Yujiulü Anagui

Last updated
Yujiulü Anagui
Khagan of Rouran
Reign520-521
Predecessor Yujiulü Chounu
Successor Yujiulü Poluomen
Khagan of Rouran
Reign522-552
Predecessor Yujiulü Poluomen
Successor Yujiulü Tiefa (in east)
Yujiulü Dengshuzi (in west)
Born472
Died552(552-00-00) (aged 79–80)
Issue Yujiulü Anluochen
Empress Yujiulü
Regnal name
Chìliántóubīngdòufá Kèhán ( 敕連頭兵豆伐可汗)
All Ruling Khagan
House Yujiulü clan
Father Yujiulü Futu
MotherHou Luling (侯呂陵)
Religion Buddhism

Yujiulü Anagui (Rouran: Anakay; Chinese :郁久閭阿那瓌; pinyin: Yùjiǔlǘ Ānàgūi) (?-552) was ruler of the Rouran (520-552) with the title of Chiliantoubingdoufa Khagan (敕連頭兵豆伐可汗).

Contents

First reign

His reign started with troubles. First rebellion started after 10 days of his coronation when his brother-in-law Qilifa Shifa (俟力發示發) rose against him, killing Anagui's younger brother Yujiulü Yijufa (郁久閭乙居伐) and his mother Hou Luling (侯呂陵) on his attack, paving way for Anagui's cousin Yujiulü Poluomen. Having lost the fight, Anagui fled to Northern Wei. Emperor Xiaoming sheltered him and ordered his advisors to bring him to palace. As Khagan asked for troops to regain his throne, emperor recognized him but postponed any idea of going to war. Restless Anagui bribed Yuan Cha to leave capital. Emperor suddenly changed his idea when Anagui was about to leave in 521, helped him from martial and economic perspective.

Second reign

Back in Rouran, Qilifa Shifa this time opposed Yujiulü Poluomen, invading his domains. Poluomen's further defeat by Gaoche forced Northern Wei to divide Rouran between Anagui and Poluomen in order to establish stability. Anagui resided in Huaishuo (modern Guyang, Inner Mongolia), while Poluomen ruled from Xihai (modern Ejin, Inner Mongolia). Poluomen later fled to Hephtalites in 524, but was arrested and brought to Northern Wei court, who executed him and made Anagui ruler of both parts of the khaganate. Swaying unto Chinese influence, Anagui reformed Rouran after Chinese bureaucracy, made a Han Chinese his chancellor. In 522, he asked for millet for sowing and received 10000 bags from China. [1] However his agricultural project didn't work out, therefore he started to raid Wei frontier towns due to hunger in 523.

Later in 525, he answered Wei call for suppressing revolt in Six Frontier Towns with 100.000 strong Rouran army, plundering rebellious people. He tried to maintain balance between Wei and Liang following years, sending gifts to both parties. He asked for a princess in marriage in 533, a request that was accepted. Emperor Xiaowu sent a cousin of his, Princess Lanling (蘭陵公主) as his bride. In 535, he managed to get another princess for his family, this time to his brother YujiulüEmperor Wen to divorce Empress Yifu and marry Yujiulü Anagui's daughter. Emperor Wen agreed, and divorced Empress Yifu, making her a Buddhist nun. He then married Yujiulü Anagui's daughter and created her empress. For a while, this brought peace with Rouran. In 540, she was pregnant when Rouran launched a major attack on Western Wei — causing the Western Wei officials to believe that the attack was launched because she was jealous of the former Empress Yifu, who was by then a Buddhist nun. Emperor Wen, under pressure, ordered Empress Yifu to commit suicide. Later in the year, when Empress Yujiulü herself was about to give birth, she heard unusual barking noises in the palace, and she suspected them as from the spirit of Empress Yifu. She therefore grew depressed, and she died either during or shortly after childbirth in 540.

Eastern Wei regent Gao Huan skillfully used this opportunity, sent Zhang Weiquan, who transmitted a letter to the Khagan. The letter said that Yuwen Tai killed Emperor Wen, poisoned the empress and wants to destroy the Rouran. At the military council, the nobles of Rouran spoke in favor of recognizing Eastern Wei. Anagui paid a small tribute in recognition of Eastern Wei. After lengthy negotiations, Gao Huan decided to send Princess Le'an (樂安公主) for Yujiulü Anluochen. In 541, the khagan sent 1,000 horses and asked to bring the princess, who was now renamed Princess Lanling (蘭陵公主). In view of the importance of an alliance with the Rouran, Gao Huan personally presided the collection of the dowry and led the princess and her retinue to Rouran. Anagui was very pleased with the marriage. This year he also ended the Gaoche threat for once and all.

The alliance with Eastern Wei turned out to be quite bountiful. Now northern China was weakened by the civil war between Western and Eastern Wei (between the Yuwen Tai and Gao Huan, the actual rulers) and the Rouran didn't fear devastating invasions of their lands. Population increased and Anaguy became one of the strongest rulers in the region. His Han Chinese secretary of the khagan, persuaded him not to sign the messages as a vassal - but as an equal sovereign. [1] Anagui often switched between sides.

In fall 545, due to an alliance between Western Wei and Rouran to attack Eastern Wei, Gao Huan sued for peace with Rouran by requesting a marriage between a daughter of Anagui and Gao Cheng. Yujiulü Anagui refused, stating that it would only be sufficient if Gao Huan himself married her. Gao Huan himself initially refused, but Princess Lou, Gao Cheng and Wei Jing all persuaded him otherwise, and he married Yujiulü Anagui's daughter, referring to her as the Princess Ruru (蠕蠕公主). [2] [3] To facilitate this marriage, Princess Lou moved out of the mansion, but Gao Huan and Princess Lou were not formally divorced.

Next year, in 546, his bannerman Ashina Tumen suppressed a Tiele revolt against Rouran. [4] Following this, Tumen felt entitled to request of the Rouran a princess as his wife. Anagui sent an emissary to Bumin to rebuke him, saying, "You are my blacksmith slave. How dare you utter these words?". [5] [6] [7] [8] Tumen got angry, killed Anagui's emissary, and severed relations with the Rouran Khaganate, started an open revolt with help of Yuwen Tai.

Death and succession

Some time between February 11 - March 10, 552, Anagui was defeated by Tumen in the north of Huaihuang (in present-day Zhangjiakou, Hebei) and committed suicide. [9] Following the defeat, Anagui's son Anluochen fled to Northern Qi, while his uncle Yujiulü Dengshuzi succeeded him under protection of Western Wei. Another relative, Yujiulü Tiefa declared himself khagan in east of Gobi.

Family

He was married to Princess Lanling (蘭陵公主), daughter of Yuan Yi, Prince Qinghe Wenxian (清河文獻王 元懌; 488–520) and granddaughter of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei. He had following children:

Sources

  1. 1 2 Kradin, Nikolay N. (2005). "From Tribal Confederation to Empire: The Evolution of the Rouran Society". Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 58 (2): 149–169. doi:10.1556/AOrient.58.2005.2.3. ISSN   0001-6446. JSTOR   23658732.
  2. eds. Lee, Stefanowska, Wiles 2007, p. 316.
  3. Gao Huan, as demanded by Yujiulü Anagui as one of the peace terms between Eastern Wei and Rouran, married the Princess Ruru in 545, and had her take the place of Princess Lou as his wife, but never formally divorced Princess Lou. After Gao Huan's death, pursuant to Rouran customs, the Princess Ruru became married to Gao Huan's son Gao Cheng, who also, however, did not formally divorce his wife.
  4. Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian , Vol. 159.
  5. 馬長壽, 《突厥人和突厥汗國》, 上海人民出版社, 1957,p. 10-11 (in Chinese)
  6. 陳豐祥, 余英時, 《中國通史》, 五南圖書出版股份有限公司, 2002, ISBN   978-957-11-2881-8, p. 155 (in Chinese)
  7. Gao Yang, "The Origin of the Turks and the Turkish Khanate", X. Türk Tarih Kongresi: Ankara 22 - 26 Eylül 1986, Kongreye Sunulan Bildiriler, V. Cilt, Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1991, s. 731. (in English)
  8. Burhan Oğuz, Türkiye halkının kültür kökenleri: Giriş, beslenme teknikleri, İstanbul Matbaası, 1976, p. 147. «Demirci köle» olmaktan kurtulup reisleri Bumin'e (in Turkish)
  9. Linghu Defen et al., Book of Zhou , Vol. 50. (in Chinese)
Preceded by
Yujiulü Poluomen
Khagan of Rouran
522–552
Succeeded by
Yujiulü Dengshuzi
(West)
Succeeded by
Yujiulü Tiefa
(East)
Preceded by
Yujiulü Chounu
Khagan of Rouran
520–521
Succeeded by
Yujiulü Poluomen

Related Research Articles

Xianbei Ancient people in Manchuria and Mongolia

The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China. They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC. The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu. However unlike the Xiongnu, the Xianbei political structure lacked the organization to pose a concerted challenge to the Chinese for most of their time as a nomadic people.

Rouran Khaganate State established by proto-Mongols, from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century

The Rouran Khaganate, also Juan-Juan Khaganate, was a tribal confederation and later state founded by a people of Proto-Mongolic Donghu origin. The Rouran supreme rulers are noted for being the first to use the title of "khagan", having borrowed this popular title from the Xianbei. The Rouran Khaganate lasted from the late 4th century until the middle 6th century, when they were defeated by a Göktürk rebellion which subsequently led to the rise of the Turks in world history.

Heqin, also known as marriage alliance, refers to the historical practice of Chinese emperors marrying princesses—usually members of minor branches of the ruling family—to rulers of neighboring states. It was often adopted as an appeasement strategy with an enemy state that was too powerful to defeat on the battlefield. The policy was not always effective. It implied an equal diplomatic status between the emperor and the ruler of the other state. As a result, it was controversial and had many critics.

Yujiulü Hulü was an early 5th century ruler of the Rouran, a confederation of nomadic tribes in Mongolia with the title Aikugai Khagan.

Yujiulü Datan khan of the Rouran from 414 to July, 429 with the title of Mouhanheshenggai Khagan (牟汗紇升蓋可汗).

Yujiulü Wuti was a ruler of the Rouran with the title of Qilian or Chilian Khagan (敕連可汗). He was the son of Yujiulü Datan.

Yujiulü Futu was khagan of the Rouran (506–508) with the title of Tuohan Khagan (佗汗可汗) or Tahan Khagan (他汗可汗). He was the first son of Yujiulü Nagai.

Yujiulü Chounu (?-520) was ruler of the Rouran (508-520) with the title of Douluofubadoufa Khagan (豆羅伏跋豆伐可汗).

Yujiulü Dengshuzi (?-555) was the last western khagan of the Rouran. He was a cousin of Anagui.

Emperor Wen of Western Wei ( 魏文帝) (507–551), personal name Yuan Baoju (元寶炬), was an emperor of Western Wei—a branch successor state to Northern Wei. In 534, Yuan Baoju, then the Prince of Nanyang, followed his cousin Emperor Xiaowu in fleeing from the capital Luoyang to Chang'an, after a fallout between Emperor Xiaowu and the paramount general Gao Huan. However, Emperor Xiaowu's relationship to the general that he then depended on, Yuwen Tai, soon deteriorated as well, and around the new year 535, Yuwen Tai poisoned Emperor Xiaowu to death, making Yuan Baoju emperor. As Gao Huan had, late in 534, made Yuan Shanjian the son of Emperor Wen's cousin Yuan Dan (元亶) the Prince of Qinghe emperor, thus establishing Eastern Wei, Emperor Wen was known as Western Wei's first emperor, formalizing the division. Emperor Wen's relationship with Yuwen appeared cordial, but he was unable to exercise much real power.

Empress Yifu (510–540), formally Empress Wen, was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei state Western Wei—a branch successor state of Northern Wei. Her husband was Emperor Wen.

Empress Yujiulü (525–540), formally Empress Dao, was an empress of the Chinese/Xianbei state Western Wei — a branch successor state of Northern Wei. Her husband was Emperor Wen.

Gao Huan (496–547), Xianbei name Heliuhun (賀六渾), formally Prince Xianwu of Qi (齊獻武王), later further formally honored by Northern Qi initially as Emperor Xianwu (獻武皇帝), then as Emperor Shenwu (神武皇帝) with the temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the paramount general and minister of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei and Northern Wei's branch successor state Eastern Wei. Though being ethnically Chinese, Gao was deeply affected by Xianbei culture and was often considered more Xianbei than Chinese by his contemporaries. During his career, he and his family became firmly in control of the government of Eastern Wei, and eventually, in 550, his son Gao Yang forced Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei to yield the throne to him, establishing the Gao clan as the imperial clan of a new Northern Qi state.

Gao Cheng, courtesy name Zihui (子惠), formally Prince Wenxiang of Bohai (勃海文襄王), later further posthumously honored by Northern Qi as Emperor Wenxiang (文襄皇帝) with the temple name Shizong (世宗), was the paramount official of the Chinese/Xianbei state Eastern Wei, a branch successor state of Northern Wei. He was Gao Huan's oldest son, and because his father wielded actual power during Emperor Xiaojing's reign, Gao Cheng also received increasingly great authority, and after his father's death in 547 took over the reign of the state. He was considered capable but frivolous and arrogant, as well as lacking in sexual discretion. In 549, he was assassinated by his servant Lan Jing (蘭京), and his younger brother Gao Yang took over the control over the Eastern Wei regime.

Yuwen Tai (507–556), nickname Heita (黑獺), formally Duke Wen of Anding (安定文公), later further posthumously honored by Northern Zhou initially as Prince Wen (文王) then as Emperor Wen (文皇帝) with the temple name Taizu (太祖), was the paramount general of the Chinese/Xianbei state Western Wei, a branch successor state of Northern Wei. In 534, Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei, seeking to assert power independent of the paramount general Gao Huan, fled to Yuwen's domain, and when Gao subsequently proclaimed Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei emperor, a split of Northern Wei was effected, and when Yuwen subsequently poisoned Emperor Xiaowu to death around the new year 535 and declared his cousin Yuan Baoju emperor, the split was formalized, with the part under Gao's and Emperor Xiaojing's control known as Eastern Wei and the part under Yuwen's and Emperor Wen's control known as Western Wei. For the rest of his life, Yuwen endeavored to make Western Wei, then much weaker than its eastern counterpart, a strong state, and after his death, his son Yuwen Jue seized the throne from Emperor Gong of Western Wei, establishing Northern Zhou.

Yujiulü Anluochen (?-554) was the last khagan of the Rouran (553-554) in the east. He was the son of Yujiulü Anagui.

Lou Zhaojun, formally Empress Ming, was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi. She was the wife of Gao Huan, the paramount general of Northern Wei and its branch successor state Eastern Wei, and during Gao Huan's lifetime was already influential on the political scene. After Gao Huan's death, she continued to exert influence through the regency of her son Gao Cheng, and then as empress dowager after another son Gao Yang seized the throne from Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei and established Northern Qi. She continued to serve as grand empress dowager through the reigns of Gao Yang's son Emperor Fei, and then again as empress dowager during the reigns of two more of her own sons, Emperor Xiaozhao and Emperor Wucheng.

Emperor Fei of Western Wei ( 魏廢帝), personal name Yuan Qin (元欽), was an emperor of the Xianbei state Western Wei—a branch successor state of Northern Wei. He, even more so than his father Emperor Wen, held little actual power in the face of overwhelming control of power by the paramount general Yuwen Tai. In 554, he tried to plot to have Yuwen killed, but his plot was discovered, and Yuwen deposed him, and soon had him killed.

Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi ( 齊武成帝) (537–569), personal name Gao Zhan, nickname Buluoji (步落稽), was an emperor of Northern Qi. In traditional Chinese historiography, he was presented as a minimally competent ruler who devoted much of his time to feasting and pleasure-seeking, neglecting the affairs of the state. The state was governed with assistance from his adviser He Shikai and other appointed administrators. In 565, he passed the throne to his young son Gao Wei, taking the title Taishang Huang, but continued to make key decisions. He died in 569, and the Northern Qi would fall in 577.

Yujiulü Poluomen was a khagan of Rouran with the title Mioukesheju Khagan (彌偶可社句可汗). He was a grandson of Yujiulü Nagai and a cousin of Yujiulü Anagui.