|City of Yokohama|
Map of Kanagawa Prefecture with Yokohama highlighted in purple
|• Mayor||Fumiko Hayashi|
|• Total||437.38 km2 (168.87 sq mi)|
(October 1, 2016)
|• Density||8,534.03/km2 (22,103.0/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)|
|– Tree|| Camellia, Chinquapin, Sangoju |
Sasanqua, Ginkgo, Zelkova
|Address||1-1 Minato-chō, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken|
Yokohama (Japanese: 横浜 , pronounced [jokohama] ( listen )) is the second-largest city in Japan by population and the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.
Yokohama developed rapidly as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the mid-19th century and is today one of its major ports along with Kobe, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, Tokyo and Chiba.
Yokohama (横浜) means "horizontal beach".The current area surrounded by Maita Park, the Ōoka River and the Nakamura River have been a gulf divided by a sandbar from the open sea. This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach".
Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period, when Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little contact with foreigners.A major turning point in Japanese history happened in 1853–54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, and the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity.
It was initially agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign ships would be the bustling town of Kanagawa-juku (in what is now Kanagawa Ward) on the Tōkaidō, a strategic highway that linked Edo to Kyoto and Osaka. However, the Tokugawa shogunate decided that Kanagawa-juku was too close to the Tōkaidō for comfort, and port facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing village of Yokohama. The Port of Yokohama was officially opened on June 2, 1859.
Yokohama quickly became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners initially occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai, residential districts later expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city, commonly referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.
Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district (literally, inside the barrier), was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. Interactions with the local population, particularly young samurai, outside the settlement inevitably caused problems; the Namamugi Incident, one of the events that preceded the downfall of the shogunate, took place in what is now Tsurumi Ward in 1862, and prompted the Bombardment of Kagoshima in 1863.
To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese also came to settle in the city.Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan. Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863 and rugby union in 1866. A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866, and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow rapidly – attracting foreigners and Japanese alike.
After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper (1870), first gas-powered street lamps (1872) and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his widely read novel Around the World in Eighty Days , capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city.
In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company. The city was officially incorporated on April 1, 1889.By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.
The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki, which eventually grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area. The growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, and many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea also led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato, then the largest slum in Japan.
Much of Yokohama was destroyed on September 1, 1923, by the Great Kantō earthquake. The Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771 dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of 434,170.Fuelled by rumors of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. Many people believed that Koreans used black magic to cause the earthquake. Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930.
Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.S. air raids during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on May 29, 1945 in what is now known as the Great Yokohama Air Raid, when B-29s firebombed the city and in just one hour and nine minutes reduced 42% of it to rubble.
During the American occupation, Yokohama was a major transshipment base for American supplies and personnel, especially during the Korean War. After the occupation, most local U.S. naval activity moved from Yokohama to an American base in nearby Yokosuka.
The city was designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956.[ citation needed ]
The city's tram and trolleybus system was abolished in 1972, the same year as the opening of the first line of Yokohama Municipal Subway.
Construction of Minato Mirai 21 ("Port Future 21"), a major urban development project on reclaimed land, started in 1983. Minato Mirai 21 hosted the Yokohama Exotic Showcase in 1989, which saw the first public operation of maglev trains in Japan and the opening of Cosmo Clock 21, then the tallest Ferris wheel in the world. The 860m-long Yokohama Bay Bridge opened in the same year.
In 1993, Minato Mirai saw the opening of the Yokohama Landmark Tower, the second tallest building in Japan.
The 2002 FIFA World Cup final was held in June at the International Stadium Yokohama.
In 2009, the city marked the 150th anniversary of the opening of the port and the 120th anniversary of the commencement of the City Administration. An early part in the commemoration project incorporated the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV) which was held in Yokohama in May 2008.
In November 2010, Yokohama hosted the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting.
Yokohama has a total area of 437.38 km2 and is located 5 meters above sea level. It is the capital of Kanagawa prefecture, bordered to the east by Tokyo Bay and located in the middle of the Kantō plain. The city is surrounded by hills and the characteristic mountain system of the island of Honshū, so its growth has been limited and it has had to gain ground from the sea. This also affects the population density, one of the highest in Japan with 8,500 inhabitants per km2.
The highest points within the urban boundary are Omaruyama (156 m) and Mount Enkaizan (153 m). The main river is the Tsurumi River, which begins in the Tama Hills and empties into the Pacific Ocean.
These municipalities surround Yokohama: Kawasaki, Yokosuka, Zushi, Kamakura, Fujisawa, Yamato, Machida.
The city is very prone to natural phenomena such as earthquakes and tropical cyclones because the island of Honshū has a high seismic activity, being in the middle of the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Most seismic movements are of low intensity and are generally not perceived by people. However, Yokohama has experienced two major tremors that reflect the evolution of Earthquake engineering: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake devastated the city and caused more than 100,000 fatalities throughout the region,while the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, with its epicenter on the east coast, was felt in the locality but only material damage was lamented because most buildings were already prepared to withstand them.
Yokohama features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with hot, humid summers and chilly winters. −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) was reached, whilst the hottest day was 11 August 2013 at 37.4 °C (99.3 °F). The highest monthly rainfall was in October 2004 with 761.5 millimetres (30.0 in), closely followed by July 1941 with 753.4 millimetres (29.66 in), whilst December and January have recorded no measurable precipitation three times each.Weatherwise, Yokohama has a pattern of rain, clouds and sun, although in winter, it is surprisingly sunny, more so than Southern Spain. Winter temperatures rarely drop below freezing, while summer can seem quite warm, because of the effects of humidity. The coldest temperature was on 24 January 1927 when
|Climate data for Yokohama (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1896−present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.8|
|Average high °C (°F)||10.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.7|
|Record low °C (°F)||−8.2|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||64.7|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||4|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)||5.7||6.3||11.0||10.7||11.1||13.5||12.0||8.8||12.7||12.1||8.6||6.2||118.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||53||54||60||65||70||78||78||76||76||71||65||57||67|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||192.7||167.2||168.8||181.2||187.4||135.9||170.9||206.4||141.2||137.3||151.1||178.1||2,018.3|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency|
|Population||Rank among cities in Japan|
|1873||64,602||7th, behind Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto,|
Nagoya, Kanazawa and Hiroshima
|1920||422,942||6th, behind Kobe, Kyoto,|
Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo
|1940||968,091||5th, surpassing Kobe|
|1945||814,379||4th, the city government of Tokyo |
having been disbanded in 1943
|1960||1,375,710||3rd, surpassing Kyoto|
|1970||2,238,264||2nd, surpassing Nagoya|
|1980||2,773,674||1st, surpassing Osaka|
Yokohama's foreign population of 92,139 includes Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos, and Vietnamese.
Yokohama has 18 wards (ku):
|Wards of Yokohama|
|Place Name||Map of Yokohama|
|Rōmaji||Kanji||Population||Land area in km2||Pop. density |
|12||Naka-ku (administrative center)||中区||146,563||20.86||7,030|
The Yokohama Municipal Assembly consists of 92 members elected from a total of 18 Wards. The LDP has minority control with 30 seats with Democratic Party of Japan with a close 29. The mayor is Fumiko Hayashi, who succeeded Hiroshi Nakada in September 2009.
Yokohama's cultural and tourist sights include:
There are 42 museums in the city area.
In 2016, 46,017,157 tourists visited the city, 13.1% of whom were overnight guests.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)
The city has a strong economic base, especially in the shipping, biotechnology, and semiconductor industries. Nissan moved its headquarters to Yokohama from Chūō, Tokyo in 2010.Yokohama's GDP per capita (Nominal) was $30,625($1=\120.13).
Yokohama is serviced by the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, a high-speed rail line with a stop at Shin-Yokohama Station. Yokohama Station is also a major station, with two million passengers daily. The Yokohama Municipal Subway, Minatomirai Line and Kanazawa Seaside Line provide metro services.
Yokohama is the world's 31st largest seaport in terms of total cargo volume, at 121,326 freight tons as of 2011 [update] , and is ranked 37th in terms of TEUs (Twenty-foot equivalent units).
In 2013, APM Terminals Yokohama facility was recognised as the most productive container terminal in the world averaging 163 crane moves per hour, per ship between the vessel's arrival and departure at the berth.
Public elementary and middle schools are operated by the city of Yokohama. There are nine public high schools which are operated by the Yokohama City Board of Education,and a number of public high schools which are operated by the Kanagawa Prefectural Board of Education. Yokohama National University is a leading university in Yokohama which is also one of the highest ranking national universities in Japan.
Yokohama is twinned with:
Kanagawa Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of Honshu. Kanagawa Prefecture is the second-most populous prefecture of Japan at 9,058,094 and has a geographic area of 2,415 km2 (932 sq mi). Kanagawa Prefecture borders Tokyo to the north, Yamanashi Prefecture to the northwest and Shizuoka Prefecture to the west.
The Tōkaidō Main Line is a major Japanese railway line of the Japan Railways Group network, connecting Tokyo and Kōbe stations. It is 515.4 km (320.3 mi) long, not counting its many freight feeder lines around the major cities. The high-speed Tōkaidō Shinkansen largely parallels the line.
Minato Mirai 21, often known as simply Minato Mirai and abbreviated as MM, is the central business district of Yokohama, Japan. Initially developed in the 1980s, Minato Mirai 21 was designed as a large master-planned development and new urban center planned to connect Yokohama's traditionally important areas and commercial centers of Kannai and the Yokohama Station area.
The Yokosuka Line is a railway line in Japan operated by the East Japan Railway Company.
Kanazawa-ku (金沢区) is one of the 18 wards of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 2010, the ward had an estimated population of 209,565 and a density of 6,760 persons per km². The total area was 31.01 km2 (11.97 sq mi). The ward symbol, established 1987, expresses the image of sea, waves, and a sea gull.
Naka-ku (中区) is one of the 18 wards of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. In 2010, the ward had an estimated population of 146,563 and a population density of 7,080 persons per km². The total area was 20.86 km².
Kawasaki-ku (川崎区) is one of the seven wards of the city of Kawasaki in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 2010, the ward had an estimated population of 216,826 and a density of 5,530 persons per km2. The total area was 39.21 square kilometres (15.14 sq mi). Kawasaki-ku has the home to the second largest Koreatown in Japan.
Tsurumi-ku (鶴見区) is one of the 18 ku (wards) of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 2010, the ward had an estimated population of 270,433 and a density of 8,140 persons per km². The total area was 33.23 km².
Pasmo is a rechargeable contactless smart card electronic money system. It is primarily used for public transport in Tokyo, Japan, where it was introduced on March 18, 2007. Pasmo can also be used as a payment card for vending machines and stores.
Kōhoku-ku (港北区) is one of the 18 wards of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of March 1, 2012, the ward had an estimated population of 332,488, with 156,198 households and a population density of 10,588.79 persons per km². The total area was 31.40 km². Kōhoku Ward has the largest population of Yokohama's 18 wards, and ranks second to Naka Ward in the total number of workplaces.
Nishi-ku (西区) is one of the 18 wards of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 2010, the ward had an estimated population of 93,027 and a density of 13,210 persons per km². The total area was 7.04 km².
Kanagawa-ku (神奈川区) is one of the 18 wards of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 2010, the ward had an estimated population of 230,401 and a density of 9,650 persons per km2. The total area was 23.88 km2.
Minami-ku (南区) is one of the 18 wards of the city of Yokohama in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 2010, the ward had an estimated population of 197,019 and a density of 15,550 persons per km². The total area was 12.67 km².
The Yokohama City Transportation Bureau, legally the Transportation Bureau, City of Yokohama is the local government administrative agency in charge of public transport services in the city of Yokohama, Japan.
Yokohama Municipal Subway is the rapid transit network in the city of Yokohama, Japan, south of Tokyo in Kanagawa pref. It is operated by Yokohama City Transportation Bureau as two lines, though three continuous lines exist.
Kawasaki is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, one of the main cities of Greater Tokyo Area and Keihin Industrial Area.
Kannai (関内) is a district in Naka Ward, Yokohama, Japan, bounded by the Ōoka River, JR Negishi Line, Nakamura River, and Yokohama waterfront. "Kannai" is not an official name of the area, but the common term of reference has been in use for over a century.
The Tōkaidō Freight Line is a railway line that links Odawara Station in Kanagawa Prefecture and Hamamatsuchō Station in central Tōkyō, Japan.
The Keihin Kyuko Bus Co., Ltd. is a bus company within the Keikyu Group which was established on 10 April 2003 to inherit all business of the Keihin Kyuko Electric Railway bus department.
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