tujia language known as Changryangf Bifzivkar Zivzirxianf is an autonomous county in western Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yichang.

Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County County in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County, formerly Changle County, is a county in the west of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hunan province to the south. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yichang. It is twinned with Westfield, Massachusetts, United States.

Mayang Miao Autonomous County Autonomous county in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Mayang is an autonomous county of Miao people in Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Huaihua.

Qianjiang District District in Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China

Qianjiang District is a district in the southeastern part of Chongqing Municipality, People's Republic of China, bordering Hubei province to the east and northeast. While it is governed as a district, in practice Qianjiang is its own city proper far removed from the urban centre of Chongqing. The Miao and Tujia ethnic groups constitute 50.03% of the Qianjiang population, the other half being mostly Han (49.94%). Qianjiang is nicknamed "The Throat of Sichuan and Hubei" (川鄂咽喉) because it sits on the intersection of Sichuan-Hubei and Sichuan-Hunan Roads.

Taipingxi Town in Hubei, Peoples Republic of China

Taipingxi Town is a town in Yiling District of Yichang Prefecture-level city of China's Hubei Province. It is located on the left (northern) side of the Yangtze River, near the northern end of the Three Gorges Dam.

References

  1. 1 2 3 宜昌市历史沿革 [Yichang City Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2018. 1996年,宜昌市面积21338平方千米,{...}2010年第六次人口普查,宜昌市常住总人口4059686人,其中:西陵区512074人,伍家岗区214194人,点军区103696人,猇亭区61230人,夷陵区520186人,远安县184532人,兴山县170630人,秭归县367107人,长阳土家族自治县388228人,五峰土家族自治县188923人,宜都市384598人,当阳市468293人,枝江市495995人。
  2. 1 2 3 4 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 66. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  3. http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-hubei-admin.php
  4. Yichang Information
  5. 'Yichang Evacuation Monument'; http://easternjourney.com/2009/10/yichang-evacuation-monument/ retvd 12 7 17
  6. 抗战中的宜昌大撤退:保留中国抗战工业命脉的壮举. 15 April 2015.
  7. 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:宜昌市 [2017 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Yichang City]. National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2018. 统计用区划代码 名称 420501000000 市辖区 420502000000 西陵区 420503000000 伍家岗区 420504000000 点军区 420505000000 猇亭区 420506000000 夷陵区 420525000000 远安县 420526000000 兴山县 420527000000 秭归县 420528000000 长阳土家族自治县 420529000000 五峰土家族自治县 420581000000 宜都市 420582000000 当阳市 420583000000 枝江市
  8. 吴月, ed. (21 May 2018). 宜昌概况 [Description of Yichang] (in Chinese). Yichang People's Government. Retrieved 5 October 2018. 【行政区划】2016年,宜昌市辖13个县市区,即远安县、兴山县、秭归县、长阳土家族自治县、五峰土家族自治县、宜都市、枝江市、当阳市、夷陵区、西陵区、伍家岗区、点军区、猇亭区,共设20个乡、67个镇、23个街道。2016年,全市行政区划及其名称未作调整。
  9. 宜昌市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报 (in Chinese). Yichang Statistics Bureau. May 30, 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  10. 宜昌市土地利用总体规划(2006-2020年) (in Chinese). Yichang Bureau of Land Resources. Nov 18, 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  11. 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  12. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  13. 3个月后宜昌火车站可进出动车 低站台改造成高站台. huochepiao.com. October 2012.
  14. "Yichang". Discover China. Retrieved 2020-01-25.
  15. Construction of Hanyi Railway to Kick off, Wuhan City Government web site, 2008-07-10
  16. "History of Yichang" (in Chinese). Official website of Yichang Government. 2007-09-19. Archived from the original on 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2008-06-06.

Further reading