|Alternative names||Chinese cruller|
|Place of origin||China|
|Region or state||Guangdong|
|Associated national cuisine||China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Brunei, Myanmar, Thailand and Taiwan|
|Literal meaning||oil strip|
|Yu Char Kway|
|Literal meaning||oil-fried pastry (or devil)|
Ee Kyar Kway
|Vietnamese||dầu cháo quẩy / giòcháo quẩy|
Chha Khwai / Yav Chha Khwai
Youtiao (simplified Chinese :油条; traditional Chinese :油條; pinyin :Yóutiáo),known in Southern China as Yu Char Kway is a long golden-brown deep-fried strip of dough made from wheat flour,first eaten in China and (by a variety of other names) also popular in other East and Southeast Asian cuisines.
Conventionally,youtiao are lightly salted and made so they can be torn lengthwise in two.Youtiao are normally eaten at breakfast as an accompaniment for rice congee,soy milk or regular milk blended with sugar. Youtiao may be known elsewhere as Chinese cruller , Chinese fried churro,Chinese oil stick, Chinese doughnut,Chinese breadstick,and fried breadstick.
In other Asian countries,they may also be called bicho,you char kway,cakwe,cakoi,kueh,kuay,shakoy or pathongko,among others.
At breakfast,youtiao can be stuffed inside shāobǐng (simplified Chinese:烧饼;traditional Chinese:燒餅;lit. 'roasted flatbread') to make a sandwich known as shāobǐng yóutiáo (simplified Chinese:烧饼油条;traditional Chinese:燒餅油條). Youtiao wrapped in a rice noodle roll is known as zháliǎng . In Yunnan,a roasted riceflour pancake usually wrapped around a youtiao is known as erkuai (simplified Chinese:烧饵块;traditional Chinese:燒餌塊). Yet another name for a sandwich variant is jianbingguǒzi (simplified Chinese:煎饼果子;traditional Chinese:煎餅果子;lit. 'youtiao and fried bread').
Youtiao is occasionally dipped into various liquids,for example the soup xidoufen ,soymilk (sweet or salty),and soy sauce.
Youtiao is also an important ingredient of the food Cífàn tuán in Shanghai cuisine.
Tánggāo (Chinese:糖糕),or "sugar cake",is a sweet,fried food item similar in appearance to youtiao but shorter in length.
In Thailand,youtiao or pathongko (ปาท่องโก๋) in Thai are eaten for breakfast with soymilk or porridge.
Although generally known as yóutiáo in Standard Mandarin throughout China,the dish is also known as guǒzi (餜子) in northern China. In Min Nan-speaking areas,such as Taiwan,it is known as iû-chiā-kóe (油炸粿), where kóe (粿/餜) means cake or pastry,hence "oil-fried cake/pastry". In Cantonese-speaking areas this is rendered as yàuh ja gwái (油炸鬼),where gwái literally means "devil" or "ghost".
The Cantonese name yàuh ja gwái literally means "oil-fried devil" and,according to folklore, [ unreliable source? ] is an act of protest against Song Dynasty official Qin Hui,who is said to have orchestrated the plot to frame the general Yue Fei,an icon of patriotism in Chinese culture. It is said that the food,originally in the shape of two human-shaped pieces of dough but later evolved into two pieces joined in the middle,represents Qin Hui and his wife,both having a hand in collaborating with the enemy to bring about the great general's demise. [ unreliable source? ] Thus the youtiao is deep fried and eaten as if done to the traitorous couple. In keeping with the legend,youtiao are often made as two foot-long rolls of dough joined along the middle,with one roll representing the husband and the other the wife. The Cantonese name may derive from Guangzhou being the last resistance front before the Song dynasty collapsed.
In Cambodia,it is called cha kway (Khmer :ឆាខ្វៃ) and usually dipped in kuy teav ,congee or coffee. Some Chinese Cambodian immigrants in Australia sometimes call it chopstick cake because of its resemblance to a pair of chopsticks.
In Indonesia,the fried dough is known as cakwe (pronounced [tʃakwe] ). It is commonly chopped or thinly sliced and then eaten for breakfast with bubur ayam (chicken porridge) or eaten as snacks with dipping of local version of chilli vinaigrette or peanut / satay sauce.
In Java,cakwe is usually sold as a street snack at kaki lima,usually at the same stalls that sell bolang-baling or roti goreng (sweet fried dough) and untir-untir (Javanese version of mahua ). This snack is sometime served with spicy sweet salty sauce (optional). Savoury cakwe,sweet bolang-baling and crunchy untir-untir are to be considered to compliment each other in a snack mix.
In Laos,youtiao is generally called kao nom kou or patongko (cf. Thai patongko ) or "chao quay",and is commonly eaten with coffee at breakfast in place of a baguette (khao jee falang). [ citation needed ]It is also eaten as an accompaniment to "khao piek sen" (chicken noodle soup) or "jok" (congee).
It is rendered in Malay language as cakoi,an alteration of the Minnan term,char kway. The name pathongko (see Thailand) is more common in the northern states of Kedah,Perlis and Penang.Cakoi is usually sold in morning street markets or pasar malam night markets and commonly eaten with coffee or soy milk for breakfast or at tea time.
In Singapore,it is known as yu char kway,which is the transliteration of its Hokkien (Minnan) name (油炸粿iû-tsiā-kué). Apart from the plain version,the Singaporean take on Youtiao also comes with various fillings which are either sweet,such as red bean paste (as ham chim peng,咸煎饼) or savoury,such as sardines in tomato sauce. The plain version is often eaten with sweet chili sauce or coconut and egg jam called kaya ,or served with bak kut teh (肉骨茶),porridge or rice congee,sliced thinly to be dipped into the broth or congee and eaten.
The youtiao is also a popular breakfast food in Myanmar (Burma) where it is called e kya kway (အီကြာကွေး[ìtʒàku̯éː]) . It is usually eaten with steamed yellow beans (with salt and oil). It is also usually dipped into coffee or tea. E kya kway is also eaten with rice porridge,or cut into small rings and used as a condiment for mohinga. Tea culture is very prevalent in Myanmar,and every shop will serve e kya kway for breakfast.
Some shops stuff meat into the youtiao and deep fry it over again. It is called e kya kway asar thoot –stuffed e kya kway.
In the Philippines, it is either known as Bicho / Bicho-Bicho (Hokkien: 米棗 Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bí-tsó) or Shakoy / Siyakoy (Hokkien: 炸粿 Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tsia̍h-kué) / Pinisi / lubid-lubid. They are usually deep-fried, in the case of Bicho-Bicho, or deep-fried and twisted as twisted doughnuts, in the case of Shakoy. Dry, smaller and crunchy versions are called pilipit .
In Thailand, youtiao is generally called pathongko (Thai : ปาท่องโก๋, pronounced [paːtʰɔ̂ŋkǒː] ) due to a confusion with a different kind of dessert. Pathongko is a loanword adapted from either Teochew Minnan beh teung guai (白糖粿; Mandarin: bái tángguǒ) or Cantonese of baahktònggòu (白糖糕; Mandarin: bái tánggāo). However, both possible original names referred to a different dessert, the white sugar sponge cake. It was previously sold together with youtiao by street vendors who normally walked around and shouted both names out loud. However, Thai customers often mistakenly thought that the more popular youtiao was "pathongko". Eventually, the real pathongko disappeared from the market because of its unpopularity. The disappearance of real "pathongko" left the youtiao being called under the former's name, while the latter's real name is generally unknown amongst the Thais. The original white sugar sponge cake can still be easily found in Trang Province in Southern Thailand under its original name while youtiao is still called "chakoi" or "chiakoi" by some Southerners.
In Thailand, pathongko is also dipped into condensed milk or, in the South, eaten with kaya.
In Vietnamese cuisine, it is known by a name that is a pronunciation similar to the Cantonese pronunciation, as dầu cháo quẩy, giò cháo quẩy or simply quẩy. 油 ("Dầu/giò"), 鬼 ("quỷ/quẩy") coming from the approximate Cantonese pronunciation. In Vietnam, "giò cháo quẩy" is eaten typically with congee, pho in Hanoi and sometimes with wonton noodle (mi hoanh thanh).
Chaoshan cuisine, also known as Chiuchow cuisine, Chaozhou cuisine or Teo-swa cuisine, originated from the Chaoshan region in the eastern part of China's Guangdong Province, which includes the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang. Chaoshan cuisine bears more similarities to that of Fujian cuisine, particularly Southern Min cuisine, due to the similarity of Chaoshan's and Fujian's culture, language, and their geographic proximity to each other. However, Chaoshan cuisine is also influenced by Cantonese cuisine in its style and technique.
Malaysian cuisine consists of cooking traditions and practices found in Malaysia, and reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population. The vast majority of Malaysia's population can roughly be divided among three major ethnic groups: Malays, Chinese and Indians. The remainder consists of the indigenous peoples of Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia, the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia, the Peranakan and Eurasian creole communities, as well as a significant number of foreign workers and expatriates.
A cruller is a deep-fried pastry like a doughnut popular in the US and Canada often made from a rectangle of dough with a cut made in the middle that allows it to be pulled over and through itself, producing twists in the sides of the pastry. The cruller has been described as resembling "a small, braided torpedo". Some other cruller styles are made of a denser dough somewhat like that of a cake doughnut formed in a small loaf or stick shape, but not always twisted. Crullers may be topped with powdered sugar or icing.
Bak kut teh is a pork rib dish cooked in broth popularly served in Malaysia and Singapore where there is a predominant Hoklo and Teochew community.
Singaporean cuisine derived from several ethnic groups which have developed through centuries of political, economic, and social changes of this cosmopolitan city-state.
Chai tow kway is a common dish or dim sum of Teochew cuisine in Chaoshan, China. It is also popular in Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam, consisting of stir-fried cubes of radish cake.
Malaysian Chinese cuisine is derived from the culinary traditions of Chinese Malaysian immigrants and their descendants, who have adapted or modified their culinary traditions under the influence of Malaysian culture as well as immigration patterns of Chinese to Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Chinese Malaysians are descendants of immigrants from southern China, Malaysian Chinese cuisine is predominantly based on an eclectic repertoire of dishes with roots from Fujian, Cantonese, Hakka and Teochew cuisines.
Penang cuisine is the cuisine of the multicultural society of Penang, Malaysia. Most of these cuisine are sold at road-side stalls, known as "hawker food" and colloquially as "muckan carts". Local Penangites typically find these hawker fares cheaper and easier to eat out at due to the ubiquitousness of the hawker stalls and that they are open for much of the day and night. Penang island. On February 22, 2013, Penang was ranked by CNN Travel as one of the top ten street food cities in Asia. Penang has also been voted by Lonely Planet as the top culinary destination in 2014.
The city of Ipoh is the administrative capital of the Malaysian state of Perak and is famous for its cuisine. Its food culture is driven by its majority Chinese population who are largely of Cantonese and Hakka descent. There is also excellent Malay and Indian food in Ipoh; the nasi kandar served by a prominent local Mamak stall is nicknamed nasi ganja due to its supposed addictive properties. Specialty foods from neighbouring towns are also available in Ipoh.
Nian gao, sometimes translated as year cake or New Year cake or Chinese New Year's cake, is a food prepared from glutinous rice flour and consumed in Chinese cuisine. It is also simply known as "rice cake". While it can be eaten all year round, traditionally it is most popular during the Chinese New Year. It is considered good luck to eat nian gao during this time of the year because nian gao (年糕) is a homonym for "higher year" or "grow every year" (年高), which means "a more prosperous year". The character 年 is literally translated as "year", and the character 糕 (gāo) is literally translated as "cake" and is identical in sound to the character 高, meaning "tall" or "high". Nian gao (年糕) also has the exact homonym for "sticky cake" (粘糕); the character 粘 (nián), meaning "sticky".
Chinese Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians, mostly descendant of Han ethnic Hokkien and Hakka speakers, brought their legacy of Chinese cuisine, and modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients, such as kecap manis, palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili, santan and local spices to form a hybrid Chinese-Indonesian cuisine. Some of the dishes and cakes share the same style as in Malaysia and Singapore which are known as the Nonya cuisine by the Peranakan.
Filipino Chinese cuisine is a style of Filipino cuisine influenced from Chinese cuisine.
Shahe fen (沙河粉), or simply he fen (河粉), is a type of wide Chinese noodle made from rice. Its Minnan Chinese name, translated from the Mandarin 粿條 (guotiao), is adapted into alternate names which are widely encountered in Southeast Asia, such as kway teow, kwetiau, and kuetiau. Shahe fen is often stir fried with meat and/or vegetables in a dish called chao fen. While chao fen is a transliteration of Mandarin, chow fun from Cantonese is the name most often given to the dish in Chinese restaurants in North America.
Bing is a wheat flour-based Chinese food with a flattened or disk-like shape. These foods may resemble the flatbreads, pancakes, pies and unleavened dough foods of non-Chinese cuisines. Many of them are similar to the Indian roti, French crêpes, Salvadoran pupusa, or Mexican tortilla, while others are more similar to cakes and cookies.
Zhaliang, literally "fried two", is a Cantonese dim sum. It is made by tightly wrapping rice noodle roll around youtiao. It can be found in Chinese restaurants in Malaysia.
Bubur ayam is an Indonesian chicken congee. It is rice congee with shredded chicken meat served with some condiments, such as chopped scallion, crispy fried shallot, celery, tongcay, fried soybean, crullers, and both salty and sweet soy sauce, and sometimes topped with yellow chicken broth and kerupuk. Unlike many other Indonesian dishes, it is not spicy; sambal or chili paste is served separately. It is a favourite breakfast food, served by humble travelling vendors, warung, fast food establishments, and five-star hotel restaurants. Travelling bubur ayam vendors frequently pass through residential streets in the morning selling the dish.
Char kway teow is a stir fried rice noodle dish from Maritime Southeast Asia and is of southern Chinese origin. In Hokkien and Teochew, Char means “stir-fried” and kway teow refers to flat rice noodles. It is made from flat rice noodles or kway teow of approximately 1 cm or about 0.5 cm in width, stir-fried over very high heat with garlic, light and dark soy sauce, chilli paste, whole prawns, shelled blood cockles, chopped Chinese chives, slices of Chinese sausage, and bean sprouts. Other common ingredients include fishcake and belachan.
Congee or conjee is a type of rice porridge or gruel eaten in Asian countries. It can be eaten plain, where it is typically served with side dishes, or it can be served with ingredients such as meat, fish, seasonings and flavourings, most often savory, but sometimes sweet. It is typically served as a meal on its own, especially for breakfast or people who are ill. Names for congee are as varied as the style of its preparation, but all are made with rice cooked as a softened porridge with a larger quantity of water than other types of cooked rice like pilaf or claypot rice.
Ham chim peng, also spelt hum chim peng, known in Singapore and Malaysia as haam ji peng, hum ji peng, or ham ji peng, is a deep-fried hollow doughnut of Chinese origin. Commonly eaten as a breakfast food, it is sometimes fried with a coating of sesame seeds.