Yongzheng Emperor

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Yongzheng Emperor
雍正帝
Emperor Yongzheng.PNG
Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Reign27 December 1722 – 8 October 1735
Predecessor Kangxi Emperor
Successor Qianlong Emperor
Prince Yong of the First Rank
(雍親王)
Reign1709–1722
BornAisin Gioro Yinzhen
(愛新覺羅 胤禛)
(1678-12-13)13 December 1678
(康熙十七年 十月 三十日)
Yonghe Palace, Forbidden City
Died8 October 1735(1735-10-08) (aged 56)
(雍正十三年 八月 二十三日)
Jiuzhou Qingyan Hall, Old Summer Palace
Burial
Tai Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
Empress
(m. 1691;died 1731)
Issue Hongshi
Hongli, Qianlong Emperor
Hongzhou, Prince Hegong of the First Rank
Hongyan, Prince Guogong of the Second Rank
Princess Huaike of the Second Rank
Names
Aisin Gioro Yinzhen
(愛新覺羅 胤禛)
Manchu: In jen (ᡳᠨ ᠵᡝᠨ)
Era dates
Yongzheng
(雍正; 5 February 1723 – 11 February 1736)
Manchu: Hūwaliyasun tob (ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠰᡠᠨ ᡨᠣᠪ)
Mongolian: Найралт Төв (ᠨᠢᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ)
Posthumous name
Emperor Jingtian Changyun Jianzhong Biaozhen Wenwu Yingming Kuanren Xinyi Ruisheng Daxiao Zhicheng Xian
(敬天昌運建中表正文武英明寬仁信毅睿聖大孝至誠 憲皇帝)
Manchu: Temgetulehe hūwangdi (ᡨᡝᠮᡤᡝᡨᡠᠯᡝᡥᡝ
ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ
)
Temple name
Shizong
(世宗)
Manchu: Šidzung (ᡧᡳᡯ᠊ᡠ᠊ᠩ)
House Aisin Gioro
Father Xuanye, Kangxi Emperor
Mother Empress Xiaogongren of the Uya clan
Religion Tibetan Buddhism

Since our dynasty began to rule China, the Mongols and other tribes living in extremely remote regions have been integrated into our territory. This is the expansion of China's territory (Zhongguo zhi jiangtu kaituo guangyuan).

Yongzheng's Dayi juemilu (A Record of Rightness to Dispel Confusion) (Yongzheng emperor, 1983: 5), as translated by Mark Elliott in The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (2001), p. 347, modified by Gang Zhao [24]

Since the Shunzhi Emperor's time, the Qing emperors had identified China and the Qing Empire as the same, and in treaties and diplomatic papers the Qing Empire called itself "China". [25] During the Kangxi and Yongzheng emperors' reigns, "China" (Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu) was used as the name of the Qing Empire in official Manchu language documents, identifying the Qing Empire and China as the same entity, with "Dulimbai Gurun" appearing in 160 official diplomatic papers between the Qing Empire and the Russian Empire. [26] The term "China" was redefined by the Qing emperors to be a multi-ethnic entity which included non-Han Chinese ethnic groups and their territories. [27] China and Qing were noticeably and increasingly equated with each other during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, with the Qianlong Emperor and the Qing government writing poems and documents using both the Chinese name Zhongguo and the Manchu name Dulimbai Gurun. Compared to the reigns of previous Qing emperors such as the Yongzheng and Kangxi emperors, the use of China to refer to the Qing Empire appears most during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, according to scholars who examined documents on Sino-Russian relations. [28]

The Yongzheng Emperor spoke out against the claim by anti-Qing rebels that the Qing were only rulers of Manchus and not China, saying "The seditious rebels claim that we are the rulers of Manchus and only later penetrated central China to become its rulers. Their prejudices concerning the division of their and our country have caused many vitriolic falsehoods. What these rebels have not understood is the fact that it is for the Manchus the same as the birthplace is for the people of the central plain. Shun belonged to the Eastern Yi, and King Wen to the Western Yi. Does this fact diminish their virtues?" (在逆賊等之意,徒謂本朝以滿洲之君入為中國之主,妄生此疆彼界之私,遂故為訕謗詆譏之說耳,不知本朝之為滿洲,猶中國之有籍貫,舜為東夷之人,文王為西夷之人,曾何損於聖德乎。 [29]

Religion

The Yongzheng Emperor offering sacrifices at the altar of the God of Agriculture, Shennong The Yongzheng Emperor Offering Sacrifices at the Altar of the God of Agriculture.jpg
The Yongzheng Emperor offering sacrifices at the altar of the God of Agriculture, Shennong

Commoners throughout Qing China were extremely diverse and multi-ethnic because not every region underwent sinification under the Manchu's suzerain. In accordance to the Book of Rites, Manchus of Qing chose to respect the local's cultural heritage and decided not to force their subject to acculturate and sinicize. Manchus of Qing acknowledged that each region has the prerogative to preserve their identity, heritage, and cultural tradition and their religious faith. Hence, each regions were allowed to keep their belief and way of worshipping the heavens. [30] On the other hand, since the commoners preserved their ways, Qing, Yongzheng in particular, highly encourages that Manchu elites should also preserve their ethnic identity and their distinctive ways of worshipping the heaven as well. [31] The Yongzheng Emperor stated: "The Lord of Heaven is Heaven itself.... In the empire we have a temple for honouring Heaven and sacrificing to Him. We Manchus have Tiao Tchin. The first day of every year we burn incense and paper to honor Heaven. We Manchus have our own particular rites for honouring Heaven; the Mongols, Chinese, Russians, and Europeans also have their own particular rites for honouring Heaven. I have never said that he [Urcen, a son of Sunu] could not honour heaven but that everyone has his way of doing it. As a Manchu, Urcen should do it like us." [32] Evidently, the Qing state practiced various religions, which was similar to the previous dynasty, the Ming. During the Ming, in the mid 1580s an Italian Jesuit, Matteo Ricci not only studied the Chinese language to understand the people and the Chinese culture, he also delved into the Confucian classics and adopted the scholar's official-literati robe during his stay near the Canton trading province. Introducing China to his religious faith was in Matteo Ricci's mission, and he successfully built a church in 1601 at Beijing, called Cathedral of Immaculate Conception. Johann Adam Schall von Bell, who was a German Jesuit, went to China in 1619, learned the Chinese language in 1623 in Macau, and was later appointed into the Imperial Astronomical Bureau in 1630 by the Ming, even after the fall of Ming to the rise of Qing, Schall's presence was welcomed by the Manchu of Qing and was appointed as the head of the Imperial Astronomical Bureau. [33] The accounts of Matteo establishing the institution of his Church during the Ming dynasty and Jesuits such as Schall who was able to acquire a bureaucratic position in the Qing's court was evident that China at one point did welcome things beyond its borders, such as religious faith that was brought by the missionaries, for instance. Even though the Catholic churches condemned the practice of the Chinese rites in 1645 throughout China, Catholic missionaries continued their practice until the Rites Controversy was concluded in 1742 CE. [34]

The Yongzheng Emperor was firmly against Christian converts among the Manchus. He warned them that the Manchus must follow only the Manchu way of worshipping Heaven since different peoples worshipped Heaven differently. [35]

In 1724, the Yongzheng Emperor issued a decree proscribing Catholicism. [36] This was followed by the persecution of Chinese Christians that steadily increased during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor's son, the Qianlong Emperor. [37]

Ancestral worship was understood as the Chinese customary tradition rather than a religious ritual. However, since the Catholic Churches condemns the Chinese rites and the decision by the "Church to ban the acceptance of the Chinese rites by the Jesuits" in Qing China, because the Church deemed the practice to be incompatible with the Catholic faith, led to the missionary banishment by Qianlong in 1742 CE as a response to the Catholic Church's decision. [34]

Death and succession

The Yongzheng Emperor ruled the Qing Empire for 13 years before dying suddenly in 1735 at the age of 56. Legend holds that he was assassinated by Lü Siniang, a daughter or granddaughter of Lü Liuliang, whose family was executed for literary crimes against the Qing government. Another theory was that Lü Siniang was the Yongzheng Emperor's lover, and the real mother of the Qianlong Emperor, but he refused to let her become the empress.

It is generally accepted that he died while reading court documents, and it is likely that his death was the result of elixir poisoning from an overdose of the elixir of immortality he was consuming in the belief that it would prolong his life. According to Zhang Tingyu, Yongzheng on his deathbed exhibited symptoms of poisoning, and in the wake of his death, his successor the Qianlong emperor evicted all Taoist priests from the palace, possibly as punishment for this incident.

To prevent a succession crisis like he had faced, the Yongzheng Emperor was said to have ordered his third son Hongshi (an ally of Yinsi) to commit suicide. He also devised a system for his successors to choose their heirs in secret. He wrote his chosen successor's name on two scrolls, placed one scroll in a sealed box and had the box stored behind the stele in the Qianqing Palace. He kept the other copy with him or hid it. After his death, the officials would compare the scroll in the box with the copy he had kept. If they were deemed identical, the person whose name was on the paper would be the new emperor. [38]

The Yongzheng Emperor was interred in the Western Qing tombs 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of Beijing, in the Tai (泰) mausoleum complex (known in Manchu as the Elhe Munggan). His fourth son Hongli, then still known as "Prince Bao (of the First Rank)", succeeded him as the Qianlong Emperor. The Qianlong Emperor rehabilitated many figures who had been purged during his father's reign, including restoring honours to many of his uncles who were formerly his father's rivals in the succession struggle.

Family

Parents

FatherXuanye, theKangxi Emperor (康熙帝) of the Aisin Gioro clan (愛新覺羅)

Mother Empress Xiaogongren (孝恭仁皇后) of the Uya clan (烏雅氏)

Consorts and issue

Empress

  • Empress Xiaojingxian (孝敬憲皇后) of the Ula-Nara clan (烏拉那拉), personal name: Duoqimuli (烏拉那拉), third cousin once removed.
    Tenure as Empress: 28 March 1723 – 29 October 1731
    • Honghui, Prince Duan of the First Rank (端親王 弘暉; 17 April 1697 – 7 July 1704), first son
  • Empress Xiaoshengxian (孝聖憲皇后) of the Niohuru clan (鈕祜祿)

Imperial Noble Consort

  • Imperial Noble Consort Dunsu (敦肅皇貴妃) of the Nian clan (年)
    Tenure as Imperial Noble Consort: 19–27 December 1725.
    • Fourth daughter (15 April 1715 – June/July 1717)
    • Fuyi (福宜; 30 June 1720 – 9 February 1721), seventh son
    • Fuhui, Prince Huai of the First Rank (懷親王 福惠; 27 November 1721 – 11 October 1728), eighth son
    • Fupei (福沛; 12 June 1723), ninth son
  • Imperial Noble Consort Chunque (純愨皇貴妃) of the Geng clan (耿氏)

Consort

  • Consort Qi (齊妃) of the Li clan (李氏)
    • Princess Huaike of the Second Rank (和碩懷恪公主; 15 August 1695 – April/May 1717), second daughter. Married Xingde (星德; d. 1739) of the Manchu Nara clan in September/October 1712
    • Hongfen (弘昐; 19 July 1697 – 30 March 1699), second son
    • Hongyun (弘昀; 19 September 1700 – 10 December 1710), third (second) son
    • Hongshi (弘時; 18 March 1704 – 20 September 1727), fourth (third) son
  • Consort Ning (寧妃)of the Wu clan (武氏), personal name: Lingyuan (令媛)
  • Consort Qian (謙妃) of the Liugiya clan (劉氏), personal name: Xiangyu (香玉)

Concubine

  • Concubine Mao (懋嬪) of the Song clan (宋氏)
    • First daughter (10 April 1694 – April/May 1694)
    • Third daughter (8 January 1707 – January/February 1707)

Ancestry

Yongzheng Emperor
Traditional Chinese 雍正帝
Simplified Chinese 雍正帝
Nurhaci (1559–1626)
Hong Taiji (1592–1643)
Empress Xiaocigao (1575–1603)
Shunzhi Emperor (1638–1661)
Jaisang
Empress Xiaozhuangwen (1613–1688)
Boli (d. 1654)
Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722)
Yangzhen (d. 1621)
Tulai (1606–1658)
Empress Xiaokangzhang (1638–1663)
Lady Gioro
Yongzheng Emperor (1678–1735)
Ebogen
Esen
Weiwu
Empress Xiaogongren (1660–1723)
Lady Saiheli
The Yongzheng Emperor in film and television
YearRegionTitleTypeYongzheng Emperor actorNotes
1975Hong KongThe Flying Guillotine
血滴子
FilmChiang YangProduced by the Shaw Brothers Studio
1980Hong KongDynasty
大內群英
Television series Alex Man 57 episodes
1988Hong Kong The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty Season 2
滿清十三皇朝2
Television seriesWai Lit50 episodes
1994Mainland China The Book and the Sword
书剑恩仇录
Television seriesLiu Dagang32 episodes
1995Hong KongSecret Battle of the Majesty
九王奪位
Television series Kwong Wa 40 episodes
1996Taiwan雍正大帝Television seriesTou Chung-hua
1997Taiwan Legend of YungChing
江湖奇俠傳
Television series Adam Cheng 58 / 59 episodes
1997Hong KongThe Hitman Chronicles
大刺客
Television series Eddie Cheung 35 episodes
1999Mainland China Yongzheng Dynasty
雍正王朝
Television series Tang Guoqiang 44 episodes
2001Taiwan玉指環Television series Chin Han alternative Chinese title 才子佳人乾隆皇
2001Mainland ChinaEmperor Yong Zheng
雍正皇帝
Television seriesLiu Xinyi31 episodes
2002Mainland China Li Wei the Magistrate
李卫当官
Television series Tang Guoqiang 30 episodes; also known as Li Wei Becomes an Official
2002Hong Kong Doomed to Oblivion
郑板桥
Television seriesSavio Tsang30 episodes
2002Mainland China Jiangshan Weizhong
江山为重
Television seriesLiu Guanxiong31 episodes; alternative Chinese title 大清帝国
2003Mainland ChinaPalace Painter Master Castiglione
宫廷画师郎世宁
Television series Kenny Bee 24 episodes
2003Hong Kong The King of Yesterday and Tomorrow
九五至尊
Television series Kwong Wa 20 episodes
2004Mainland China36th Chamber of Southern Shaolin
南少林三十六房
Television series Zhang Tielin 32 episodes
2004Mainland China Huang Taizi Mishi
皇太子秘史
Television seriesZhao Hongfei32 episodes
2004Mainland China Li Wei the Magistrate II
李卫当官2
Television series Tang Guoqiang 32 episodes
2005Mainland ChinaShang Shu Fang
上书房
Television seriesKou Zhenhai52 episodes
2005Mainland ChinaThe Juvenile Qianlong Emperor
少年宝亲王
Television series Zhang Guoli 40 episodes
2008Mainland China The Book and the Sword
书剑恩仇录
Television seriesShen Baoping40 episodes
2011Mainland China Palace
宫锁心玉
Television series Mickey He 35 episodes
Mainland China Scarlet Heart
步步惊心
Television series Nicky Wu 35 episodes
Mainland China Empresses in the Palace
后宫甄嬛传
Television series Chen Jianbin 76 episodes
2012Mainland China Palace II
宫锁珠帘
Television series Mickey He The sequel of Palace
2013Mainland China The Palace

宮鎖沉香

Film Lu Yi Produced and written by Yu Zheng
2014Hong Kong Gilded Chopsticks
食為奴
Television series Ben Wong 25 episodes
2015Mainland China Time to Love

新步步驚心

Film Tony Yang Realized by Song Di
2018Mainland China Story of Yanxi Palace
延禧攻略
Television seriesWang Huichun
Mainland China Ruyi's Royal Love in the Palace
如懿传
Television series Zhang Fengyi The sequel of Empresses in the Palace , a television series about Emperor Yongzheng. However, this one is about his successor, Emperor Qianlong.
TBAMainland China Dreaming back to Qing Dynasty

梦回大清

Television seriesDing QiaoDing Qiao already played the Yongzheng Emperor's grandson, prince Yongcheng, in Ruyi's Royal Love in the Palace.
Mainland China The Beauty

美人香

Television series Winston Chao Winston Chao played the Yongzheng Emperor's father, the Kangxi Emperor, in The Palace.
Mainland China Tian Si Chuan

填四川

Television seriesHan Dong Han Dong played Yongzheng's half-brother, prince Yuntang, in Scarlet Heart .

See also

Notes

  1. Noble Consort Tong was the Kangxi Emperor's cousin. She was made a guifei ("Noble Consort") in 1677 and later promoted to huang guifei, and, after the death of Empress Xiaozhaoren, became the highest-ranked consort in the Kangxi Emperor's harem.
  2. The ranks of consorts in the palace were, Empress, Noble Consort (guifei), Consort (fei), pin, guiren, and so on; fei is therefore the third highest rank of the consorts.

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  14. Pierre-Étienne, Will (2002). "Creation, Conflict, and Routinization: The Appointment of Officials by Drawing Lots, 1594–1700". Ming Qing Yanjiu: 73–121.
  15. Daniel, Koss (2017). "Political Geography of Empire: Chinese Varieties of Local Government". Journal of Asian Studies. 76: 159-184.
  16. Zhang, Zhengguo (2011). "Qingdai Dao, Fu, Ting, Zhou, Xian Dengji Zhidu De Queding.[Determination of Importance Rating System of Circuit, Prefecture, Subprefecture, Department and County in Qing Dynasty]". A Collection of Essays on the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T., Rowe, William (2009). China's last empire : the great Qing. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN   9780674066243. OCLC   316327256.
  18. Jonathan, Porter (2016). Imperial China, 1350-1900. Lanham. ISBN   9781442222922. OCLC   920818520.
  19. Petech, Luciano (1972). China and Tibet in the Early Xviiith Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. Volume 1 of T'oung pao, archives concernant l'histoire, les langues, la géographie, l'ethnographie et les arts de l'Asie orientale. Monographie (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 250. ISBN   9004034420.|volume= has extra text (help)
  20. Petech, Luciano (1972). China and Tibet in the Early Xviiith Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. Volume 1 of T'oung pao, archives concernant l'histoire, les langues, la géographie, l'ethnographie et les arts de l'Asie orientale. Monographie (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 269. ISBN   9004034420.|volume= has extra text (help)
  21. Petech, Luciano (1972). China and Tibet in the Early Xviiith Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. Volume 1 of T'oung pao, archives concernant l'histoire, les langues, la géographie, l'ethnographie et les arts de l'Asie orientale. Monographie (illustrated ed.). BRILL. pp. 133–134. ISBN   9004034420.|volume= has extra text (help)
  22. Petech, Luciano (1972). China and Tibet in the Early Xviiith Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. Volume 1 of T'oung pao, archives concernant l'histoire, les langues, la géographie, l'ethnographie et les arts de l'Asie orientale. Monographie (illustrated ed.). BRILL. pp. 268, 269. ISBN   9004034420.|volume= has extra text (help)
  23. Petech, Luciano (1972). China and Tibet in the Early Xviiith Century: History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. Volume 1 of T'oung pao, archives concernant l'histoire, les langues, la géographie, l'ethnographie et les arts de l'Asie orientale. Monographie (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 249. ISBN   9004034420.|volume= has extra text (help)
  24. Zhao 2006, p. 11.
  25. Zhao 2006, p. 7.
  26. Zhao 2006, pp. 8-9.
  27. Zhao 2006, p. 12.
  28. Zhao 2006, p. 9.
  29. 大義覺迷錄[Record of how great righteousness awakens the misguided]. 近代中國史料叢刊[Collectanea of materials on modern Chinese history]. 36. Taipei: 文海出版社 [Wenhai Publishing Press]. 1966. pp. 351–2.
  30. Rowe, William (2009). China's last empire : the great Qing . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp.  76. ISBN   9780674066243. OCLC   316327256.
  31. Elliott, Mark T. (2001). The Manchu way : the eight banners and ethnic identity in late imperial China . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. pp.  240. ISBN   0804746842. OCLC   44818294.
  32. Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 241. ISBN   0-8047-4684-2. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2016-10-29. The Lord of Heaven is Heaven itself. ...In the empire we have a temple for honouring Heaven and sacrificing to Him. We Manchus have Tiao Tchin. The first day of every year we burn incense and paper to honour Heaven. We Manchus have our own particular rites for honouring Heaven; the Mongols, Chinese, Russians, and Europeans also have their own particular rites for honouring Heaven. I have never said that he [Urcen, a son of Sunu] could not honour heaven but that everyone has his way of doing it. As a Manchu, Urcen should do it like us.
  33. Porter, Johnathan (2016). Imperial China, 1350–1900. Lanham. p. 90. ISBN   9781442222922. OCLC   920818520.
  34. 1 2 Porter, Johnathan (2016). Imperial China, 1350-1900. Lanham. p. 91. ISBN   9781442222922. OCLC   920818520.
  35. Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. p. 240. ISBN   0-8047-4684-2. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2016-10-29. In his indictment of Sunu and other Manchu nobles who had converted to Christianity, the Yongzheng Emperor reminded the rest of the Manchu elite that each people had its own way of honoring Heaven and that it was incumbent upon Manchus to observe Manchu practice in this regard
  36. Thomas H. Reilly (2004), The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: Rebellion and the Blasphemy of Empire, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, pp. 43ff, 14ff, 150ff, ISBN   0295984309, see , accessed 18 April 2015.
  37. Jocelyn M. N. Marinescu (2008). Defending Christianity in China: The Jesuit Defense of Christianity in the "Lettres Edifiantes Et Curieuses" & "Ruijianlu" in Relation to the Yongzheng Proscription of 1724. p. 240. ISBN   978-0-549-59712-4. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  38. Yongzheng, chinaculture.org

Sources

Further reading

Yongzheng Emperor
Born: 13 December 1678 Died: 8 October 1735
Regnal titles
Preceded by Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Emperor of China

1722–1735
Succeeded by