Yle

Last updated
Yleisradio
Rundradion
Type Terrestrial radio, television and online
Country
AvailabilityNational
International
Founded9 September 1926;94 years ago (1926-09-09) (Radio)
1 January 1958;63 years ago (1958-01-01) (Television)
Slogan Oivalla jotain uutta
Verkligen något nytt
English: Realize something new
45.2% of Finnish television viewers and 53% of radio listeners (2010) [1] [2]
Headquarters Helsinki, Finland
Owner99.9% state-owned, supervised by an Administrative Council appointed by Parliament
Parent Ministry of Transport and Communications
Key people
CEO Merja Ylä-Anttila
Launch date
9 September 1926;94 years ago (1926-09-09)
Former names
O.Y. Suomen Yleisradio - A.B. Finlands Rundradio [3]
Official website
yle.fi
Yle's headquarters from 1993 to 2016, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in Pasila, Helsinki. Now occupied by the VR Group. Yleisradion Iso Paja.jpg
Yle's headquarters from 1993 to 2016, known as Iso Paja ("the big workshop"), in Pasila, Helsinki. Now occupied by the VR Group.
Yle mediahouse entrance in the yle campus in Pasila, Helsinki Yle mediahouse entrance in the yle campus in pasila, helsinki.jpg
Yle mediahouse entrance in the yle campus in Pasila, Helsinki
Yle van Ennen Lippujuhlan paivan 2017 paraatin alkua 17 YLE lahetysauto.JPG
Yle van

Yleisradio Oy (Finnish), literally General Radio or General Broadcast; Swedish : Rundradion Ab; English: Finnish Broadcasting Company; abbr. Yle (Finnish:  [yle] ), is Finland's national public broadcasting company, founded in 1926. It is a joint-stock company which is 99.98% owned by the Finnish state, and employs around 3,200 people in Finland. Yle shares many of its organizational characteristics with its UK counterpart, the BBC, on which it was largely modelled.

Contents

For the greater part of Yle's existence the company was funded by the revenues obtained from a broadcast receiving licence fee payable by the owners of radio sets (1927–1976) and television sets (1958–2012), as well as receiving a portion of the broadcasting licence fees payable by private television broadcasters. Since the beginning of 2013 the licence fee has been replaced by a public broadcasting tax (known as the Yle tax), which is collected annually from private individuals and corporations together with their other taxes.

By far the largest part of the Yle tax is collected from individual taxpayers, with payments being assessed on a sliding scale. Minors, as well as persons with an annual income of less than 7,813 are exempt. At the lower limit the tax payable by individuals amounts to €50 per annum and the maximum (payable by an individual with a yearly income of €20,588 or more) is set at €140. [4] The rationale for the abolition of the previous television licence fee was the development of other means of delivering Yle's services, such as the Internet, and the consequent impracticality of continuing to tie the fee to the ownership of a specific device. Yle receives no advertising revenues as all channels are advertisement-free.

Yle has a status that could be described as that of a non-departmental public body. It is governed by a parliamentary governing council. Yle's turnover in 2010 was €398.4 million. In 2018 Yle's annual budget was about €530 million . [5]

Yle operates three national television channels, 13 radio channels and services, and 25 regional radio stations. As Finland is constitutionally bilingual around 5.5% of the population speaks Swedish as their mother-tongue Yle provides radio and TV programming in Swedish through its Swedish-language department, Svenska Yle. As is customary in Finnish television and cinemas, foreign films and TV programmes, as well as segments of local programmes that feature foreign language dialogues (e.g. news interviews), are generally subtitled on Yle's channels. Dubbing is used in cartoons intended for young children who have not yet learned to read; off-screen narration in documentaries is also frequently dubbed.[ citation needed ]

In the field of international broadcasting, one of Yle's best known services was Nuntii Latini, the news in Latin, which was broadcast worldwide and made available over the Internet.

Yle was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Yle hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 in Helsinki.

History

Suomen Yleisradio (Finland's General Radio) was founded in Helsinki on 29 May 1926. The first radio programme was transmitted on 9 September in that year, and this is the date generally considered to be the birthday of regular broadcasting activities in Finland. However, it was not until 1928 that Yle's broadcasts became available throughout the country. After this the broadcasting network was developed and by the beginning of the 1930s, 100,000 households were able to listen to Yle programmes.

In 1957, Yle made its first television broadcast tests, and the following year regular TV programming was started under the name Suomen Televisio (Finland's Television), which was later renamed Yle TV1. The popularity of television in the country grew rapidly. In 1964, Yle obtained TES-TV and Tamvisio, which were merged to Yle TV2. In 1969, the Finnish Broadcasting Company began broadcasting television programs in colour, but due to the high cost of technology, virtually all programs appeared in colour only in the late 1970s. On May 1, 1977, Tv-uutiset (~ TV-news) and TV-nytt switched to colour.

In the 2000s, Yle has founded a number of new radio and television channels. In 2007 there was a digital television switchover. A completely new digital channel, Yle Teema (~ Yle Theme) was introduced, and the Swedish-language FST (Finlands Svenska Television, ~ Finland's Swedish Television) was moved from reserved analogue channel time to its own digital channel YLE FST5, which was later renamed to Yle Fem. In addition to these four channels (TV1, TV2, Teema, and Fem), a fifth channel, called YLE24, was launched in 2001 for 24-hour news programming. However, this channel was replaced by YLE Extra, a channel attempting to cater to the youth, which was in turn decommissioned in 2007. [6] Until 4 August 2008, the fifth channel was used to broadcast Yle TV1 with Finnish subtitles broadcast on programmes in foreign languages (without having to enable the TV's or digital set-top box's subtitle function).

Logo history

Television

Yle TV1
Yle TV2
Yle Teema & Fem
TV Finland
Yle Text-TV

As of January 2014, all of Yle's TV-channels except TV Finland are available in high definition.[ citation needed ]

Radio

Digital services

Yle phased out digital audio broadcasts by the end of 2005. Three channels continued to be available as DVB audio services. DVB audio services were shut down on 30 June 2016.

International services

Yle tax

Until the end of 2012, Finnish citizens paid Yle a license fee for the use of a television, set at 252 euros per year in 2012. The license fee was per location, which could hold several sets (e.g. in a living room as well as a bedroom). The public broadcasting tax, also known as the Yle tax, replaced the license fee in 2013. The tax ranges from 50 euros to 140 euros per person and per year, depending on income. Minors and persons with low income are exempt from the tax. [8]

Controversies

In radio, Yle was a legal monopoly until 1985, when local radio stations were permitted, and maintained a national monopoly until 1995, when national radio networks were allowed.

In the past, Yle has been seen in Finland as a "red" or leftist medium. This was true especially in 19651969, during the term of Director-General Eino S. Repo, who got the position with the backing of the Agrarian League and President Kekkonen (who was a member of the Agrarian Party), as he was Kekkonen's personal friend. He was accused of favouring leftist student radicalism and young left leaning reporters with programs critical of capitalism that demanded reforms to bring Finland closer to the Soviet Union, and Yle was given the nickname "Reporadio". After his resigning, he was demoted to the position of director of radio broadcasting, on the communist-led People's Democratic League mandate.

Repo resigned in 1969, but according to Yle, [9] the "political mandate" remained, as Erkki Raatikainen was named director directly from the Social Democratic Party office. Subsequently, all directors after him until 2010 were Social Democrats. This was ended by appointment of the right-wing National Coalition Party's Lauri Kivinen as director in 2010.

During Finlandization and the leftist radicalization of the 1970s, Yle contributed to Kekkonen's policy of "neutrality" by broadcasting the programme Näin naapurissa about the Soviet Union. This programme was produced in cooperation with the Soviets and as such, supported Soviet propaganda without criticism. [10]

The appointment of Lauri Kivinen in 2010 received much criticism as he was previously head of Nokia Siemens Networks, which had sold monitoring equipment to the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence, allowing them to arrest political dissidents throughout the protests in the fall of 2009. [11]

English-language newscaster Kimmo Wilska was fired on 13 August 2010 [12] - after pretending to be caught drinking on-camera following an alcohol-related news story on Yle News. Wilska's stunt was not well received by Yle management who fired him that same day. Wilska received a lot of support after his termination.

Yle has been criticized for buying many HBO series. Yle has responded to criticism emphasizing suitability of series to channels with no ad breaks, quality and low price of HBO programming and stating that American programs even with HBO form only 7% of Yle programming. [13]

Decision to close shortwave

The broadcasts on shortwave from Yle were closed at the end of 2006. Expatriate organisations had been campaigning for a continued service, but their efforts did not succeed in maintaining the service or even in slowing the process. The decision also affected a high-powered medium wave on 963 kHz (312m). A smaller medium wave covering the Gulf of Finland region (558 kHz, 538m) remained on air for a few more years.

Parliamentary question about shortwave

In November 2005, MP Pertti Hemmilä (N) submitted a question in Parliament about the plans of Yle to end its availability on international shortwave bands. In his question, Hemmilä took up the low cost of the world band radio to the consumer travelling or living abroad. In her response the Minister of Transport and Communications, Susanna Huovinen (S) noted that Yle would now be available via other means, such as satellites and the Internet. She also underlined the fact that Yle is not under government control, but under indirect parliamentary supervision. [14]

YLE Gate 2017

Council for Mass Media in Finland criticised Yleisradio for restricted news of Prime Minister Juha Sipilä investments and business in 2017. Chief editor of YLE threatened YLE to resign the Finnish Council for Mass Media. Juha Sipilä was angry of the YLE news of Talvivaara mine and Ketera Steel (company owned by Sipilä relatives). Several reporters were denied to inform of the Sipilä's politics connected to companies owned by relatives of Sipilä and state financing of Talvivaara mine (Terrafame mine). [15]

List of YLE directors

Notable news anchors

See also

Related Research Articles

Telecommunications in Finland

Finland has excellent communications, and is considered one of the most advanced information societies in the world.

Television licence

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Yle Fem television channel

Yle Fem was Yle's Finland-Swedish national television channel, providing television programmes in the Swedish language in Finland. It was a public-service channel principally intended for Finland's Swedish-speaking minority. Creating understanding over the language and culture border was also one of the channel's recognized objectives.

MTV3 Finnish commercial television station

MTV3 is a Finnish commercial television station. It had the biggest audience share of all Finnish TV channels until Yle TV1 took the lead. The letters MTV stand for Mainos-TV, due to the channel carrying advertising for revenue. Number 3 was added later, when the channel was allocated the third nationwide television channel and it generally became known as "Channel Three"—Finnish Broadcasting Company’s Yle TV1 and Yle TV2 being the first two—and also to distinguish it from the later MTV Finland, which is a Finnish version of ViacomCBS's MTV channel. From 1957 until 2001, the channel's logo was a stylised owl, changed to an owl's eye after an image renewal in 2001, which was then used until 2013. MTV3 has about 500 employees. It is also known as Maikkari.

Television was introduced in Finland in 1955. Color television started in 1969. Prior to 1986, Yle monopolized Finnish television. All terrestrial analogue stations stopped broadcasting on 1 September 2007 after the introduction of digital television; cable providers were allowed to continue analog broadcasting in their networks until 1 March 2008.

Sveriges Television

Sveriges Television AB, meaning Sweden's Television, is the Swedish national public television broadcaster, funded by a public service tax on personal income set by the Riksdag. Prior to 2019, SVT was funded by a television licence fee payable by all owners of television sets. The Swedish public broadcasting system is largely modelled after the system used in the United Kingdom, and Sveriges Television shares many traits with its British counterpart, the BBC.

Yle Nyheter TV-nytt is the name of the daily television news programmes on the Swedish-speaking Finnish TV channel Yle Teema & Fem, at the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yle). The programme is also broadcast on TV Finland.

Yle TV1

Yle TV1 is a Finnish television channel owned and operated by Finnish public broadcaster Yle. It is the first and oldest television channel in Finland. More than 70% of channel's programs are documentaries, news or educational programmes. Its name is commonly referred to as Ykkönen; the name is derived from Yle's ownership of channel spots 1 and 2 by default in Finland; the other, spot 2 channel, is Yle TV2.

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SVT World

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Yle Teema

Yle Teema was a Finnish television channel owned and operated by Finnish public broadcasting company Yle. The channel was dedicated to culture, sciences and learning. The channel was known for its "Theme Saturday" which typically consisted of documentaries and classic international films.

TV Finland

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Yle Radio Suomi is a radio channel owned and operated by Finland's national public service broadcaster Yleisradio (Yle). The station's main focus is on music and sport, but it carries a variety of other programmes, including news and phone-ins, as well as up to eight hours a day of regional programming on weekdays. The channel is also noted for its live coverage of music festivals.

<i>Dag</i> (Norwegian TV series) Norwegian comedy-drama television series

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Yle Teema & Fem

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Moominvalley is a 2019 Finnish-British animated family drama musical series. An adaptation of the classic Moomin books and comics by writer-illustrator Tove Jansson and her brother Lars Jansson, it is created using new techniques in 3D CGI.

Unna Junná is a children's television program produced by Finnish public broadcaster Yle Sámi Radio several different Sámi languages. It was the first Sámi-language children's program on Finnish TV and it now airs in Northern, Inari, and Skolt Sámi languages. Since 2007, Unna Junná has aired on Yle and SVT television channels in Finland and Sweden respectively.

References

  1. "Results From The TV Audience Measurement". Finnpanel. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  2. "Radio Listening In Finland 2010" (PDF). Finnpanel. 2011-02-03. p. 18. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  3. https://yle.fi/aihe/artikkeli/2015/01/11/ylen-historia
  4. "Yle tax in force next year" . Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  5. "Yleisradio - yle.fi".
  6. "Yle lopettaa yhden tv-kanavan". mtv.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  7. "Yle Teksti-tv". Yle. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  8. "New YLE tax law causes mixed feelings". Helsinki Times. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  9. "Elävä arkisto - yle.fi".
  10. Jukka Lindfors. "Näin naapurissa".
  11. http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Nokia+network+company+sold+comprehensive+spy+network+to+Iran/1135253349691
  12. Petra Himberg. "Kohuankkuri Kimmo Wilska".
  13. "Why public service company wastes money on HBO programs? (in Finnish)". Yle. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  14. Recollections of international radio from Finland "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2008-04-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. Mitä Missä Milloin 2018 Annual News Book Otava 2017 pages 109 and 341-342

Streaming video and audio

Coordinates: 60°12′11″N24°55′32″E / 60.203135°N 24.92549°E / 60.203135; 24.92549 (Iso Paja)