Yokohama

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Yokohama

横浜市
City of Yokohama
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Yamashita Park, Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan - panoramio (11).jpg
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Flag of Yokohama, Japan.svg
Flag
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Seal
Yokohama
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Map of Kanagawa Prefecture with Yokohama highlighted in purple
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Yokohama
 
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Yokohama
Yokohama (Asia)
Coordinates: 35°26′39″N139°38′17″E / 35.44417°N 139.63806°E / 35.44417; 139.63806 Coordinates: 35°26′39″N139°38′17″E / 35.44417°N 139.63806°E / 35.44417; 139.63806
CountryFlag of Japan.svg  Japan
Region Kantō
Prefecture Kanagawa Prefecture
Government
  Mayor Fumiko Hayashi
Area
  Total437.38 km2 (168.87 sq mi)
Population
 (October 1, 2016)
  Total3,732,616
  Density8,534.03/km2 (22,103.0/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
– Tree Camellia, Chinquapin, Sangoju
Sasanqua, Ginkgo, Zelkova
– Flower Rose
Address1-1 Minato-chō, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken
231-0017
Website www.city.yokohama.lg.jp
Yokohama
Yokohama (Chinese characters).svg
"Yokohama" in new-style ( shinjitai ) kanji
Japanese name
Hiragana よこはま
Katakana ヨコハマ
Kyūjitai 橫濱
Shinjitai 横浜

Yokohama (Japanese: 横浜 , pronounced  [jokohama] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the second-largest city in Japan by population [1] and the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.

Contents

Yokohama developed rapidly as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the mid-19th century and is today one of its major ports along with Kobe, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, Tokyo and Chiba.

Etymology

Yokohama (横浜) means "horizontal beach". [2] The current area surrounded by Maita Park, the Ōoka River and the Nakamura River have been a gulf divided by a sandbar from the open sea. This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach". [3]

History

Opening of the Treaty Port (1859–1868)

Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period, when Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little contact with foreigners. [4] A major turning point in Japanese history happened in 1853–54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, and the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity. [5]

It was initially agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign ships would be the bustling town of Kanagawa-juku (in what is now Kanagawa Ward) on the Tōkaidō, a strategic highway that linked Edo to Kyoto and Osaka. However, the Tokugawa shogunate decided that Kanagawa-juku was too close to the Tōkaidō for comfort, and port facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing village of Yokohama. The Port of Yokohama was officially opened on June 2, 1859. [6]

Yokohama quickly became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners initially occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai, residential districts later expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city, commonly referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.

Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district (literally, inside the barrier), was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. Interactions with the local population, particularly young samurai, outside the settlement inevitably caused problems; the Namamugi Incident, one of the events that preceded the downfall of the shogunate, took place in what is now Tsurumi Ward in 1862, and prompted the Bombardment of Kagoshima in 1863.

To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese also came to settle in the city. [7] Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan. [8] Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863 [9] and rugby union in 1866. A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866, and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow rapidly – attracting foreigners and Japanese alike.

Meiji and Taisho Periods (1868–1923)

After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper (1870), first gas-powered street lamps (1872) and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his widely read novel Around the World in Eighty Days , capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city.

In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company. The city was officially incorporated on April 1, 1889. [10] By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.

The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki, which eventually grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area. The growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, and many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea also led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato, then the largest slum in Japan.

Great Kanto earthquake and the Second World War (1923–1945)

Much of Yokohama was destroyed on September 1, 1923, by the Great Kantō earthquake. The Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771 dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of 434,170. [11] Fuelled by rumors of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. [12] Many people believed that Koreans used black magic to cause the earthquake. Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930.

View of Yokohama after the bombing in 1945 Yokohama post bombing 1945.jpg
View of Yokohama after the bombing in 1945

Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.S. air raids during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on May 29, 1945 in what is now known as the Great Yokohama Air Raid, when B-29s firebombed the city and in just one hour and nine minutes reduced 42% of it to rubble. [10]

Post-World War II growth

During the American occupation, Yokohama was a major transshipment base for American supplies and personnel, especially during the Korean War. After the occupation, most local U.S. naval activity moved from Yokohama to an American base in nearby Yokosuka.

The city was designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956.[ citation needed ]

The city's tram and trolleybus system was abolished in 1972, the same year as the opening of the first line of Yokohama Municipal Subway.

Construction of Minato Mirai 21 ("Port Future 21"), a major urban development project on reclaimed land, started in 1983. Minato Mirai 21 hosted the Yokohama Exotic Showcase in 1989, which saw the first public operation of maglev trains in Japan and the opening of Cosmo Clock 21, then the tallest Ferris wheel in the world. The 860m-long Yokohama Bay Bridge opened in the same year.

In 1993, Minato Mirai saw the opening of the Yokohama Landmark Tower, the second tallest building in Japan.

The 2002 FIFA World Cup final was held in June at the International Stadium Yokohama.

In 2009, the city marked the 150th anniversary of the opening of the port and the 120th anniversary of the commencement of the City Administration. An early part in the commemoration project incorporated the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV) which was held in Yokohama in May 2008.

In November 2010, Yokohama hosted the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting.

Geography

Sentinel-2 image of Yokohama (2020) Yokohama by Sentinel-2, 2020-10-27.jpg
Sentinel-2 image of Yokohama (2020)

Topography

Yokohama has a total area of 437.38 km2 and is located 5 meters above sea level. It is the capital of Kanagawa prefecture, bordered to the east by Tokyo Bay and located in the middle of the Kantō plain. The city is surrounded by hills and the characteristic mountain system of the island of Honshū, so its growth has been limited and it has had to gain ground from the sea. This also affects the population density, one of the highest in Japan with 8,500 inhabitants per km2.

The highest points within the urban boundary are Omaruyama (156 m) and Mount Enkaizan (153 m). The main river is the Tsurumi River, which begins in the Tama Hills and empties into the Pacific Ocean. [13]

These municipalities surround Yokohama: Kawasaki, Yokosuka, Zushi, Kamakura, Fujisawa, Yamato, Machida.

Geology

The city is very prone to natural phenomena such as earthquakes and tropical cyclones because the island of Honshū has a high seismic activity, being in the middle of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Most seismic movements are of low intensity and are generally not perceived by people. However, Yokohama has experienced two major tremors that reflect the evolution of Earthquake engineering: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake devastated the city and caused more than 100,000 fatalities throughout the region, [14] while the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, with its epicenter on the east coast, was felt in the locality but only material damage was lamented because most buildings were already prepared to withstand them. [15]

Climate

Yokohama features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with hot, humid summers and chilly winters. [16] Weatherwise, Yokohama has a pattern of rain, clouds and sun, although in winter, it is surprisingly sunny, more so than Southern Spain. Winter temperatures rarely drop below freezing, while summer can seem quite warm, because of the effects of humidity. [17] The coldest temperature was on 24 January 1927 when −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) was reached, whilst the hottest day was 11 August 2013 at 37.4 °C (99.3 °F). The highest monthly rainfall was in October 2004 with 761.5 millimetres (30.0 in), closely followed by July 1941 with 753.4 millimetres (29.66 in), whilst December and January have recorded no measurable precipitation three times each.

Climate data for Yokohama (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1896−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.8
(69.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.5
(76.1)
28.7
(83.7)
31.3
(88.3)
35.5
(95.9)
37.2
(99.0)
37.4
(99.3)
36.2
(97.2)
32.4
(90.3)
26.2
(79.2)
23.7
(74.7)
37.4
(99.3)
Average high °C (°F)10.2
(50.4)
10.8
(51.4)
14.0
(57.2)
18.9
(66.0)
23.1
(73.6)
25.5
(77.9)
29.4
(84.9)
31.0
(87.8)
27.3
(81.1)
22.0
(71.6)
17.1
(62.8)
12.5
(54.5)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)6.1
(43.0)
6.7
(44.1)
9.7
(49.5)
14.5
(58.1)
18.8
(65.8)
21.8
(71.2)
25.6
(78.1)
27.0
(80.6)
23.7
(74.7)
18.5
(65.3)
13.4
(56.1)
8.7
(47.7)
16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F)2.7
(36.9)
3.1
(37.6)
6.0
(42.8)
10.7
(51.3)
15.5
(59.9)
19.1
(66.4)
22.9
(73.2)
24.3
(75.7)
21.0
(69.8)
15.7
(60.3)
10.1
(50.2)
5.2
(41.4)
13.0
(55.4)
Record low °C (°F)−8.2
(17.2)
−6.8
(19.8)
−4.6
(23.7)
−0.5
(31.1)
3.6
(38.5)
9.2
(48.6)
13.3
(55.9)
15.5
(59.9)
11.2
(52.2)
2.2
(36.0)
−2.4
(27.7)
−5.6
(21.9)
−8.2
(17.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)64.7
(2.55)
64.7
(2.55)
139.5
(5.49)
143.1
(5.63)
152.6
(6.01)
188.8
(7.43)
182.5
(7.19)
139.0
(5.47)
241.5
(9.51)
240.4
(9.46)
107.6
(4.24)
66.4
(2.61)
1,730.8
(68.14)
Average snowfall cm (inches)4
(1.6)
4
(1.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
9
(3.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)5.76.311.010.711.113.512.08.812.712.18.66.2118.8
Average relative humidity (%)53546065707878767671655767
Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.7167.2168.8181.2187.4135.9170.9206.4141.2137.3151.1178.12,018.3
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [18]

Demographics

Historical population

Kanagawa Prefectural Office Kanagawa Prefectural Office.jpg
Kanagawa Prefectural Office
Yokohama Station Yokohama-west-station-building-202009.jpg
Yokohama Station
Minato Mirai 21 at dusk Minato Mirai In Blue.jpg
Minato Mirai 21 at dusk
Population
Year of
census
PopulationRank among cities in Japan
187364,6027th, behind Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto,
Nagoya, Kanazawa and Hiroshima [19]
1920422,9426th, behind Kobe, Kyoto,
Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo
1925405,8886th
1930620,3066th
1935704,2906th
1940968,0915th, surpassing Kobe
1945814,3794th, the city government of Tokyo
having been disbanded in 1943
1950951,1894th
19551,143,6874th
19601,375,7103rd, surpassing Kyoto
19651,788,9153rd
19702,238,2642nd, surpassing Nagoya
19752,621,7712nd
19802,773,6741st, surpassing Osaka [20]
19852,992,9261st
19903,220,3311st
19953,307,1361st
20003,426,6511st
20053,579,1331st
20103,670,6691st
20153,710,8241st

Yokohama's foreign population of 92,139 includes Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Vietnamese. [21]

Wards

Yokohama has 18 wards (ku):

Wards of Yokohama
Place NameMap of Yokohama
Rōmaji Kanji PopulationLand area in km2Pop. density

per km2

1 Aoba-ku 青葉区302,64335.148,610
A map of Yokohama's Wards Yokohama Wards.png
A map of Yokohama's Wards
2 Asahi-ku 旭区249,04532.777,600
3
Hodogaya-ku
保土ヶ谷区205,88721.819,400
4 Isogo-ku 磯子区163,40619.178,520
5 Izumi-ku 泉区155,67423.516,620
6 Kanagawa-ku 神奈川区230,40123.889,650
7 Kanazawa-ku 金沢区209,56531.016,760
8 Kōhoku-ku 港北区332,48831.4010,588
9 Kōnan-ku 港南区221,53619.8711,500
10 Midori-ku 緑区176,03825.426,900
11 Minami-ku 南区197,01912.6715,500
12 Naka-ku (administrative center)中区146,56320.867,030
13 Nishi-ku 西区93,2107.0413,210
14 Sakae-ku 栄区124,84518.556,750
15 Seya-ku 瀬谷区126,83917.117,390
16 Totsuka-ku 戸塚区274,78335.707,697
17 Tsurumi-ku 鶴見区270,43333.238,140
18 Tsuzuki-ku 都筑区211,45527.937,535

Government and politics

The Yokohama Municipal Assembly consists of 92 members elected from a total of 18 Wards. The LDP has minority control with 30 seats with Democratic Party of Japan with a close 29. The mayor is Fumiko Hayashi, who succeeded Hiroshi Nakada in September 2009.

List of mayors (from 1889)

Culture and sights

Sankei-en-Park Sankeien Rinshunkaku 2.jpg
Sankei-en-Park
Chinatown Zhong Hua Jie Yokohama-chuukagai.jpg
Chinatown 中華街
Yokohama Landmark Tower Yokohama-Landmark-Tower-02.jpg
Yokohama Landmark Tower
CupNoodles Museum Cupnoodles Museum Yokohama 2017.jpg
CupNoodles Museum

Yokohama's cultural and tourist sights include:

Museums

There are 42 museums in the city area. [23]

Excursion destinations

In 2016, 46,017,157 tourists visited the city, 13.1% of whom were overnight guests. [23]

Sports

Yokohama Stadium Yokohama stadium 2020 wing.jpg
Yokohama Stadium

Economy and infrastructure

The city has a strong economic base, especially in the shipping, biotechnology, and semiconductor industries. Nissan moved its headquarters to Yokohama from Chūō, Tokyo in 2010. [25] Yokohama's GDP per capita (Nominal) was $30,625($1=\120.13). [26] [27]

Transport

A route map in Yokohama and Tokyo(JR) YokosukaLineStations.png
A route map in Yokohama and Tokyo(JR)

Yokohama is serviced by the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, a high-speed rail line with a stop at Shin-Yokohama Station. Yokohama Station is also a major station, with two million passengers daily. The Yokohama Municipal Subway, Minatomirai Line and Kanazawa Seaside Line provide metro services.

Maritime transport

Yokohama is the world's 31st largest seaport in terms of total cargo volume, at 121,326 freight tons as of 2011, and is ranked 37th in terms of TEUs (Twenty-foot equivalent units). [28]

In 2013, APM Terminals Yokohama facility was recognised as the most productive container terminal in the world averaging 163 crane moves per hour, per ship between the vessel's arrival and departure at the berth. [29]

Rail transport

Railway stations
East Japan Railway Company
Tōkaidō Main Line
Yokosuka Line
Keihin-Tōhoku Line
Negishi Line
Yokohama Line
Nambu Line
Tsurumi Line
Central Japan Railway Company
Tōkaidō Shinkansen
  • – Shin-Yokohama –
Keikyu
Keikyu Main Line
Keikyu Zushi Line
Tokyu Corporation
Tōyoko Line
Meguro Line
  • – Hiyoshi
Den-en-toshi Line
Kodomonokuni Line
Sagami Railway
Sagami Railway Main Line
Izumino Line
Yokohama Minatomirai Railway
Minatomirai Line
Yokohama City Transportation Bureau
Blue Line
Green Line
Yokohama New Transit
Kanazawa Seaside Line

Education

Public elementary and middle schools are operated by the city of Yokohama. There are nine public high schools which are operated by the Yokohama City Board of Education, [30] and a number of public high schools which are operated by the Kanagawa Prefectural Board of Education. Yokohama National University is a leading university in Yokohama which is also one of the highest ranking national universities in Japan.

International relations

Yokohama Chinatown Tyuukagaimon.jpg
Yokohama Chinatown

Twin towns – sister cities

Yokohama is twinned with: [31]

Partner cities

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References

Citations

  1. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/yokohama
  2. "Memories of old Honmoku". The Japan Times. May 19, 1999. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
  3. "Yokohama City History, pg. 3" (PDF).
  4. Der Große Brockhaus. 16. edition. Vol. 6. F. A. Brockhaus, Wiesbaden 1955, p. 82
  5. "Official Yokohama city website it is fresh". City.yokohama.jp. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
  6. Arita, Erika, "Happy Birthday Yokohama!", The Japan Times , May 24, 2009, p. 7.
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