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Yuwen in regular script
|Word/name||name of a clan|
|Derivation||an ethnic Xianbei clan of Xiongnu origin during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms|
|Variant form(s)||Yuwen (Mandarin)|
The Yuwen (Chinese :宇文; pinyin :Yǔwén < Eastern Han Chinese: *waB-mun < Old Chinese *waʔ-mən ) is a Chinese compound surname originated from a pre-state clan of Xianbei ethnicity of Xiongnu origin during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China, until its destruction by Former Yan's prince Murong Huang in 345. Among the eastern Xianbei clans that ranged from the central part of the present day Liaoning province and eastward, Yuwen clan was the largest, and was awarded the position of the leader of eastern Xianbei (东部大人) by Chinese rulers. A descendant of the Yuwen tribe, Yuwen Tai, established the Northern Zhou Dynasty in the 6th century.
Yuanhe Xingzuan "The register of the great families from the Yuanhe reign (806-820)" vol. 6, the Yuwen part 2 records:
(宇文)本遼東南單于之後, 有普回因獵得玉璽, 以為天授. 鮮卑俗呼天子為宇文, 因號宇文氏.
(The Yuwen) originally were the descendants of the southern Shanyu (of the Xiongnu). Someone within them called Puhui got a jade seal when he was hunting. This was regarded as a sign of imperial enthronement from heaven. According to Xianbei tradition, the son of the heaven was called the Yuwen. Thus (Puhui) called himself the Yuwen.
Yuwen were descendants of the nomadic Xiongnu who became assimilated with the Xianbei after 89 CE and ruled the Kumo Xi and Khitan (both Mongolic peoples) before being defeated by Murong Huang in 344 CE, upon which Yuwen separated from the Kumo Xi and Khitan. The language of the Yuwen is thought to be Turkic or a very distant branch of Mongolic.
The Wei Shu vol. 103, Biography of Yuwen Mohuai of Xiongnu records:
匈奴宇文莫槐, 出於遼東塞外, 其先, 南單于之遠屬也, 世為東部大人. 其語與鮮卑頗異.
人皆翦髮而留其頂上, 以為首飾, 長過數寸則截短之. 婦女披長襦及足, 而無裳焉. 秋收
Yuwen Mohuai of the Xiongnu was from Liaodong, the region beyond the northern border. His ancestor was a remote relative of the southern Shanyu. (The Yuwen) had been the chief of the eastern section (of the Xianbei) for many generations. The (Yuwen)'s language differed widely from the Xianbei's. (The Yuwen) people all had shaved hair, but the hair on top of the head was left as a decoration. When the hair was over some cun long, it would be cut short. The women had long robes, which draped from their shoulders to their feet, but (they) did not wear skirts. When autumn came, they collected Wutou as poison, and used it to shoot birds and beasts.
|Family names and given name||Durations of reigns|
|Chinese convention: use family name and given name|
|宇文莫槐 Yǔwén Mòhuái||260-293|
|宇文普回 Yǔwén Pǔhuí||293-late 3rd century|
|宇文丘不勤 Yǔwén Qiūbùqín||late 3rd century|
|宇文莫圭 Yǔwén Mòguī||late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?)|
|宇文悉獨官 Yǔwén Xīdúguān||early 4th century|
|宇文乞得歸 Yǔwén Qǐdeguī||early 4th century-333|
|宇文逸豆歸 Yǔwén Yìdòuguī||333-345|
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China. They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC. The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu. However unlike the Xiongnu, the Xianbei political structure lacked the organization to pose a concerted challenge to the Chinese for most of their time as a nomadic people.
The Monguor, the Tu people, the White Mongol or the Tsagaan Mongol, are one of the 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China. The "Tu" ethnic category was created in the 1950s.
The Han Zhao, or Former Zhao, was a dynasty of Southern Xiongnu origin during Sixteen Kingdoms period of Chinese history coeval with the Sima clan's Jin dynasty. In Chinese historiography, it was given two conditional state titles, the Northern Han for the state proclaimed in 304 by Liu Yuan, and the Former Zhao for the state proclaimed in 319 by Liu Yao. The reference to them as separate states should be considered misleading, given that when Liu Yao changed the name of the state from "Han" to "Zhao" in 319, he treated the state as having been continuous from the time that Liu Yuan founded it in 304; instead, he de-established royal lineage from the Han dynasty and claimed ancestry directly from Yu the Great of the Xia dynasty.
The Dingling were an ancient people who lived in Siberia, mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE. They are assumed to have been related to Na-Dené and Yeniseian speakers, to be early Proto-Turkic people or even ancestors of Tungusic speakers among the Shiwei.
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Yuwen Mohuai (?-293) was a chieftain of the Yuwen tribe from 260 to 293 CE.
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou ( 周靜帝) (573–581), personally name né Yuwen Yan (宇文衍), later Yuwen Chan (宇文闡), was the last emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou. He became emperor at the age of six, after his father Emperor Xuan formally passed the throne to him, but Emperor Xuan retained the imperial powers. After Emperor Xuan's death in 580, the official Yang Jian, the father of Emperor Xuan's wife Yang Lihua, seized power as regent. Yang soon defeated the general Yuchi Jiong, who tried to resist him, and in 581 had the young Emperor Jing yield the throne to him, ending Northern Zhou and establishing Sui Dynasty. Yang soon had the young emperor, as well as other members of Northern Zhou's imperial Yuwen clan, put to death.
Yuwen Shu, courtesy name Botong (伯通), formally Duke Gong of Xu (許恭公), was an official and general of the Sui Dynasty of China. He was a confidant of Emperor Yang and was instrumental in Yang Guang's displacement of his brother Yang Yong as crown prince; therefore, after Yang Guang became emperor, Yuwen Shu became exceedingly powerful and was one of two generals who spearheaded Yangdi's efforts in the Goguryeo-Sui Wars. His son Yuwen Huaji later led a coup against Emperor Yang in 618 and, after killing Emperor Yang, briefly claimed imperial title in 619, but was soon captured and killed. Another son of Yuwen Shu, Yuwen Shiji, however, was a friend of Tang Dynasty's founder Li Yuan, and after Li Yuan established Tang remained an influential official.
Bi Gui, courtesy name Zhaoxian, was an official serving in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
The Kumo Xi (traditional Chinese: 庫莫奚; simplified Chinese: 库莫奚; pinyin: Kùmò Xī;, also known as the Qay or Tatabi, were a Mongolic steppe people located in current northeast China from 207 AD to 907 AD. After the death of their ancestor Tadun in 207 they were no longer called Wuhuan but joined the Khitan Xianbei in submitting to the Yuwen Xianbei. Their history is widely linked to the more famous Khitan. During their history the Kumo Xi engaged in conflict with numerous Chinese dynasties and with the Khitans, eventually suffering a series of disastrous defeats to Chinese armies and coming under the domination of the Khitans. In 907, the Kumo Xi were completely assimilated into the Khitan Liao Dynasty.
The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156 to 234. Like most ancient peoples known through Chinese historiography, the ethnic makeup of the Xianbei is unclear.
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Qutu Tong, titled Duke of Jiang, Xianbei name Tandouba (坦豆拔), was a general in Sui and Tang dynasties of China. He was listed as one of 24 founding officials of Tang Dynasty honored on the Lingyan Pavilion due to his contributions in wars during the transitional period from Sui to Tang.
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