Bayuquan Port, Yingkou
Location of Yingkou City jurisdiction in Liaoning
|Coordinates(Yingkou municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Xishi District|
|Districts and Counties|
|• CPC Yingkou||Committee Secretary|
|• Mayor||Gao Jun|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,970 km2 (1,920 sq mi)|
|• Urban||538.25 km2 (207.82 sq mi)|
|• Districts||880.3 km2 (339.9 sq mi)|
|• Prefecture-level city||2,428,534|
|• Urban density||1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-LN-08|
|Administrative division code||210800|
Yingkou (simplified Chinese : 营口 ; traditional Chinese : 營口 ; pinyin :Yíngkǒu) is a coastal prefecture-level city of central southern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, on the northeastern shore of Liaodong Bay. It is the third-smallest city in Liaoning with a total area of 4,970 square kilometres (1,920 sq mi), and the ninth most populous with a population of 2,428,534 (2010 census), of whom 1,340,993 live in the built-up area made of three urban districts (Zhanqian, Xishi and Laobian) and one county-level city (Dashiqiao). It borders the sub-provincial city of Dalian to the south, the prefectural cities of Anshan to the north and east and Panjin to the northwest, and also shares maritime boundaries with Jinzhou and Huludao across the Liaodong Bay to its west.
Located on the east bank of the Daliao River mouth, Yingkou is an important port city, with the Port of Yingkou being the second-largest container port in the Bohai Sea (after the Port of Tianjin) and Northeast China (after the Port of Dalian), the tenth-largest nationwide, and the 25th-busiest worldwide.
Yingkou was historically known as Newchwang (Chinese : 牛庄 ; pinyin :Niuzhuang; Manchu: Ishangga gašan hoton) in postal romanization; it was one of the Treaty Ports opened under the Treaties of Tianjin of 1858. In fact, the actual town of Newchwang was about thirty miles upstream of Liao He, within today's county-level city of Haicheng. After the treaty had been signed, the British found that the river near Newchwang was too shallow for their ships. Instead, the treaty port was moved to the area nearer to the river mouth where today's Yingkou is located.
To avoid confusion between the two locations, careful English writers of the early 20th century would sometimes use Newchwang for Yingkou (explaining that "Ying-kow, ... outside Manchuria, ... is known only as Newchwang") and Niu-chuang (the proper Wade–Giles transcription of '牛庄') for the actual inland Niuzhuang Town. Meanwhile, Newchwangcheng (牛庄城; postal: Newchwang Town) was adopted by the government as the inland town's name to distinguish it from the coastal city.
Yingkou prefecture is subdivided into 4 districts and 2 cities:
|Name||Chinese (S)||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|Zhanqian District||站前区||Zhànqián Qū||310,634||36.35||8,545.64|
|Xishi District||西市区||Xīshì Qū||164,873||314.91||523.56|
|Laobian District||老边区||Lǎobiān Qū||125,454||217.54||576.69|
|Bayuquan District||鲅鱼圈区||Bàyúquān Qū||431,087||280.86||1534.88|
|Satellite cities (County-level cities)|
|Dashiqiao City||大石桥市||Dàshíqiáo Shì||704,891||1,612.11||437.25|
|Gaizhou City||盖州市||Gàizhōu Shì||691,595||2,953.92||234.13|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Yingkou is mostly located in the northwestern part of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the mouth of Daliao River, which was historically the main distributary of the lower Liao River and the principal exit of fluvial transports from inland Liaoning into the Bohai Sea.
The city's metro area is located 166 km (103 mi) south from the provincial capital Shenyang, 204 km (127 mi) north from Dalian, 84 kilometres (52 mi) southwest from Anshan, and 70 km (43 mi) southeast from Panjin. The city is located at latitude 39° 55'−40° 56' N and longitude 121° 56'−123° 02' E. At its greatest width, the city spans 111.8 km (69.5 mi) from north to south and 50.7 km (31.5 mi) from east to west. The total area of the city is 5,365 km2 (2,071 sq mi), occupying a mere 4.9% of the provincial area. The city has a total coastline of 96 km (60 mi).
Yingkou has a four-season humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) with strong monsoonal influences. Though the climate is somewhat tempered by the city's location on the Bohai Gulf, winters are long, windy, cold but dry, and summers are hot and humid. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −8.3 °C (17.1 °F) in January to 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 9.82 °C (49.7 °F). Precipitation is somewhat enhanced by the coastal location, with a majority of the annual rainfall occurring in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 51% in July to 68% in three months, the city receives 2,774 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Yingkou (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−8.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.6|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||6.2|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.1||3.0||4.2||6.2||8.0||9.6||12.0||9.4||6.8||5.8||4.7||2.8||75.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||63||59||57||58||62||70||78||79||71||67||64||63||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||199.8||204.1||243.1||257.3||279.9||262.1||233.7||239.1||254.0||232.2||185.5||183.5||2,774.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||67||68||66||65||63||58||51||56||68||68||62||64||63|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)|
The city is home to the basketball club Liaoning Flying Leopards of the Chinese Basketball Association. The club brought forth several players of China's national basketball team. It plays its home games at the Benxi Gymnasium.
Liaoning is a coastal province in Northeast China, and is the smallest, southernmost, but the most populous province in the region. Located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, it is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern/coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the mouths of the Daliao River in the west and the Yalu River in the east, and encompasses the territories of the whole sub-provincial city of Dalian and parts of prefectural cities of Yingkou, Anshan and Dandong.
Dandong, formerly known as Andong, is a coastal prefecture-level city in southeastern Liaoning province, in the northeastern region of People's Republic of China.
Haicheng is a county-level city in central Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, located about 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of the provincial capital Shenyang. It is under the administration of Anshan City, the seat of which lies 36 kilometres (22 mi) to the northeast.
The Liao River is the principal river in southern Northeast China, and one of the seven main river systems in mainland China. Its name derived from the Liao region, a historical name for southern Manchuria, from which the Liaoning province, Liaodong Peninsula and Liao dynasty also all have derived their names. The river is also popularly known as the "mother river" in Northeast China. Coursing 1,345 kilometres (836 mi) long, the Liao River system drains a catchment basin of over 232,000 square kilometres (90,000 sq mi), but its mean discharge is quite small at only about 500 cubic metres per second (18,000 cu ft/s), about one-twentieth that of the Pearl River. The Liao River has an exceedingly high sediment load because many parts of it flow through powdery loess.
Liaodong Bay is largest and longest of the three main bays of the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea.
Wafangdian, formerly Fuhsien (Fuxian) or Fu County, is one of the two "northern county-level cities", the other being Zhuanghe, under the administration of Dalian, located in the south of Liaoning province, China. The city is famous for its ball bearing industry. Wafangdian Bearing Factory is the largest bearing manufacturer in Asia and was initially built by the Japanese during World War II. Its area is 3,576.40 square kilometres (1,380.86 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 942,197, compared to 1,024,876 registered with hukou permits. The city borders the prefecture-level city of Yingkou to the northeast.
Panjin is a coastal prefecture-level city in central Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, situated on the northern shore of the Liaodong Bay. It borders Anshan to the east, Yingkou to the southeast, and Jinzhou to the west and north. It is the smallest city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast China with an administrative area of 4,071 square kilometres (1,572 sq mi), and Liaoning's least populous city with a population of 1.39 million people.
Huludao, formerly known as Jinxi (锦西) until 1994, is a coastal prefecture-level city in southwestern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Its name literally means "Gourd Island", referring to the fiddle-shaped contour of the peninsula, which resembles a bottle gourd, at the city's Longgang District. It has a total area of 10,415 km2 (4,021 sq mi) and a population of 2.87 million, of whom some 531,000 live in the city proper.
Zhuanghe is one of the two "northern county-level cities", the other being Wafangdian, under the administration of Dalian, located in the south of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Its area is 3,655.70 square kilometres (1,411.47 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 841,321, making it Dalian's most spacious county-level division.
The Battle of Yinkou was a land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War between the forces of Meiji Japan and Qing China, fought outside the treaty port town of Yingkou, Manchuria. It is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Niuzhuang or Newchwang.
The Hun River is a river in Liaoning Province, China, and was formerly one of the largest tributaries of the Liao River. It was also formerly known as Shen River (瀋水). Two of Liaoning's most important cities, the provincial capital Shenyang and the seventh largest city Fushun, are located on the Hun River.
The Port of Yingkou is an international seaport in Yingkou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is the second-largest port in northeast China and the tenth-largest nationwide. It includes two separate dockland areas, the Yingkou old port at the mouth of the Daliao River, and the Bayuquan port located directly on Liaodong Bay on the Bohai Sea.
The Bohai Economic Rim (BER) or Bohai Bay Economic Rim (BBER) is the economic region surrounding Tianjin(Tientsin). It also includes areas in Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong surrounding the Bohai Sea. This region has undergone major economic and infrastructural changes and is an emerging economic powerhouse of North China, rivalling the Pearl River Delta in the south and the Yangtze River Delta in the east.
The Bohai Sea or Bo Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bo Gulf or Pohai Bay, is a marginal sea approximately 78,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) in area on the east coast of mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it connects to the east via the Bohai Strait.
Pulandian District is one of the seven districts under the administration of Dalian, located in the south of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Its area is 2,769.90 square kilometres (1,069.46 sq mi) and its permanent population as of 2010 is 741,230. The district borders the prefecture-level city of Yingkou to the north.
Bayuquan District is a district of the city of Yingkou, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Located on the northeast coast of the Bohai Sea and in the northwest part of the Liaodong Peninsula, it is 46 kilometres (29 mi) south-southwest of Yingkou city centre. This small city is known for its seafood like fish and crabs which are shipped to all parts of the world. This District is also a tourism spot in the summer.
The 12th National Games of China were held in the northeastern province of Liaoning from 31 August to 12 September 2013. Liaoning was the sixth provincial level host of the games, following Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu and Shandong. A total of 350 events in 31 sports were held at the games.
The Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt is a group of prefectures in Liaoning province in Northeast China. The region was defined for the purpose of a national economic development strategy of China, aiming to strengthen the region as access point of Northeast China to the sea and a vital economic gateway to Northeast Asia and other regions in the world. Specifically, the six port cities with Dalian as the center are to be built as an international shipping center for northeast Asia. Infrastructure conditions including navigation capacity and logistics systems will be particularly improved for better service.
The Daliao River is a major river system in eastern Liaoning province of Northeast China, and formerly the main distributary of the lower Liao River until 1958. The Daliao River proper is formed from the confluence of three rivers at the border between Anshan's Haicheng city and Panjin's Panshan County, after where it runs a length of 94 kilometres (58 mi) covering a catchment area of 1,926 square kilometres (744 sq mi), before coursing meandrously southwest and draining into the Liaodong Bay just west of Yingkou.
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