Yuri Pavlovich Gidzenko
|Awards||Hero of the Russian Federation|
Time in space
|329d 22h 44min|
Total EVA time
|3 hours 43 minutes|
|Missions||Soyuz TM-22, Mir EO-20, Soyuz TM-31, Expedition 1, STS-102, Soyuz TM-34/TM-33|
Yuri Pavlovich Gidzenko (Russian: Юрий Павлович Гидзенко; born March 26, 1962) is a Russian cosmonaut. He was a test cosmonaut of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (TsPK). Gidzenko has flown into space three times and has lived on board the Mir and International Space Stations. He has also conducted two career spacewalks. Although he retired on July 15, 2001, he continued his employment by a special contract until Soyuz TM-34 concluded. Since 2004 to May 2009, Gidzenko was the Director of the 3rd department within the TsPK. Since May 2009 he serves as the Deputy Chief of Cosmonaut Training Center TsPK.
The Yuri A. Gagarin State Scientific Research-and-Testing Cosmonaut Training Center is a Russian training facility responsible for training cosmonauts for their space missions. It is in Star City of Moscow Oblast, a name which may refer to the facility itself or to its grounds.
Soyuz TM-34 was the fourth Soyuz mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Soyuz TM-34 was launched by a Soyuz-U launch vehicle.
Gidzenko was born on March 26, 1962, Elanets, Mykolaiv Oblast, Ukraine (then in the Soviet Union). Gidzenko is married to Olga Vladimirovna Shapovalova. They have two sons, Sergei, born in 1986 and Alexander, born in 1988. His father, Pavel Vasilyevich Gidzenko, and mother, Galina Mikhailovna Gidzenko, live in Berezovka-2, Odessa area.Gidzenko's hobbies include football, swimming, reading of literature, photography, and walks in forests.
Mykolaiv Oblast, also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev Oblast, is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Mykolaiv. Population: 1,164,342 (2015 est.)
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
Gidzenko graduated from the Higher Military Pilot School in Kharkiv in 1983. Gidzenko graduated from the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) in 1994 specializing in geodesy and cartography.
Kharkiv, also known as Kharkov, is the second-largest city in Ukraine. In the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and of the surrounding Kharkiv Raion, though administratively it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 2,139,036
Geodesy is the Earth science of accurately measuring and understanding Earth's geometric shape, orientation in space and gravitational field. The field also incorporates studies of how these properties change over time and equivalent measurements for other planets. Geodynamical phenomena include crustal motion, tides and polar motion, which can be studied by designing global and national control networks, applying space and terrestrial techniques and relying on datums and coordinate systems.
Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
Upon graduation from the pilot school in 1983, Gidzenko served as a pilot and as a senior pilot in the RAir Force units of the Odessa military district. He was a 3rd class military pilot. Gidzenko was trained to fly three types of aircraft and has logged a total flying time of 850 hours. He is also a parachute-landing training instructor and has made 170 jumps.
From December 1987 to June 1989, Gidzenko attended basic space training as a test cosmonaut candidate. Since September 1989 he attended advanced training as a test cosmonaut candidate. From March to October 1994 he trained for a space flight as a back-up crew commander (17th Primary Expedition/Euro-Mir-94 Program). From November 1994 to August 1995 he attended training for a space flight aboard the Soyuz TM transport vehicle/Mir orbital complex as the Expedition 20 Primary Crew Commander (Euro-Mir-95 Program).
Mir was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. It had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station (ISS) after Mir's orbit decayed. The station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space.
Yuri Gidzenko served aboard Mir as the commander of the long duration Mir EO-20 (Euromir 95) expedition from September 3, 1995 to February 29, 1996, and logged 179 days in space. One of the crewmembers on this mission was the ESA astronaut, Thomas Reiter. The Soyuz TM-22 carrying Gidzenko, cosmonaut Sergei Avdeyev and Reiter lifted off from the Baikonour cosmodrome on September 3, 1995 at 9:00 UTC. After a two-day autonomous flight the Soyuz spacecraft docked automatically with the Mir space station's -X docking port on September 5. The three member crew became the 20th Mir resident crew. During the first week after docking, Euromir 95 crew and the resident Mir EO-19 crew of cosmonauts Anatoly Solovyev and Nikolai Budarin conducted joint work. Gidzenko and his crewmembers used this time to get familiarize with the status of the onboard systems and experiments. The scientific objectives of Euromir 95 were to study effects of microgravity on the human body, to experiment with the development on new materials in a space environment, to capture samples of cosmic dust and man-made particles in low Earth orbit, and to test new space equipment.During the next months joint Russian-German research work were performed on board the Mir in the fields of life sciences (18 experiments), astrophysics (5 experiments), materials science (8 experiments) and technology (10 experiments). The crew also performed common work with the crew of STS-74. They cooperated in medical experiments and environmental investigations designed as part of International Space Station (ISS) Phase I research.
Euromir was an international space programme in the 1990s. Between the Russian Federal Space Agency and the European Space Agency (ESA), it would bring European astronauts to the Mir space station.
Thomas Arthur Reiter is a retired European astronaut and is a Brigadier General in the German Air Force currently working as ESA Interagency Coordinator and Advisor to the Director General at the European Space Agency (ESA). He was one of the top 25 astronauts in terms of total time in space. With his wife and two sons he lives near Oldenburg in Lower Saxony.
Soyuz TM-22 was the 23rd manned spacecraft mission to visit the Soviet Space Station Mir.
During Euromir 95, an unmanned cargo spacecraft, Progress M-29 visited the Mir on October 10. Progress M-29 brought about 2.5 tons of fresh supplies and equipment for the Mir EO-20 crew. On October 17, 1995 Russian and ESA officials decided to add another 44 days to the originally planned 135 days of the mission duration. On December 20, Progress M-30 docked at the Kvant port of Mir. It delivered 2300 kg of fuel, crew supplies, and research and medical equipment for use on the extended Euromir 95 mission
On February 29, 1996, Gidzenko returned to Earth on board the Soyuz TM-22 capsule which landed at 10:42 UTC, 105 km northeast of Arkalyk.
Arkalyk is a city in Kostanay Region, northern Kazakhstan. Earlier, it was the centre of Torgay Region, which was abolished in 1997. Today, it is the administrative centre of Torgay District, Kostanay Region. Established in 1956, it acquired the status of the city in 1965. The distance from the town of Arkalyk to Kostanay is 480 km (298 mi), to Nur-Sultan is 670 km (416 mi). Population: 28,169 ;45,736.
From November 2000 to March 2001, Gidzenko was part of the first permanent ISS resident crew, the Expedition 1. He along with cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev and NASA astronaut William Shepherd was launched into space on board the Soyuz TM-31 spacecraft which lifted off from the Baikonour cosmodrome on October 31, 2000 at 07:52:47 UTC. Gidzenko served as the Soyuz commander. After two days of solo flight, on November 2, the Soyuz spacecraft docked with the aft port the Zvezda Service Module at 09:21 UTC. Gidzenko joined the Expedition 1 crew as a flight engineer. The crew were on board the ISS for over four months. They helped with assembly tasks as new elements, including the U.S. Destiny Laboratory, were added to the orbiting outpost. In their first weeks on board, Gidzenko, Shepherd and Krikalev activated critical life support systems and unpacked Station components, clothing, laptop computers, office equipment, cables and electrical gear left behind for them by previous Shuttle crews which conducted logistic supply flights to the new complex over the past two years.
Expedition 1 crew hosted three visiting Shuttle crews, STS-97, STS-98 and STS-102. The crew unloaded two unmanned Russian Progress resupply vehicles.
On March, 2001, Expedition 1 crewmembers returned to Earth aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery at the completion of the STS-102. Discovery landed at the Kennedy Space Center's Runway 15, on March 21 at 02:33:06 EST. On board Soyuz/shuttle and ISS, Gidzenko logged 140 days in space.
He was Launched on April 25, 2002 on the Soyuz TM-34 (Soyuz 4 Taxi Crew) mission along with ESA astronaut Roberto Vittori and South African Space Tourist Mark Shuttleworth.The Soyuz TM-34 lifted off from the Baikonour cosmodrome at 06:26:35 UTC. Gidzenko served as the Soyuz commander for the flight. After two days of solo flight, the Soyuz docked with the nadir port of the Zarya module at 07:55 UTC. Once there at the ISS, Gidzenko, Vittori and Shuttleworth conducted joint operations with the ISS resident Expedition 4 crew, performed educational and science activities and exchanged seat liners from the Soyuz TM-34 to the old Soyuz TM-33.
On May 5, Gidzenko returned to Earth on board the Soyuz TM-33 spacecraft. Soyuz TM-33 undocked from the Pirs Docking Compartment and landed 26 km south east of Arkalyk at 03:51:53 UTC. On board Soyuz TM-33/TM-34 and the ISS, Gidzenko logged 9 days in space.
Gidzenko has performed two career spacewalks during his stay on board the Mir space station.
On December 8, 1995 Gizenko performed his first career spacewalk. He and cosmonaut Avedeyev began the spacewalk at 19:23 UTC. The two spacewalkers reconfigured the docking unit at the front of the Mir base block to prepare it for arrival of the Priroda module. From inside the depressurized docking unit, the two cosmonauts moved the Konus docking unit from the +Z to the -Z docking port, where the Priroda module was docked. The spacewalk lasted 37 minutes.
On February 8, 1996 Gidzenko performed his second career spacewalk.He and ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter began the spacewalk at 14:03 UTC. At the beginning, they moved a maneuvering unit stored inside the Kvant 2 airlock and attached it to the exterior of the module. The spacewalkers then climbed out the Kvant 2 hatch and again used the Strela boom to maneuver to the forward end of Spektr, where they retrieved the two cassettes they had deployed in October, 1995. They installed a new cassette in the facility and, with Adeyev's assistance from inside the station, verified that it would operate. Although originally scheduled to last about 5 hours and 30 minutes, the spacewalking activity was shortened to 3 hours and 6 minutes by an aborted task on a Kristall antenna. The Russian officials canceled the antenna work when the cosmonauts were unable to loosen the bolts on a joint of the antenna.
Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko is a retired Russian cosmonaut. Malenchenko became the first person to marry in space, on 10 August 2003, when he married Ekaterina Dmitrieva, who was in Texas, while he was 240 miles over New Zealand, on the International Space Station. As of June 2016, Malenchenko ranks second for career time in space due to his time on both Mir and the International Space Station (ISS). He is a former Commander of the International Space Station.
Aleksandr Yuriyevich "Sasha" Kaleri is a Russian cosmonaut and veteran of extended stays on the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station (ISS). Kaleri has most recently been in space aboard the ISS serving as a flight engineer for the long duration Expedition 25/26 missions. He has spent the fourth-longest time in space of any person, the longest time in space of any currently active cosmonaut, and the longest time in space of any person not born in what is now Russia.
Nikolai Mikhailovich Budarin is a retired Russian cosmonaut, a veteran of three extended space missions aboard the Mir Space Station and the International Space Station. He has also performed eight career spacewalks with a total time of 44 hours.
Yury Valentinovich Lonchakov is a Russian former cosmonaut and a veteran of three space missions. He has spent 200 days in space and has conducted two career spacewalks.
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Col. Yuri Ivanovich Onufriyenko is a retired Russian cosmonaut. He is a veteran of two extended spaceflights, aboard the space station Mir in 1996 and aboard the International Space Station in 2001-2002.
Gennady Ivanovich Padalka is a Russian Air Force officer and an RKA cosmonaut. Padalka currently has the world record for the most time spent in space, having spent 879 days in space, more than any other person. He worked on both Mir and the International Space Station.
Salizhan Shakirovich Sharipov is a Kyrgyzstani cosmonaut. Sharipov is a co-author and investigator for the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity project. He has been to space twice and has conducted two spacewalks. Sharipov retired on 18 July 2008.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Dezhurov is a Russian former cosmonaut who resides in Star City, Moscow. He is a veteran of two spaceflights, to the Mir and International Space Stations. During his career, Dezhurov also conducted nine spacewalks before his retirement on July 12, 2004.
Valeri Ivanovich Tokarev is a Russian Air Force Colonel and test cosmonaut at the Yuri A. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center. Tokarev traveled to space twice, and has performed two career spacewalks, before retiring in June 2008.
Yury Vladimirovich Usachov is a former cosmonaut who resides in Star City, Moscow. Usachov is a veteran of four spaceflights, including two long duration missions on board the Mir Space Station and another on board the International Space Station. During his career, he also conducted seven spacewalks before his retirement on April 5, 2004.
Fyodor Nikolayevich Yurchikhin is a Russian cosmonaut of Greek descent, engineer and RSC Energia test-pilot who has flown on five spaceflights. His first spaceflight was a 10-day Space Shuttle mission STS-112. His second was a long-duration stay aboard the International Space Station (ISS) as a Flight Engineer for Expedition 15; for this mission he was launched in the Soyuz TMA-10 spacecraft. He has undertaken two further long-duration stays aboard the ISS, as a crew member of Expedition 24 / 25. For this mission he was launched with the spacecraft Soyuz TMA-19, and he landed in November 2010, also with the TMA-19 spacecraft. He served as Soyuz Commander for his fourth mission aboard Soyuz TMA-09M, as Flight Engineer for Expedition 36 and ISS Commander for Expedition 37. In April 2017, Yurchikhin launched on Soyuz MS-04 for the fifth spaceflight of his career, a six-month mission to the ISS as part of Expedition 51 and 52, for which he was the Commander.
Soyuz TM-31 was the first Soyuz spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station (ISS). This Soyuz-TM spacecraft carried the members of Expedition 1, the first long-duration ISS crew. It was launched from Russia at 07:52 UT on October 31, 2000 by a Soyuz-U rocket.
Pavel Vladimirovich Vinogradov is a cosmonaut and former commander of the International Space Station. As of May 2013, he has flown into space three times, aboard Mir and the International Space Station, and is one of the top 10 astronauts in terms of total time in space. Vinogradov has also conducted seven spacewalks in his cosmonaut career, and holds the record for the oldest person to perform a spacewalk.
Expedition 2 was the second long-duration spaceflight aboard the International Space Station, immediately following Expedition 1. Its three-person crew stayed aboard the station from March to August 2001. In addition to station maintenance, the crew assisted in several station assembly missions, welcomed the first space tourist Dennis Tito, and conducted some scientific experiments.
Expedition 1 was the first long-duration stay on the International Space Station (ISS). The three-person crew stayed aboard the station for 136 days, from November 2000 to March 2001. It was the beginning of an uninterrupted human presence on the station which continues as of October 2019. Expedition 2, which also had three crew members, immediately followed Expedition 1.
The Shuttle–Mir program was a collaborative 11-mission space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the Shuttle, and an American astronaut flying aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to engage in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir.
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