Location of Yokkaichi in Mie Prefecture
|• Mayor||Tomohiro Mori|
|• Total||206.44 km2 (79.71 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)|
|- Tree||Cinnamomum camphora|
|- Flower||Salvia splendens|
|Address||1-5 Suwa-chō, Yokkaichi-shi, Mie-ken 510-8601|
Yokkaichi (四日市市, Yokkaichi-shi) is a city located in Mie Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 August 2021 [update] , the city had an estimated population of 310,259 in 142162 households and a population density of 1500 persons per km². The total area of the city is 206.44 square kilometres (79.71 sq mi).
Yokkaichi is located in north-central of Mie Prefecture, part of the northeastern Kii Peninsula. It stretches the width of Mie Prefecture, and is bordered by Ise Bay on the Pacific Ocean to the east, and Shiga Prefecture to the northwest.
Yokkaichi has a Humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) characterized by warm summers and cool winters with light to no snowfall. The average annual temperature in Yokkaichi is 14.9 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1737 mm with September as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.5 °C, and lowest in January, at around 3.6 °C.
|Climate data for Yokkaichi, Mie|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||0.3|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||43.1|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||63||63||62||67||71||79||82||79||77||71||67||65||71|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||152.0||141.9||174.0||171.2||198.2||145.9||155.7||187.7||133.7||158.3||152.0||158.2||1,928.8|
|Source: NOAA (1961-1990)|
Per Japanese census data,the population of Yokkaichi has increased steadily over the past 60 years.
The area around modern Yokkaichi has been settled since prehistoric times. Numerous Kofun period burial mounds have been discovered, and the area was one of the battle sites of the Asuka period Jinshin War. However, until the end of the Heian period, the area was sparsely settled, and the site of Yokkaichi was only a small port village. The area developed during the Kamakura period and by the Azuchi–Momoyama period, the port was developed and a regular market was opened on the 4th, 14th, and 24th day each month. Thus, the city is named Yokkaichi: "yokka" means fourth day, and "ichi" means market. After the Honnō-ji Incident during which warlord Oda Nobunaga was assassinated, Tokugawa Ieyasu fled from Yokkaichi port by sea to his castle at Edo. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, Yokkaichi was tenryō territory controlled directly by the shōgun and administered by a daikan based at the Yokkaichi Jin'ya. Throughout the Edo period, the area prospered as Yokkaichi-juku, the forty-third station on the Tōkaidō highway connecting Edo with Kyoto. However, the city was largely destroyed by the Ansei great earthquakes.
Following the Meiji Restoration, Yokkaichi Town was established with the creation of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889 and was designated the capital of Mie Prefecture. Yokkaichi's port advanced remarkably during the Meiji period, primarily under the guidance of Inaba Sanuemon, a resident merchant interested in increasing trade in the Yokkaichi and Ise area by modernizing the port facilities. Starting in 1872, the project took 12 years to complete due to typhoons and difficulties in financing the project. This led to the port city being designated an Official International Port in 1899The primary trade items shipped through Yokkaichi were originally seed oil, Banko ware, and Ise tea; but now it has developed into a port that handles cotton, wool, glass, and heavy equipment. Yokkaichi was elevated to city status on August 1, 1897.
From 1939, Yokkaichi became a center for the chemical industry, with the Imperial Japanese Navy constructing a large refinery near the port area. Yokkaichi was one of the first cities bombed by the United States during World War II, when on April 18, 1942, the city was attacked by aircraft from the Doolittle Raid. During the final stages of World War II, on June 18, 1945, 89 B-29 Superfortress bombers dropped 11,000 incendiary bombs destroying 35% of the urban area and killing 736 people. This attack on Yokkaichi was followed by another eight air raids until August 8, 1945, killing another 808 people.
From 1960 to 1972, the city residents suffered health problems caused by the emission of SOx into the atmosphere from local petrochemical and chemical plants. In Japan, a disease called Yokkaichi zensoku (Yokkaichi asthma) derives its name from the city, and it is considered one of the Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan.
Yokkaichi attained special city status on November 1, 2000, with increased local autonomy.
On February 7, 2005, the town of Kusu (from Mie District) was merged into Yokkaichi.
Yokkaichi has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 34 members. Yokkaichi contributes seven members to the Mie Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is divided between Mie 2nd district and Mie 3rd district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.
Yokkaichi is a manufacturing center that produces Banko ware (a kind of porcelain), automobiles, cotton textiles, chemicals, tea, cement, and computer parts such as flash memory by Toshiba subsidiary Yokkaichi Toshiba Electronics.
Yokkaichi has 38 public elementary schools and 22 public middles schools operated by the city government and there are three private middle schools. The city also operates one special education school for the handicapped. The city has ten public high schools operated by the Mie Prefectural Board of Education and five private high schools. Ten prefecture also operates two special education schools for the handicapped.
JR Tōkai – Kansai Main Line
Kintetsu Railway – Nagoya Line
Kintetsu Railway – Yunoyama Line
Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway – Utsube Line
Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway – Hachiōji Line
Sangi Railway – Sangi Line
Yokkaichi has two sister cities and one sister port.
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Kintetsu-Yokkaichi Station is a major interchange railway station located in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu Railway. The third-sector Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway, which is jointly owned by Kintetsu and the city of Yokkaichi, uses a part of the station as its terminal Asunarou Yokkaichi Station.
The Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line is a 762 mm narrow gauge railway line operated by the Japanese private railway company Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway, connecting Asunarou Yokkaichi Station and Utsube Station, both in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan.
The Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Hachiōji Line is a 762 mm narrow gauge railway line operated by the Japanese private railway company Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway, connecting Hinaga Station and Nishihino Station, both in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan. It extends for a total length of 1.3 kilometres (0.81 mi).
Kintetsu-Tomida Station is an interchange passenger railway station in located in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan. It is operated jointly by the private railway operators Kintetsu Railway and Sangi Railway.
Kita-Kusu Station is a passenger railway station in located in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu Railway.
Kusu Station is a passenger railway station in located in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu Railway.
Akahori Station is a railway station on the Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line in Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway. It is 1.0 rail kilometers from the terminus of the Utsube Line at Asunarou Yokkaichi Station.
Minami-Hinaga Station is a railway station on the Kintetsu Utsube Line in Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu. It is 2.5 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kintetsu-Yokkaichi Station.
Oiwake Station is a railway station on the Kintetsu Utsube Line in Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu. It is 4.3 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Kintetsu-Yokkaichi Station.
Tomida Station is a passenger railway station in located in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by Central Japan Railway Company. It is also a freight depot for the freight-only Sangi Railway.
The Hokusei Line, commonly known as the Sangi Hokusei Line, is a 762 mm narrow gauge railway line owned and operated by the Sangi Railway, a Japanese private railway company. The line connects Nishi-Kuwana Station in Kuwana, Mie with Ageki Station in Inabe, Mie, in Japan. For many years the line was owned by major railway operator Kintetsu but control was transferred to Sangi in April 2003.
Ise-Hatta Station is a passenger railway station located in the city of Inabe, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Sangi Railway.
Hobo Station is a passenger railway station located in the city of Yokkaichi, Mie Prefecture, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Sangi Railway.
The Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway is a railway company in Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan. The company operates the Utsube Line and the Hachiōji Line in Yokkaichi. Both lines are 762 mm gauge railways.
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