Yogyakarta Sultanate

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State of the Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta
Nagari Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta ꦏꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦤꦤ꧀ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦡꦲꦢꦶꦤꦶꦔꦿꦠ꧀
Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat
1755–1950
Bendera Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat.png
Flag
Yogyakarta Sultanate Hamengkubhuwono X Emblem.svg
Emblem (Praja Cihna)
Anthem: Gending Monggang
Mataram Baru 1830.png
The realm of Yogyakarta Sultanate (green) in 1830
Capital Yogyakarta
Official language Javanese
Recognised language Dutch (1755–1811; 1816–1942)
English (1811–1816)
Japanese (1942–1945)
Indonesian (1945–1950)
Religion
Government Monarchy
Sultan  
 1755–1792
ISKS Hamengkubuwana I
 1940–1950 (status downgrade); w. 1988
ISKS Hamengkubuwana IX
 1989–
ISKS Hamengkubuwana X
Prime Minister (Pepatih Dalem) 
 First (1755–1799)
Danureja I
 Last (1933–1945)
Danureja VIII
History 
 Established: Giyanti Treaty
13 February 1755
 Status downgrade
4 March 1950
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Mataram Sultanate.svg Mataram Sultanate
Flag of Sunanate of Surakarta.svg Surakarta Sunanate
Pakualaman Flag of Pakualaman.svg
Special Region of Yogyakarta Flag of Yogyakarta.svg
Today part of Indonesia
---
Political status:
  • De facto independent state (1755–1830)
  • De jure protectorate state of the Dutch East India Company (1755–1799)
  • De jure protectorate state of the Batavian Republic (1800–1811)
  • De jure protectorate state of the British East India Company (1811–1816)
  • De jure protectorate state of the Dutch East Indies (1816–1830)
  • Protectorate state of the Dutch East Indies (1830–1942)
  • Protectorate state of the Empire of Japan (1942–1945)
  • Protectorate state/special region of the Republic of Indonesia with the united parliamentary monarchy (1945–1950)
  • Protectorate state status was officially downgraded to the special region status (1950)
    ---
    Others
  • In some areas was established the Duchy of Pakualaman at 1813
Sultan of Yogyakarta
Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat
ꦏꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦤꦤ꧀​ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦡ​ꦲꦢꦶꦤꦶꦔꦿꦠ꧀
Provincial/State
Yogyakarta Sultanate Hamengkubhuwono X Emblem.svg
Incumbent
Hamengkubuwono x.jpg
Hamengkubuwono X
since 7 March 1989
Sultan of Yogyakarta
Details
Heir presumptive Princess Mangkubumi
First monarch Sultan Hamengkubuwono I
Formation1755 [1]
Residence The Royal Palace of Yogyakarta
Appointer Hereditary

The Sultanate of Yogyakarta (Javanese : ꦏꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦤꦤ꧀​ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦡ​ꦲꦢꦶꦤꦶꦔꦿꦠ꧀, romanized: Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta HadiningratJavanese pronunciation:  [ŋajogjɔkartɔ hadinɪŋrat] ; Indonesian : Kesultanan Yogyakarta) is a Javanese monarchy in Yogyakarta Special Region, in the Republic of Indonesia. The current head of the Sultanate is Hamengkubuwono X. [2]

Contents

Yogyakarta existed as a state since 1755 on the territory of modern Indonesia in the central part of Java Island. The Sultanate became the main theatre of military operations during the Java war of 1825–1830, following which a significant part of its territory was annexed by the Dutch, and the degree of autonomy was significantly curtailed. In 1946–1948, during the war of independence of Indonesia, the capital of the republic was transferred to the territory of the sultanate, in the city of Yogyakarta.

In 1950, Yogyakarta, along with the Principality of Pakualaman became part of Indonesia, with the former royal realms united as a Special Region, with equal status to that of a national province. At the same time, the hereditary title of Sultan of Yogyakarta & the Prince of Pakualaman, with ceremonial privileges carried with the titles, were legally secured for the rulers. On 2012, the Indonesian Government formally recognised the reigning Sultan of Yogyakarta as the hereditary Governor of Special Region of Yogyakarta, with the Pakualam Prince as its hereditary Vice Governor (article 18 paragraph 1c). [3] The Sultanate is claimed to own almost 10% of land in the Special Region of Yogyakarta. [4]

Geography

The sultanate is located on the southern coast of the island of Java. In the south it is bordered by the Indian Ocean, with land surrounded by the province of Central Java. The area is 3,133 km², while the population in 2010 was about three and a half million people. The special district of Yogyakarta, along with Jakarta, has the largest population density among the provinces of Indonesia. [5]

Not far from the city of Yogyakarta is the volcano Merapi, the most active volcano in Indonesia which has erupted regularly since 1548, resulting in great damage to the population of the district. In October–November 2010, there was a strong volcanic eruption, forcing about a hundred thousand people to temporarily leave their homes. [6] [7]

History

After Sultan Agung, the Sultanate of Mataram was declining due to power struggle within the sultanate itself. [8] To make things worse, the Dutch East India Company exploited the power struggle to increase its control. At the peak of the conflict, the Mataram Sultanate was split in two based on the Treaty of Giyanti of 13 February 1755: Yogyakarta Sultanate and Surakarta Sunanate. [8] [9] [1]

The Giyanti Treaty mentioned Pangeran Mangkubumi as Sultan of Yogyakarta with the title of:

ꦔꦂꦱꦢꦊꦩ꧀ꦱꦩ꧀ꦥꦺꦪꦤ꧀ꦢꦊꦩ꧀ꦲꦶꦁꦏꦁꦱꦶꦤꦸꦮꦸꦤꦏꦁꦗꦼꦁꦱꦸꦭ꧀ꦠꦤ꧀ꦲꦩꦼꦁꦏꦸꦨꦸꦮꦤꦱꦺꦤꦥꦠꦶꦲꦶꦁꦔꦭꦒꦔꦧ꧀ꦢꦸꦭ꧀ꦫꦏ꦳꧀ꦩꦤ꧀ꦱꦪꦶꦢꦶꦤ꧀ꦥꦤꦠꦒꦩꦏ꦳ꦭꦶꦥ꦳ꦠꦸꦭ꧀ꦭꦃNgarsa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengkubuwana Senopati-ing-Ngalaga Ngabdulrakhman Sayyidin Panatagama Khalifatullah [lower-alpha 1]

Translates as: [11] [12]

His Highness the Sultan, Commander in the Battlefield, Servant of the Most Gracious, Cleric and Caliph that Safeguards the Religion.

As the result of further colonial intervention within the ruling family of the former Mataram Sultanate, the area which today is Special Region of Yogyakarta was divided into the Sultanate of Yogyakarta (Kasultanan Yogyakarta) and the Principality of Pakualam (Kadipaten Pakualaman). [9]

The Dutch Colonial Government arranged for the carrying out autonomous self-government, arranged under a political contract. When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed, the rulers, the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Prince of Pakualaman made a declaration supporting the newly founded Republic of Indonesia, and they would unite with the Republic. After the republic's independence is formally recognised by International public, the former royal realms were formally unified on 3 August 1950 into the Yogyakarta Special Region, with the Sultan of Yogyakarta became the hereditary Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region & the Prince of Pakualaman become its hereditary Vice Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region, formally on 30 August 2012 (article 18 paragraph 1c); [13] both were responsible to the President of Indonesia. [14] [9]

Princes and princesses of the Yogyakarta Sultanate (1870) COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Prinsen en prinsessen in de kraton van Jogjakarta TMnr 60001477.jpg
Princes and princesses of the Yogyakarta Sultanate (1870)

In carrying out the local government administration it considers three principles: decentralisation, concentration and assistance. The provincial government carries out the responsibilities and authorities of the central government, while on other hand carrying out its autonomous responsibilities and authorities. The Regional Government consists of the Head of the Region and the Legislative Assembly of the Region. Such construction guarantees good co-operation between the Head of Region and the Legislative Assembly of Region to achieve a sound regional government administration. The Head of the Special Region of Yogyakarta has got responsibility as the Head of the Territory and titled as a Governor. [9]

The first Governor was the late Hamengkubuwono IX, Sultan of Yogyakarta and continued by Paku Alam VIII as acting governor until Hamengkubuwono X ascended in 1998. [15] Unlike the other heads of regions in Indonesia, the governor of the Special Region of Yogyakarta has the privilege or special status of not being bound to the period of position nor the requirements and way of appointment (article 25 paragraph 1 & 2). [16] However, in carrying out their duties, they have the same authority and responsibilities. [9]

On 5 May 2015, following a Royal Decree issued by the Sultan, Princess Mangkubumi (previously known as Princess Pembayun) received the new name Mangkubumi Hamemayu Hayuning Bawana Langgeng ing Mataram. This denotes her as the heiress presumptive to the Sultanate. [17] The title Mangkubumi was formerly reserved for senior male princes groomed for the throne, including the reigning Sultan. The decree thus admits female royals into the line of succession for the first time since the founding of the Sultanate. According to the current Sultan, this was in line with his prerogatives; his action was nonetheless criticised by more conservative male family members such as his siblings, who were thus displaced in the line of succession. [18]

Residences

Pagelaran, the front hall of The Royal Palace of Yogyakarta Kraton Yogyakarta Pagelaran.jpg
Pagelaran, the front hall of The Royal Palace of Yogyakarta

The principal residence of the sultan is the kraton (palace), sometimes called the keraton but otherwise known in formal terms Keraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat (Javanese script: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀​ꦔꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦡ​ꦲꦢꦶꦤꦶꦔꦿꦠ꧀).

List of Sultans

List of sultants of Yogyakarta:

NameBirth-DeathStart of ReignEnd of ReignDescriptionPortrait
Hamengkubuwono I

Raden Mas Sujana

6 August 1717 – 4 March 1792 (aged 74)17551792Son of Amangkurat IV
Hamengkubuwono II

Raden Mas Sundoro

7 March 1750 – 3 January 1828 (aged 77)17921810Son of Hamengkubuwono I Hamengkubuwono II.jpg
Hamengkubuwono III

Raden Mas Surojo

20 February 1769 – 3 November 1814 (aged 45)18101811Son of Hamengkubuwono II Official Portrait of Sultan Hamengkubowono III.jpg
Hamengkubuwono II

Raden Mas Sundoro

7 March 1750 – 3 January 1828 (aged 77)18111812Son of Hamengkubuwono I Hamengkubuwono II.jpg
Hamengkubuwono III

Raden Mas Surojo

20 February 1769 – 3 November 1814 (aged 45)18121814Son of Hamengkubuwono II Official Portrait of Sultan Hamengkubowono III.jpg
Hamengkubuwono IV

Raden Mas Ibnu Jarot

3 April 1804 – 6 December 1822 (aged 18)18141822Son of Hamengkubuwono III Official Portrait of Sultan Hamengkubowono IV.jpg
Hamengkubuwono V

Raden Mas Gathot Menol

20 August 1821 – 185518221826Son of Hamengkubuwono IV Official Portrait of Sultan Hamengkubowono V.jpg
Hamengkubuwono II

Raden Mas Sundoro

7 March 1750 – 3 January 1828 (aged 77)18261828Son of Hamengkubuwono I Hamengkubuwono II.jpg
Hamengkubuwono V

Raden Mas Gathot Menol

20 August 1821 – 185518281855Son of Hamengkubuwono IV Official Portrait of Sultan Hamengkubowono V.jpg
Hamengkubuwono VI

Raden Mas Mustojo

1821 – 20 July 187718551877Brother of Hamengkubuwono V Official Portrait of Sultan Hamengkubowono VI.jpg
Hamengkubuwono VII

Raden Mas Murtejo

1839–193118771921Son of Hamengkubuwono VI Portrait of Sultan Hamengkubowono VII.jpg
Hamengkubuwono VIII

Raden Mas Sujadi

3 March 1880 – 22 October 1939 (aged 59)19211939Son of Hamengkubuwono VII Official portrait of Sultan Sri Sultan Hamengkubowono VIII.jpg
Hamengkubuwono IX

Raden Mas Dorodjatun

12 August 1912 – 2 October 1988 (aged 76)19391988Son of Hamengkubuwono VIII Hamengkubawono IX Official Portrait.jpg
Hamengkubuwono X

Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito

2 April 19461988Current SultanSon of Hamengkubuwono IX Hamengkubuwono x.jpg

See also

Notes

  1. Correct order of the title according to 2012 Indonesian Law No. 13 concerning Specialities of Special Region of Yogyakarta, Article 1 No. 4 [10]

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Special Region of Yogyakarta Special Region and province in Indonesia

The Special Region of Yogyakarta is a provincial-level autonomous region of Indonesia in the southern Java. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south, as well as sharing all the land borders to the province of Central Java. Ruled by the Yogyakarta Sultanate, the region is the only officially recognized monarchy within the government of Indonesia. The city of Yogyakarta is a popular tourist destination and cultural center of the region.

Kulon Progo Regency Regency in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Kulon Progo Regency is one of the four regencies within the Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. It is located on the island of Java. The regency's name stems from the fact that it is situated to the west of the Progo River. The capital is Wates. The greatest part of the population of the regency work as farmers. Kulon Progo Regency is surrounded by the Menoreh Hills. The area of the regency is 586.27 km², and the population was 388,755 at the 2010 Census and 436,395 at the 2020 Census.

Mataram Sultanate Historic kingdom on the island of Java, in present-day Indonesia (1586-1755)

The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on the island of Java before it was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior of Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.

Hamengkubuwono Ruling dynasty of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in Java, Indonesia

Hamengkubuwono is the current ruling royal house of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in the Special Region of Yogyakarta of Indonesia. The reigning Sultan of Yogyakarta is the hereditary Governor of the Special Region with terms of 5 years without bounded by periodic provision, as normally applied to such public office. The current Sultan is Hamengkubuwono X.

Hamengkubuwono X Tenth sultan of Yogyakarta

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X is the Sultan of the historic Yogyakarta Sultanate in Indonesia, and is currently also the Governor of the modern Yogyakarta Special Region.

Hamengkubuwono IX 2nd Vice President of Indonesia (1973–1978)

Hamengkubuwono IX or HB IX was an Indonesian statesman and royal who was the second vice president of Indonesia, the ninth sultan of Yogyakarta, and the first governor of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. Hamengkubuwono IX was also the Chairman of the first National Scout Movement Quarter and was known as the Father of the Indonesian Scouts.

Kraton (Indonesia) Javanese word for a royal palace

Kraton or Keraton is a type of royal palace in Indonesia. Its name is derived from the Javanese ka-ratu-an, meaning residence of the ratu, the traditional honorific title for a king or queen. In Java, the palace of a prince is called pura or dalem, while the general word for palace is istana, identical to Indonesian and Malay.

Fort Vredeburg Museum History museum in Jalan Ahmad Yani No. , Yogyakarta

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Hamengkubuwono I 1st Sultan of Yogyakarta (reigned 1717-1792), in Central Java, present-day Indonesia

Hamengkubuwono I, born Raden Mas Sujana, was the first sultan of Yogyakarta, reigning between 1755 and 1792.

Yogyakarta City and Capital of D.I Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Nyai Roro Kidul Indonesian goddess of the sea

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Treaty of Giyanti 1755 agreement to divide the central Javanese sultanate of Mataram in two

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Pakualaman

Pakualaman is a minor Javanese princely state within the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. It was created in 1812 when Natakusuma was rewarded for helping the British quell the conflict in Yogyakarta in June 1812. It became the mirror-image of the Mangkunegaran principality in the territory of the Susuhunanate of Surakarta.

Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat

The Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat is a palace complex in the city of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. It is the seat of the reigning Sultan of Yogyakarta and his family. The complex is a center of Javanese culture, and contains a museum displaying royal artifacts. It is guarded by the Yogyakarta Kraton Guards.

Hamengkubuwono V

Hamengkubuwono V was the fifth Sultan of Yogyakarta, reigning from 19 December 1823, to 17 August 1826, and then from January 17, 1828, to June 5, 1855 being interspersed by the rule of Hamengkubuwono II due to the then political instability.

Mangkunegara II

Mangkunegara II, also known as Prince Adipati Prangwedana I, Prince Surya Mataram, Prince Surya Mangkubumi, was the second ruler of Mangkunegaran in Java in the eighteenth century who succeeded to the throne of his grandfather, Mangkunegara I. His reign lasted from 1796 to 1835. Mangkunegara II was the son of Crown Prince Arya Prabumijaya I, who was the son of Mangkunegara I. Upon his death in 1835, he was the last male descendant Prince Sambernyawa to be named the Duke of Mangkunegaran.

Surakarta Sunanate Javanese monarchy

Surakarta Sunanate was a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia.

Kauman Great Mosque Mosque in Indonesia

Kauman Great Mosque, approximate English translation of Javanese Mesjid Gedhe Kauman is a Great Mosque of the Yogyakarta Sultanate in Java, Indonesia. It is located to the west of the North Alun-alun of Yogyakarta Kraton.

Paku Alam X Vice-governor of Yogyakarta

KGPAA Paku Alam X is the ruler of Pakualaman, a small principality in Yogyakarta in central Java, Indonesia. He succeeded as Paku Alam upon the death of the previous ruler, his father Paku Alam IX, who died on 21 November 2015. He was formally crowned with the Royal Javanese title of Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya (KGPAA) Paku Alam X on 7 January 2016, and as stated in the National Constitution, on 25 May 2016, He was sworn and appointed as the hereditary Vice-Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region.

Yogyakarta Kraton Guards

The Yogyakarta Kraton Guards are the contingents of soldiers guarding the Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, the official residence of the Sultans of Yogyakarta. They serve ceremonial and security functions. By tradition, the reigning Sultan of Yogyakarta serves as Colonel-in-chief of the Guards.

References

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  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Sejarah Kesultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, Tahun 1755–1950, dan Pembentukan Daerah Otonomi Khusus Yogyakarta Tahun 1950, sejarahnusantara.com
  10. id:Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 13 Tahun 2012  (in Indonesian). Republik Indonesia. 2012 via Wikisource.
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  12. Overseas Trading. Australia: Department of Commerce and Agriculture. 1971. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
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  15. "Yogyakarta History". Blogspot.
  16. Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. "UU No. 13 Tahun 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  17. Slamet Susanto (6 May 2015). "Sultan names eldest daughter Crown Princess". theJakartapost.com. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
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Official site of Sultanate of Yogyakarta