Yilan County, Heilongjiang

Last updated
Yilan County

依兰县
ChinaHarbinYilan.png
Location of Yilan in Harbin
Location of Harbin Prefecture within Heilongjiang (China).png
Harbin in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 46°19′01″N129°33′43″E / 46.317°N 129.562°E / 46.317; 129.562 Coordinates: 46°19′01″N129°33′43″E / 46.317°N 129.562°E / 46.317; 129.562 [1]
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
Sub-provincial city Harbin
Area
[2]
  Total4,616.0 km2 (1,782.2 sq mi)
Elevation
97 m (321 ft)
Population
 (2010) [3]
  Total388,319
  Density84/km2 (220/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
1548XX
Website hrbyl.gov.cn

Yilan County (simplified Chinese :依兰县; traditional Chinese :依蘭縣; pinyin :Yīlán Xiàn; IPA: [í.lǎn ɕjɛ̂n] ) is a county of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang. It is more than 240 kilometres (150 mi) to the east-northeast of central Harbin. Its county seat, which is also called Yilan (Yilan Town, Yilan zhen), is located near the confluence of the Mudan River (formerly known as the Hurka River) with the Sungari. The easternmost county-level division of Harbin City, it borders Fangzheng County to the southwest, Tonghe County to the west, as well as the prefecture-level cities of Yichun to the north, Jiamusi to the northeast, Qitaihe to the southeast, and Mudanjiang to the south.

Simplified Chinese characters Standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Pinyin Chinese romanization scheme for Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Contents

Transportation

History

A German map from 1891 showing San sing at the fall of the Hurka River into the Sungari Stielers Handatlas 1891 62 NE.jpg
A German map from 1891 showing San sing at the fall of the Hurka River into the Sungari

During the rule of the Ming Dynasty in China, Yilan, formerly known as Sanxing (三姓; Wade-Giles: San-hsing; historically also Romanized as San Sing [4] ), was one of the two important centers of the Jianzhou Jurchens of the Hurka River valley. (The other center was Ninguta in the upper reaches of the Hurka). [5]

The Jianzhou Jurchens were one of the three major groups of Jurchens as identified by the Ming dynasty. Although the geographic location of the Jianzhou Jurchens has changed throughout history, during the 14th century they were located south of the Wild Jurchens and the Haixi Jurchens, inhabiting modern-day Liaoning province and Jilin province in China. The Jianzhou Jurchens were known to possess an abundant supply of natural resources. They also possessed industrial secrets, particularly in processing ginseng and the dying of cloth. They were powerful due to their proximity to Ming trading towns such as Fushun, Kaiyuan, and Tieling in Liaodong, and to Manpojin camp on the Korean border.

The town retained its importance into the Qing period, and in 1692 became the seat of a Deputy Lieutenant-General (副都統; fù dūtǒng). Subordinated to the Governor General (jiangjun) in Jilin City. the Sanxing Fu dutong was in control of the northeastern section of the Jilin Province (which in those days was much larger than now) - a large region stretching northeast along the Sungari and the Amur to the Pacific Ocean. [6]

Jilin City Prefecture-level city in Jilin, Peoples Republic of China

Jilin City Is the second-largest city and former capital of Jilin province in northeast China. As of the 2010 census, 4,413,517 people resided within its administrative area of 27,166.37 square kilometres (10,488.99 sq mi) and 1,975,121 in its built-up area consisting of four urban districts. A prefecture-level city, it is the only major city nationally that shares its name with its province.

Amur River river in Russia and China

The Amur River or Heilong Jiang is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as 5.6 metres (18 ft). The river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, taimen, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus.

In 1887, three British travelers - H. E. M. James, Francis Younghusband and Harry English Fulford visited Sanxing on their tour of Manchuria. According to Fulford's account, the town had the population of around 10,000, trade in furs and fish (salmon and sturgeon) being its main industries. [4]

Sir Henry Evan Murchison James (1846–1923) was a member of the Indian Civil Service from 1865 to 1900.

Francis Younghusband British Army officer, explorer, and spiritual writer

Lieutenant Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, was a British Army officer, explorer, and spiritual writer. He is remembered for his travels in the Far East and Central Asia; especially the 1904 British expedition to Tibet, led by him, and for his writings on Asia and foreign policy. Younghusband held positions including British commissioner to Tibet and President of the Royal Geographical Society.

Lu Houmin, who was the official photographer for the top Chinese leaders particularly Mao Zedong from 1950 to 1964 was born in Yilan. [7]

Mao Zedong Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China (PRC), which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Idelogically a Marxist–Leninist, his theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism.

Climate

Climate data for Yilan County (1971−2000)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)2.2
(36.0)
9.0
(48.2)
20.2
(68.4)
28.9
(84.0)
32.8
(91.0)
35.0
(95.0)
37.8
(100.0)
37.2
(99.0)
30.6
(87.1)
27.0
(80.6)
15.8
(60.4)
4.5
(40.1)
37.8
(100.0)
Average high °C (°F)−12.9
(8.8)
−7.5
(18.5)
1.8
(35.2)
13.0
(55.4)
20.4
(68.7)
25.0
(77.0)
27.5
(81.5)
25.8
(78.4)
20.3
(68.5)
11.4
(52.5)
−0.7
(30.7)
−10.4
(13.3)
9.5
(49.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−18.0
(−0.4)
−13.5
(7.7)
−4.3
(24.3)
6.1
(43.0)
13.6
(56.5)
19.0
(66.2)
22.2
(72.0)
20.4
(68.7)
13.8
(56.8)
5.1
(41.2)
−5.8
(21.6)
−15.1
(4.8)
3.6
(38.5)
Average low °C (°F)−22.7
(−8.9)
−19.2
(−2.6)
−10.8
(12.6)
−0.6
(30.9)
6.8
(44.2)
13.5
(56.3)
17.6
(63.7)
15.9
(60.6)
8.3
(46.9)
−0.4
(31.3)
−10.5
(13.1)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
Record low °C (°F)−36.1
(−33.0)
−33.5
(−28.3)
−31
(−24)
−15.3
(4.5)
−8.5
(16.7)
2.5
(36.5)
10.2
(50.4)
4.1
(39.4)
−3
(27)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−25.4
(−13.7)
−32.9
(−27.2)
−36.1
(−33.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)2.5
(0.10)
3.8
(0.15)
9.4
(0.37)
22.7
(0.89)
54.2
(2.13)
93.1
(3.67)
130.9
(5.15)
124.5
(4.90)
58.9
(2.32)
38.2
(1.50)
10.7
(0.42)
6.7
(0.26)
555.6
(21.86)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)4.54.25.88.112.114.413.613.010.98.56.26.2107.5
Source: Weather China

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References

  1. Google (2014-07-02). "Yilan" (Map). Google Maps . Google. Retrieved 2014-07-02.
  2. Harbin Statistical Yearbook 2011 (《哈尔滨统计年鉴2011》). Accessed 8 July 2014.
  3. 2010 Census Harbin primary statistics report (《哈尔滨市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报》). Accessed 8 July 2014.
  4. 1 2 Fulford, H. (1887), "Mr. Fulford's Journeys in Manchuria", Scottish Geographical Magazine, Royal Scottish Geographical Society., 3
  5. Lattimore, Owen (2008). Manchuria - Cradle of Conflict. Modern reprint by READ BOOKS. pp. 14, 33. ISBN   978-1-4437-2496-8.
  6. 吉林省历史沟沉 [An exploration of the history of Jilin Province]. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.. There is also same article converted to HTML by Google
  7. "Chairman Mao's personal cameraman dies". shanghaiist. 10 March 2015.