York, Western Australia

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York
Western Australia
York WA town hall.jpg
Australia Western Australia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
York
Coordinates 31°53′18″S116°46′07″E / 31.88833°S 116.76861°E / -31.88833; 116.76861 Coordinates: 31°53′18″S116°46′07″E / 31.88833°S 116.76861°E / -31.88833; 116.76861
Population2,548 (2016 census) [1]
Established1835 [2] [3]
Postcode(s) 6302
Elevation179 m (587 ft)
Location96 km (60 mi) E of Perth
LGA(s) Shire of York
State electorate(s) Central Wheatbelt
Federal Division(s) Pearce
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
24.7 °C
76 °F
10.5 °C
51 °F
449.8 mm
17.7 in

York is the oldest inland town in Western Australia, situated on the Avon River, 97 kilometres (60 mi) east of Perth in the Wheatbelt, on Ballardong Nyoongar land, [4] and is the seat of the Shire of York.

Contents

The name of the region was suggested by JS Clarkson during an expedition in October 1830 because of its similarity to his own county in England, Yorkshire. [5] :22 [lower-alpha 1]

After thousands of years of occupation by Ballardong Nyoongar people, the area was first settled by Europeans in 1831, two years after Perth was settled in 1829. A town was established in 1835 with the release of town allotments and the first buildings were erected in 1836.

The region was important throughout the 19th century for sheep and grain farming, sandalwood, cattle, goats, pigs and horse breeding. [7]

York boomed during the gold rush as it was one of the last rail stops before the walk to the goldfields. [8]

Today, the town attracts tourists for its beauty, history, buildings, festivals and art.

Ballardong Nyoongar

The Ballardong people, a sub-group of the Nyoongar, occupied the land before European settlement.

Post settlement history

With the increasing population of the Swan River Settlement in 1830, it became evident that suitable land would have to be discovered for the growing of crops needed to provide necessary food.

Ensign Robert Dale, a 20-year-old officer of the 63rd Regiment, led a small party in the first exploratory journey over the Darling Range, during the winter months of 1830 into what was later to be known as the Avon Valley. [9]

He returned with a report of "park-like lands with scattered trees", and after a second expedition, Lieutenant-Governor Stirling concluded that there appeared to be 1,000 square miles of "the finest imaginable sheep-land". [5] :16 and 25 [10]

As a result, Stirling decided that the new district should be thrown open for selection and this was done by Government Notice on 11 November 1830. [5] :23 [11] By December 1830, 250,000 acres had been allotted, and in January 1831, 80,000 acres. Before the end of 1831 a further 6,030 acres in small lots had been taken up. [12]

In September 1831 Dale escorted the first party of settlers to the district, reaching the Avon valley on 16 September. They immediately set about the construction of huts, the preparation required for their stock and the cultivation of new land. Dale proposed an area two miles south of the summit of Mt Bakewell as the site for a future town to serve the district. [13]

In September 1833 a garrison of eight troops of the 21st North British Fusiliers was stationed at York. [14] [15] Rules and regulations for the assignment of town allotments at York were gazetted in September 1834 and allotments were advertised for sale from July 1835. [2] [16]

A township did not begin to appear until 1836. In July 1836 York comprised two houses, a barn, an army barracks and some out-houses, with about 50 acres of cleared land. [12] The town grew slowly at first due to difficulties with the local aboriginals, as well as problems associated with using English farming techniques in an unfamiliar climate. [17]

In 1831, Rivett Henry Bland settled in York, and with his business partner, Arthur Trimmer, leased a 10 acre site north of the town (on which they had built the first house, by the end of September 1831) [18] and took a grant over a 4,000 acre block to the south which they established as a farm, later called Balladong Farm, after the Ballardong Noongar, the Aboriginal occupiers of the area. Later, part of the land to the south came to be called Bland's Town or Bland Town. [19] Bland was resident magistrate from 1834 to 1842.

In 1836, John Henry Monger Snr arrived and bought the 10 acres of land immediately north of the town site from Bland and Trimmer for £100 [20] on which the first house in York had been constructed [21] of wattle and daub. [5] :53 Monger opened a hotel by early 1837, [22] constructing in 1842 [23] a "long, low building" opposite the hotel for a store, [5] :55 and 74 and “every three months his wagons would journey to Guildford or Perth for supplies”. [5] :53 and 74

In July 1836 Lieutenant Henry William St Pierre Bunbury of the 21st Regiment was sent to York to respond to rising levels of violence between colonial settlers and Ballardong Noongar people. His mission was to "to make war upon the native". [24] After many individual skirmishes and killings of Ballardong people, rumours of an attack on the natives, in which "several ... were wounded, and one woman was killed", were reported. [25] In response to this, Ballardong people speared a shepherd called Knott. Bunbury initially tried to cover up Knott's death to avoid further conflict.

In July 1837 Bunbury was again sent to the York district after the spearing deaths of two young settlers called Chidlow and Jones. In the ensuing violence soldiers and settlers killed at least 18 Ballardong Noongar people. [26]

In 1840, the York Agricultural Society was established, [5] :75 which became very influential in the following years, holding annual shows to the present day. The York Racing Club was established in 1843. Both societies continue today.

A shortage of labour was a problem for the farming community, particularly at harvest time. [5] :132 et seq A sandalwood boom in the late 1840s lifted the town. [5] :165,173 and 218

At the request of the influential York Agricultural Society, from 1851, convicts were transported to the Colony and relieved the labour shortages. As "ticket-of-leave" men, they constructed many of the early buildings. [lower-alpha 2]

Solomon Cook constructed a steam engine in 1852 to power his flourmill and this started a flourish of steam-powered flour mills in the town. [27]

York was connected by rail in 1885. Following the discovery of gold in the Yilgarn in 1887, the town was teeming with miners, all alighting from the train and preparing to make the long journey across the plains to the goldfields. [8]

In the 1880s the question as to whether or not the railway line to the Goldfields should be run through York or Northam was the subject of bitter debate. "Tradition is that State Parliamentarians became so tired of hearing the rival Notham/York arguments that they suggested that representatives of the two towns decide the issue by a game of cards." [4] In December 1891, the State Government decided that the line should run through Northam because the distance to Yilgarn was 15 miles shorter and £500 cheaper. [28]

The 1968 Meckering earthquake damaged a number of buildings and resulted in removal of the Royal Hotel. [29]

Between 1968 and 1971, due to the general downturn in rural activities, and a progressive reduction in railway operations in favour of Northam, many York businesses closed and the population reduced to some extent. [30]

Panoramic view of York and the Avon Valley from Mount Brown York from Mount Brown lookout - panoramio.jpg
Panoramic view of York and the Avon Valley from Mount Brown

Attractions

[31]

York is located in the valley between Mt Bakewell and Mt Brown, known to the Ballardong Noongar as Walwalling and Wongborel. On the road to York in Spring are canola fields which draw many tourists.

In addition to its heritage and Arts and Crafts buildings and other architecture (refer below), the town features the York Motor Museum, the Courthouse complex, galleries, bric-à-brac and book shops, skydiving and paragliding, and walks along the picturesque Avon River and up Mt Brown.

The main attractions in the town include:

Shops of interest to visitors include:

The main attractions outside the town include:

In addition to the historic Faversham House, the York Post Office apartment, Hope Farm, and the Old York School and Farm House, there are many other charming places to stay. The town has four historic hotels: Settlers House, the York Palace Hotel, the Imperial Hotel and the Castle Hotel. Lavendale Farm offers farm stays.

The town is popular with walkers, cyclists, and photographers. Faversham House, Laurelville, the Imperial Hotel, the York Racecourse, and the Olive Branch provide a venue for weddings and small conferences or other corporate events, as does Lavendale Farm.

York offers a splendid wildflower garden behind Faversham House, as well as Avon Park, next to the town on the river, and Peace Park.

The York Agricultural Show and The York Festival are normally held in September and October each year.

Heritage buildings and sites

St Patrick's Church was designed by Joseph Nunan (1874-1886) York St. Patrick.JPG
St Patrick's Church was designed by Joseph Nunan (1874–1886)

For a town of its size, there are more heritage buildings in York than in any other town in Western Australia. not only that, the entire town has been declared a "Historic Town" by the National Trust of Australia. The streets of York are lined with buildings both big and small that evoke the essence of the nineteenth century. The main street, Avon Terrace, remains almost exactly as it was in 1911, the year that the spectacular Town Hall was constructed. But behind the main street lie a wealth of historic houses and cottages and places of interest each with its own story and of the generation of people who lived in them. [33]

With its hamlet Bland's Town, York has buildings from each decade from the early settlers (1830s and 1840s), the convict period (1850s and 1860s), the coming of rail (1885), the Gold Rush (1887 to 1900), and the Federation boom, culminating in the York Town Hall (1911).

Faversham House, overlooking the north end of Avon Terrace, is one of the grandest surviving Colonial homes in the State.

More than 200 buildings or sites in York are heritage listed, most within the town itself. Many of York's older homes and buildings have now been restored and, while some have retained their original use (e.g. the York Post Office), others have been adaptively re-used with success, such as the former York Primary School (1886). [34]

Arts and Crafts buildings and other fine architecture

The Principal Architect, George Temple-Poole, was a follower of Arts and Crafts Style [35] [lower-alpha 3] which came out of the Arts and Crafts Movement inspired by William Morris and John Ruskin. [36] The railway station building (built in 1885), is one of the earliest Federation Arts and Crafts building in Australia [lower-alpha 4] and could be a Cotswald cottage from Bibury in Gloucestershire, that William Morris considered the ideal in house design. [37] The Old York Hospital has similarity to William Morris's own home, Red House and is one of the most admired Arts and Crafts buildings in the State. [36] The former York Primary School (1886) also repeats a motif from Red House (the fleche).

Federation Free Style buildings (the commercial equivalent of Arts and Crafts style) [35] include the York Post Office (1893), the Courthouse and police station (c. 1896). [38] All are designed by Temple-Poole and are on the State Heritage Register. [39]

The centre of the town has fine examples of a dozen other Victorian and Federation architectural styles, virtually uninterrupted by modern buildings. The Victorian Georgian style [35] buildings include the old sections of Settlers House and the Castle Hotel.

The Convent School House (1872) is a Victorian Tudor building, [35] the same style as many of Perth's early buildings and also probably designed by Richard Roach Jewell. [lower-alpha 5]

York churches include the Victorian Romanesque style Anglican Holy Trinity Church (completed in 1854), designed by Richard Roach Jewell; St Patrick's original church (1859–60); St Patrick's Church (designed in the Gothic Revival style by the former convict architect Joseph Nunan and completed in 1886); and the Uniting Church Chapel constructed in Victorian Georgian style (1854) and the Uniting Church in Victorian Academic Gothic style (1888). [35]

The Catholic Presbytery is in Victorian Rustic Gothic style. [35]

The coming of rail in 1885 brought the Victorian Filigree style Imperial Hotel (1886). [35]

Gold rush buildings include the Federation Warehouse style York Flour Mill (1892), [35] now a café and gallery, at the entrance to York and many of the buildings in Avon Terrace.

The Western Australian Bank building, designed by JJ Talbot Hobbs and the Masonic Hall (designed by James William Wright), are in Victorian Academic Classical style. [35]

Most of the main street, Avon Terrace, has Victorian or Federation Free Classical buildings, including the Co-op (IGA) (1888 façade), the York Motor Museum, and Dinsdale's Shoe Emporium (1887) designed by Wright, with a cluster of Federation Romanesque [35] buildings at the north end, including the former Fire Station (1897).

Early 20th century buildings include the stunning Federation Mannerist (or Edwardian Opulence) style Town Hall (also designed by Wright, and built in 1911), and an exemplar of Federation Filigree style, [35] the Castle Hotel (1905), designed by William G Wolf, who designed His Majesty's Theatre. [41]

Facilities

Inside York Town Hall York Town Hall.jpg
Inside York Town Hall

The York Visitor Centre is located in the Town Hall.

York is well serviced with all essential facilities, including York District High School for students from kindergarten to Year 10. The York Community Resource Centre enables access to tertiary education. There is a 24/7 medical service, the York District Hospital, library, and swimming pool.

York has had a community radio station, Voice of the Avon 101.3FM, since 1994. Beginning life as York FM in the old convent the current location is at the corner of Barker St and Forrest St. The volunteer-driven station presents a 24/7 music service with presenters providing their own programs for 82 hours per week between 6am and 10pm.

Climate

York is in a temperate climate zone and experiences distinctly dry (and hot) summers [42] and cool, wet winters. [43] Under the Köppen climate classification, York has a Mediterranean climate. York has hotter summer afternoons than Perth, with a huge difference compared to the Fremantle shoreline. Winters are more likely to see cold nights instead due to the lower maritime influence. Air frost during the night can emerge on certain occasions during the colder months.

Climate data has been recorded by the Bureau of Meteorology at York Post Office from 1877 to 1996, [44] and another site from 1996 onwards. [45]

At the post office site, the mean annual daily maximum temperature is 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) and the mean annual daily minimum temperature is 10.5 °C (50.9 °F). [44] The hottest month is January with a mean maximum temperature of 33.6 °C (92.5 °F), while the coolest month is July with a mean minimum temperature of 5.3 °C (41.5 °F). [44] Mean temperatures are based on data from 1880 to 1996. [44] York has a mean annual rainfall of 449.8 millimetres (17.71 in). [44] The wettest month is June with 87.9 millimetres (3.46 in) and the driest is January with 9.5 millimetres (0.37 in). [44]

A severe thunderstorm lashed the town and surrounding areas on 27 January 2011, resulting in roofs being ripped off, trees being uprooted and power lines being brought down. [46] About 40 houses were damaged in the town as a result of the storm but no injuries were reported. [47]


Climate data for York and York Post Office (averages: 1880–1996; extremes: 1934–2016)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)46.6
(115.9)
47.4
(117.3)
43.4
(110.1)
39.0
(102.2)
34.4
(93.9)
25.6
(78.1)
25.4
(77.7)
27.9
(82.2)
33.7
(92.7)
40.0
(104.0)
42.3
(108.1)
45.5
(113.9)
47.4
(117.3)
Average high °C (°F)33.6
(92.5)
32.9
(91.2)
30.0
(86.0)
25.5
(77.9)
20.6
(69.1)
17.4
(63.3)
16.4
(61.5)
17.5
(63.5)
20.1
(68.2)
23.4
(74.1)
27.9
(82.2)
31.5
(88.7)
24.7
(76.5)
Average low °C (°F)16.6
(61.9)
16.7
(62.1)
14.8
(58.6)
11.3
(52.3)
8.0
(46.4)
6.4
(43.5)
5.3
(41.5)
5.4
(41.7)
6.5
(43.7)
8.4
(47.1)
12.0
(53.6)
14.9
(58.8)
10.5
(50.9)
Record low °C (°F)7.4
(45.3)
6.8
(44.2)
3.2
(37.8)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−5.2
(22.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−2.2
(28.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.4
(32.7)
2.7
(36.9)
−5.2
(22.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches)9.5
(0.37)
14.6
(0.57)
16.8
(0.66)
24.1
(0.95)
60.5
(2.38)
87.9
(3.46)
85.5
(3.37)
65.9
(2.59)
37.4
(1.47)
25.5
(1.00)
12.6
(0.50)
10.1
(0.40)
450.4
(17.72)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm)1.42.22.75.89.914.615.313.110.06.44.22.187.7
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [44] [45]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. This became one of the 26 counties of Western Australia that were later designated as cadastral divisions. The counties were named after English notables and political identities of the time. York was therefore officially named after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, who was until his death in 1827, the heir presumptive to King George IV. [6]
  2. e.g. Holy Trinity Church, Faversham House stage two, the Castle Hotel old section; St Patricks and most likely Old St Patrick's, the Uniting Church chapel, the CWA building, Kairey Cottage and the rear building behind Gallery 152, but not the Cell Block behind the Courthouse which was constructed by the 20th Company Royal Sappers and Miners: Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News, 20 August 1852, p.3. Former convicts built Settlers House and designed St Patricks.
  3. Arts and Crafts Style was formerly called English Cottage Style or Domestic Revival Style.
  4. At least one earlier home was Fairwater (Double Bay), architect John Horbury Hunt, 1882.
  5. Jewell was the architect for the Sisters of Mercy at the time. [40]

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References

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "York (Urban Centre/Locality)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 29 October 2019. OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
  2. 1 2 "Government Notice". The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal. 11 July 1835. p. 526. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  3. "Perth Surrounds". State Heritage Office. Government of Western Australia. 10 June 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  4. 1 2 King, A and Parker, E: York, Western Australia's first inland town, Parker Print, 2003 p.3.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 John E Deacon: A Survey of the Historical Development of the Avon Valley with Particular Reference to York, Western Australia During the Years 1830-1850, UWA, 1948.
  6. Taylor, Thomas George (1860). Western Australia; its history, progress, position, & prospects, Volume 13. London: G.Street. p. 10. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  7. King, A and Parker, E: York, Western Australia's first inland town, Parker Print, 2003 pp.4-5.
  8. 1 2 York WA Heritage Walk Trails, York Visitor Centre, Shire of York (undated) p.29.
  9. Dale, Robert (1833). "Journal of an Expedition under the direction of Ensign Dale, to the Eastward of the Darling Mountains; in August, 1831". Journals of Several Expeditions Made in Western Australia During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831 and 1832: Under the Sanction of the Governor, Sir James Stirling. London: Joseph Cross. pp. 51–61. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  10. N Ogle: The Colony of Western Australia, p.33.
  11. Survey Department Letter Books, SI, p.55
  12. 1 2 Hasluck, Paul ("Polygon") (12 September 1931). "Centenary of York – The First Inland Settlement". The West Australian. p. 4. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  13. Dale, Robert (1833). "Letters from Mr. Dale, giving a summary description of the country passed over in going to Mount Bakewell, and, also, in an Expedition to examine the Country to the North and South of that place". Journals of Several Expeditions Made in Western Australia During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831 and 1832: Under the Sanction of the Governor, Sir James Stirling. London: Joseph Cross. pp. 155–160. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  14. "The Western Australian Journal". The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal. 21 September 1833. p. 150. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  15. "Government Notice". The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal. 12 October 1833. p. 161. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  16. "Government Notice". The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal. 20 September 1834. p. 357. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  17. Documentary evidence in Heritage Conservation Plan for Marwick's Shed, Rachel Plug et al., p. 11.
  18. This was on Suburban Lot A1, and according to George Fletcher Moore, the house was 100 yards above the Ford: Lesley Brooker (Compiler and Editor): Explorers Routes Revisited Western Australia 1836-1864, Roe Expedition 1836, p.11.
  19. A.M. Clack and Jenni McColl: York Sketchbook, p. 30.
  20. Landgate, Deeds and Ordinances I/166/625 Deed of Conveyance dated 30 April 1838.
  21. Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p.14.
  22. Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal 8 April 1837, p.880.
  23. Stowe, W.E. (introduced by), The Avon Valley: embracing Newcastle, Northam, York, Beverley, 1905, p. 58.
  24. John Connor. "The Australian Frontier Wars, 1788–1838". p. 83
  25. "The Western Australian Journal. Saturday July 9, 1836". The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal. 9 July 1836. p. 724).
  26. The Centre for 21st Century Humanities. "Colonial Frontier Massacres, Australia (Date Range: 1780 to 1930)".
  27. Inquirer 28 January 1852, p.3.; Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News 10 June 1857; Inquirer and Commercial News, 3 February 1858, p.1.
  28. Garden, Donald S, Northam, An Avon Valley History, Hesperian Press, 1992, p.131.
  29. King, A and Parker, E: York, Western Australia's first inland town, Parker Print, 2003 p.12.
  30. King, A and Parker, E: York, Western Australia's first inland town, Parker Print, 2003 p.13.
  31. This section has been assembled from materials on the website for the Shire of York and provided by the Visitors Centre of the Shire of York and the York Business Association.
  32. St. Patrick's Catholic Church, York, Western Australia," Medievalism in Australian Cultural Memory, accessed 19 August 2013.
  33. AM (Tony) Clack and Jenni McColl, York Sketchbook, The York Society, 2003, back cover.
  34. This section summarises material from the List of heritage places above.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Apperly, Richard; Irving, Robert; Reynolds, Peter L. (1989). A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture, Styles and Terms from 1788 to the Present. North Ryde: Angus and Robertson. ISBN   0207162018.
  36. 1 2 Oldham, Ray; Oldham, John (1980). George Temple Poole: Architect of the Golden Years 1885–1897. Drawings by Tish Phillips. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN   9780855641733.
  37. Davey, P: Arts and Crafts Architecture: The Search for Earthly Paradise, The Architectural Press: London, 1980, p.24.
  38. Van Bremen, I. H. (Ingrid H.); National Trust of Australia (W.A.); Heritage Council of Western Australia (1993), York Court House, police station & lock-up : conservation plan for the National Trust of Australia (W.A.), The Trust, retrieved 16 December 2016
  39. Ray and John Oldham: George Temple-Poole – Architect of the Golden Years 1885–1897, UWA Press, 1980
  40. Perth Gazette 18 November 1870 page 3
  41. This section summarises information set out in detail in the individual buildings discussed.
  42. "Australian Climatic Zones – All Climate Classes(Map)". Bureau of Meteorology website. Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  43. "Australian Climatic Zones (Map)". Bureau of Meteorology website. Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  44. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Monthly Climate Statistics for Australian Locations – York Post Office". Bureau of Meteorology website. Bureau of Meteorology . Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  45. 1 2 "Monthly Climate Statistics for Australian Locations – York Post Office". Bureau of Meteorology website. Bureau of Meteorology . Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  46. "Wheatbelt towns lashed by thunderstorms, but cyclone warning cancelled". The Sunday Times . 28 January 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  47. "Houses damaged in trail of destruction across WA". The West Australian . 31 January 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  48. Cowan, P, editor, introduction by Alexandra Hasluck: A Faithful Picture, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, 1977.
  49. Bunbury, HW, edited by W St Pierre Bunbury and WP Morrell, Early Days in Western Australia, Oxford University Press, 1930.
  50. 1 2 Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p285; Rica Erikson: Dictionary of Western Australians re Cowan.
  51. Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p110; Rica Erikson: Dictionary of Western Australians re Cowan.
  52. Obituary York Leader, 19 January 1940.
  53. Inquirer and Commercial News, 2 September 1863, p.2; K. Epton: CC Hunt's 1864 Koolyanobbing Expedition, Hesperian Press, p.viii; Peter Cowan: A Colonial Experience: Swan River 1839–1888, From the Diary and Reports of Walkingshaw Cowan, Perth, Peter Cowan, 1978, pp.79–80.
  54. Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p80.
  55. Erickson, Rica [comp] The Bicentennial Dictionary of Western Australia pre 1829-1888, Vol II, p. 840.
  56. The Inquirer and Commercial News, 4 December 1896, p.4
  57. The Inquirer and Commercial News, 25 November 1898, p.14
  58. The Northam Advertiser, 23 November 1901, p.3
  59. Western Mail, 30 November 1907 p.19
  60. Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p80; Heritage York Trails, York Visitor Centre.
  61. Inquirer and Commercial News 17 March 1858, p.2.
  62. 1 2 Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p56.
  63. A.M. Clack and Jenni McColl: York Sketchbook, p. 10.
  64. A.M. Clack: Glorious Apostle, A History of the Catholic Church in York, St Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, 2009.
  65. History of West Australia
  66. Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p125.
  67. Kimberly, WB: History of West Australia: A Narrative Of Her Past Together With Biographies Of Her Leading Men, 1897; and his reference on Wikitree.
  68. Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p79.
  69. Tuckfield, Trevor, The Old York Road (1975), pp 13 and 23.
  70. Elliot, Ian (1978). Moondyne Joe: The Man and the Myth. Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press. ISBN   0-85564-130-4. Republished in 1998 by Carlisle, Western Australia: Hesperian Press, p.40. ISBN   0-85905-244-3.
  71. Inquirer and Commercial News 30 March 1870, p.2; West Australian, 15 February 1905, p.5; Western Mail, 4 March 1905, p.30; West Australian 25 July 1919, p.8.
  72. Pamela Statham Drew and AM (Tony) Clack: York, Western Australia, A Documentary History, p269.
  73. Duperouzel, William Thomas, Sunset Over Mount Douraking ISBN   978-0-9544314-2-6 published 15 June 2019 https://duperouzel.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Milletts_Book.pdf
  74. McLaren, G and Cooper, W: Beverley, Our journey through time, Shire of Beverley, 2002, p33.

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