**Yoshio Mikami** (三上 義夫, *Mikami Yoshio*, February 16, 1875 – December 31, 1950) was a Japanese mathematician and historian of * Japanese mathematics *. He was born February 16, 1875 in Kotachi, Hiroshima prefecture. He attended the High School of Tohoku University, and in 1911 was admitted to the Imperial University of Tokyo. He studied history of Japanese and Chinese mathematics. In 1913, he published "The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan" in Leipzig.^{ [1] } This book consisted of two parts with 47 chapters. Part one has 21 chapters that describe in depth several important Chinese mathematicians and mathematical classics including Liu Hui, Shen Kuo, Qin Jiushao, Sun Tzu, The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections, Li Ye, Zhu Shijie and study on π. Part II deals with important *wasan* mathematicians and their works, including Kambei Mori, Yoshida Koyu, Kowa Seki, Imamura Chisho, Takahara Kisshu, Kurushima, Ajima Chokuyen, Aida Ammei, Shiraishi Chochu, Skabe Kohan, and Hagiwara Teisuke.

He died on December 31, 1950 in Hiroshima.

**Zhu Shijie**, courtesy name **Hanqing** (漢卿), pseudonym **Songting** (松庭), was a Chinese mathematician and writer. He was one of the greatest Chinese mathematicians alive during the Yuan Dynasty. Zhu was born close to today's Beijing. Two of his mathematical works have survived. *Introduction to Computational Studies*, and *Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns*.

**Zu Chongzhi**, courtesy name **Wenyuan**, was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, politician, inventor, and writer during the Liu Song and Southern Qi dynasties. He was most notable for calculating pi as between 3.1415926 and 3.1415927, a record which would not be surpassed for 800 years.

**Liu Hui** was a Chinese mathematician and writer who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China. In 263, he edited and published a book with solutions to mathematical problems presented in the famous Chinese book of mathematics known as *The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art*, in which he was possibly the first mathematician to discover, understand and use negative numbers. He was a descendant of the Marquis of Zi District (菑鄉侯) of the Eastern Han dynasty, whose marquisate is in present-day Zichuan District, Zibo, Shandong. He completed his commentary to the *Nine Chapters* in the year 263. He probably visited Luoyang, where he measured the sun's shadow.

* The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art* is a Chinese mathematics book, composed by several generations of scholars from the 10th–2nd century BCE, its latest stage being from the 2nd century CE. This book is one of the earliest surviving mathematical texts from China, the first being

**Seki Takakazu**, also known as **Seki Kōwa**, was a Japanese mathematician and author of the Edo period.

**Lo Shu Square**, or the **Nine Halls Diagram**, is the unique normal magic square of order three. The Lo Shu is part of the legacy of ancient Chinese mathematical and divinatory traditions, and is an important emblem in *Feng Shui* (風水), the art of geomancy concerned with the placement of objects in relation to the flow of qi (氣) "natural energy".

**Japanese mathematics** denotes a distinct kind of mathematics which was developed in Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867). The term *wasan*, from *wa* ("Japanese") and *san* ("calculation"), was coined in the 1870s and employed to distinguish native Japanese mathematical theory from Western mathematics.

**Mathematics in China** emerged independently by the 11th century BC. The Chinese independently developed a real number system that includes significantly large and negative numbers, more than one numeral system, algebra, geometry, number theory and trigonometry.

**David Eugene Smith** was an American mathematician, educator, and editor.

The * Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections* is a mathematical text written by Chinese Southern Song dynasty mathematician Qin Jiushao in the year 1247. The mathematical text has a wide range of topics and is taken from all aspects of the society of that time, including agriculture, astronomy, water conservancy, urban layout, construction engineering, surveying, taxation, armament, military and so on.

**Takebe Katahiro**, also known as **Takebe Kenkō**, was a Japanese mathematician and cartographer during the Edo period.

**Kambei Mori** or **Mōri Kambei**, also known as **Mōri Kambei Shigeyoshi****Mōri Shigeyoshi**, was a Japanese mathematician in the Edo period.

* Haidao Suanjing* was written by the Chinese mathematician Liu Hui of the Three Kingdoms era (220–280) as an extension of chapter 9 of

**Liu Hui's π algorithm** was invented by Liu Hui, a mathematician of the Cao Wei Kingdom. Before his time, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter was often taken experimentally as three in China, while Zhang Heng (78–139) rendered it as 3.1724 or as . Liu Hui was not satisfied with this value. He commented that it was too large and overshot the mark. Another mathematician Wan Fan (219–257) provided π ≈ 142/45 ≈ 3.156. All these empirical π values were accurate to two digits. Liu Hui was the first Chinese mathematician to provide a rigorous algorithm for calculation of π to any accuracy. Liu Hui's own calculation with a 96-gon provided an accuracy of five digits: π ≈ 3.1416.

**Wang Xiaotong** (王孝通), also known as Wang Hs'iao-t'ung, was a Chinese mathematician, calendarist, politician, and writer of the early Tang dynasty. He is famous as the author of the *Jigu Suanjing* one of the *Ten Computational Canons*.

* Jigu suanjing* was the work of early Tang dynasty calendarist and mathematician Wang Xiaotong, written some time before the year 626, when he presented his work to the Emperor.

**Fujita Sadasuke**, also known as Honda Teiken, was a Japanese mathematician in the Edo period. He is the author of *Seiyō sampō* which was published in 1781.

**Minggatu**, full name **Sharavyn Myangat** was a Mongolian astronomer, mathematician, and topographic scientist at the Qing court. His courtesy name was **Jing An** (静安).

**Zhao Youqin's π algorithm** was an algorithm devised by Yuan dynasty Chinese astronomer and mathematician Zhao Youqin to calculate the value of π in his book *Ge Xiang Xin Shu* (革象新书).

**Matsusaburo Fujiwara** was a Japanese mathematician and historian of mathematics.

- ↑ Yoshio Mikami, The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan, 1913, Library of Congress 61-13497

- David Eugene Smith, Yoshio Mikami: A History of Japanese Mathematics Open Court Publishing, Chicago 1914

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