Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Южно-Сахалинск
Iuzhno Sakhalinsk kollazh.jpg
Top:Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ, Gorny Vozduh Resort Cablecar, Center:Sakhalin Regional Museum, Bottom:Yuzhino-Sakhalinsk Gagarin Park, Anton Chekhov Museum and monument (all of item from left to right)
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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Location of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Outline Map of Sakhalin Oblast.svg
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Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Sakhalin Oblast)
Coordinates: 46°58′N142°44′E / 46.967°N 142.733°E / 46.967; 142.733 Coordinates: 46°58′N142°44′E / 46.967°N 142.733°E / 46.967; 142.733
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakhalin Oblast [1]
Founded1882
City status since1905 [2]
Government
  HeadSergey Nadsadin [3]
Elevation
50 m (160 ft)
Population
  Total181,728
  Estimate 
(2018) [5]
198,973 (+9.5%)
  Rank 99th in 2010
  Subordinated to city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk [1]
   Capital ofSakhalin Oblast [1] , city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk [1]
  Urban okrugYuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug [6]
   Capital ofYuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug [6]
Time zone UTC+11 (MSK+8   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [7] )
Postal code(s) [8]
693000
Dialing code(s) +7 4242; +7 424 [9]
OKTMO ID64701000001
Website www.yuzhno-sakh.ru

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russian:Ю́жно-Сахали́нск, tr. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk,IPA:  [ˈjuʐnə səxɐˈlʲinsk] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ), literally "South Sakhalin City") is a city in Sakhalin island, and the administrative center of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia. It is located in the Far East part of Russia, situated north of Japan. [10] Gas and oil extraction as well as processing are amongst the main industries on the island. It was called Vladimirovka (Влади́мировка) from 1882 to 1905, then Toyohara (Japanese: 豊原市, Hepburn: Toyohara-shi) during its period of Imperial Japanese control from 1905 to 1946. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 181,728. [4]

Contents

History

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk began as a small Russian settlement called Vladimirovka, founded by convicts in 1882. [2] The Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, which brought an end to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, awarded the southern half of the Sakhalin Island to Japan. Vladimirovka was renamed Toyohara (meaning "bountiful plain"), and was the prefect capital of the Japanese Karafuto Prefecture.[ citation needed ]

After the end of World War II, the Japanese portion of Sakhalin island was occupied by Soviet troops. Ownership of the city was transferred to the Soviet Union and it was renamed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. Town status was granted to it in 1946. [2]

Administrative and municipal status

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is the administrative center of the oblast. [1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is incorporated as Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Urban Okrug.

Economy and infrastructure

Due to significant investment from oil companies like ExxonMobil and Shell, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk has experienced substantial economic growth. Although this growth has primarily occurred in the northern part of the island, both companies maintain headquarters and residential complexes in the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk itself. The demand for natural resources by the Japanese, Chinese, and South Koreans has ensured continued prosperity in the foreseeable future for the entire island.

There has been significant criticism, including from Presidential Envoy Kamil Iskhakov, that Sakhalin is not caring for its citizens. Despite sizable gas deposits and incoming investments from gas companies, the regional administration does not yet have plans for the installation of gas services on the island. The oblast also continues to have the highest rate of juvenile crime in all of Russia, and more than 40% of its businesses are unprofitable.[ citation needed ]

One of the very few remaining Japanese buildings in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk now functions as the local museum. The building was designed in the Emperor's Crown Style by Japanese architect Yoshio Kaizuka, and completed in 1937. [11]

Transportation

The city hosts the head office of Aurora Airline, subsidiary of Aeroflot. it is served by the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport. The city is also the hub for the island's narrow gauge railway network that underwent conversion to Russian broad gauge in August 2019. [12] In addition to railways, the town is also a hub for roadways, such as the A-391 (which travels south to Korsakov) and the A-392 (which travels west to Kholmsk).

Education

Institutes of elementary and middle education include Sakhalin International School.

Institutes of higher education in the city include Sakhalin State University and Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Institute of Economics, Law and Informatics. There are also some branches of other universities:

Mass media

Television

Radio

Demographics

Population

YearPopulation
195985,510
1970105,840
1979139,861 [13]
1989159,299 [14]
2002175,085 [15]
2010181,728 [16]

Most residents are ethnic Russians, but there also exists a sizable population of Korean Russians. Of the 43,000 Sakhalin Koreans, half are estimated to live in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, comprising roughly 12% of the city's population. Also smaller numbers of indigenous minorities, such as Ainu, Nivkhs and Oroks can be found.

Religion

The majority of the population are Russian Orthodox.

Geography and climate

The city is located on the Susuya River. It is the largest city on the island, and the only one with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The straight-line distance to Moscow is 10,417 kilometers (6,473 mi).

Due to restrictions, foreigners wishing to leave Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in order to travel to any other part of the Sakhalin Oblast and its internal and territorial waters are required to seek permission from the Federal Security Service (FSB) and the Border Guard. Scuba diving and recreating on the seacoast is permitted only in places defined by the Border Guard. [17]

The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb) with mild summers and cold winters. Maritime influences can be seen in that precipitation is much higher than in interior Russia and that summers are distinctly cooler than in Khabarovsk or Irkutsk, while winters are much milder. Summers are frequently foggy, reducing the amount of sunshine. Considering its southerly maritime position winters are very cold, albeit warmer than expected for surrounding inland areas affected by the Siberian High. Snowfall is more frequent than in those areas, due to said maritime influence bringing moisture to the coastline. Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is relatively sunny compared to Hokkaido locations, but gloomy by the lower latitudes of the Russian Far East's standards.

Climate data for Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)4.3
(39.7)
6.4
(43.5)
13.0
(55.4)
22.9
(73.2)
28.5
(83.3)
30.8
(87.4)
34.4
(93.9)
34.7
(94.5)
29.0
(84.2)
23.5
(74.3)
18.1
(64.6)
8.4
(47.1)
34.7
(94.5)
Average high °C (°F)−6.7
(19.9)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.9
(44.4)
13.4
(56.1)
17.7
(63.9)
20.8
(69.4)
22.4
(72.3)
19.0
(66.2)
12.3
(54.1)
3.2
(37.8)
−3.7
(25.3)
8.3
(46.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)−12.2
(10.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
1.7
(35.1)
7.2
(45.0)
11.7
(53.1)
15.5
(59.9)
17.3
(63.1)
13.2
(55.8)
6.5
(43.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
−8.6
(16.5)
2.8
(37.0)
Average low °C (°F)−17.3
(0.9)
−17.6
(0.3)
−10.8
(12.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.5
(36.5)
7.4
(45.3)
12.0
(53.6)
13.6
(56.5)
8.4
(47.1)
1.7
(35.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−13.3
(8.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
Record low °C (°F)−36.2
(−33.2)
−34.8
(−30.6)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−25.2
(−13.4)
−6.2
(20.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
1.3
(34.3)
3.6
(38.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
−11.8
(10.8)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−33.5
(−28.3)
−36.2
(−33.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)50
(2.0)
35
(1.4)
49
(1.9)
59
(2.3)
66
(2.6)
51
(2.0)
82
(3.2)
111
(4.4)
115
(4.5)
101
(4.0)
81
(3.2)
64
(2.5)
864
(34.0)
Average rainy days0.30.421017172019191992135
Average snowy days2524241330.100042027140
Average relative humidity (%)83817876778386878380818382
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1291531811911971981651491871601161021,928
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net [18]
Source 2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990) [19] [20]

Twin towns and sister cities

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is twinned with:[ citation needed ]

Related Research Articles

Okha, Russia Town in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia

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Sakhalin Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Sakhalin Oblast is a federal subject of Russia comprising the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in the Russian Far East. The oblast has an area of 87,100 square kilometers (33,600 sq mi). Its administrative center and largest city is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast has a population of 497,973. Besides people from other parts of the former Soviet Union and the Korean Peninsula, the oblast is home to Nivkhs and Ainu, with the latter having lost their language in Sakhalin recently. Sakhalin is rich in natural gas and oil, and is Russia's fourth wealthiest federal subject and wealthiest oblast. It borders Khabarovsk Krai to the west and Kamchatka Krai to the north, along with Hokkaido, Japan to the south.

Kholmsk Town in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia

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Dolinsky District District in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia

Dolinsky District is an administrative district (raion) of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia; one of the seventeen in the oblast. Municipally, it is incorporated as Dolinsky Urban Okrug. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 2,441.6 square kilometers (942.7 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Dolinsk. Population : 13,699 (2010 Census); 15,649 (2002 Census); 22,484 (1989 Census).

Smirnykhovsky District is an administrative district (raion) of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia; one of the seventeen in the oblast. Municipally, it is incorporated as Smirnykhovsky Urban Okrug. It is located in the central part of the Island of Sakhalin. The area of the district is 10,457.43 square kilometers (4,037.64 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Smirnykh. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 13,142, with the population of Smirnykh accounting for 56.3% of that number.

Tymovskoye Urban-type settlement in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Law #25-ZO
  2. 1 2 3 Южно-сахалинск - Исторический словарь - Словари и Энциклопедии
  3. Сергей Надсадин вступил в должность мэра Южно-Сахалинска. astv.ru (in Russian).
  4. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. 1 2 Law #524
  7. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. Телефонные коды Сахалина - Dialing codes of Sakhalin (in Russian)
  10. "Where is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  11. http://www.russianmuseums.info/M1096
  12. "Российская колея по всему Сахалину: движение открыто".
  13. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia](XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  14. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  16. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  17. Freedom of movement for foreigners on Sakhalin restricted
  18. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  19. "Juzno–Sahalinsk (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  20. "32150: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russia)". ogimet.com. OGIMET. March 15, 2021. Retrieved March 21, 2021.

Sources