Zadran (Pashtun tribe)

Last updated

The Zadran (Pashto : ځدراڼdzadrāṇ; pronounced dzādroṇ in the Khost-Paktia dialect), also spelled Dzadran or Jadran, is a Pashtun tribe that inhabits the Loya Paktia region in southeastern Afghanistan (Khost, Paktia, and Paktika provinces) and parts of Waziristan in neighboring Pakistan. "Zadran: Pashtun tribe mainly residing in the “Zadran Arc” a 9-district area encompassing portions of the Khost, Paktya, and Paktika provinces." [1] [2] [3] [4]

Contents

The Zadran are a branch of the Karlani tribal confederacy. [5] They are the largest Pashtun tribal group in Afghanistan's mountainous southeastern region, usually found in areas that are unsuitable for settled agricultural production. They have a reputation for militancy dating to the Soviet–Afghan War. Well-known Taliban fighter Jalaluddin Haqqani, who in later years headed the Haqqani network, is of the Zadran tribe himself, though he is recognized for ending the malik system by forcing Mohammad Omar Babrakzai to leave Paktia province. Babrakzai was the most powerful malik, or tribal chieftain, of the Zadran in the 1980s. [6] [7]

Tribal Tree

The known tribal tree for the Zadran tribe is as follow: [8]

Zadran Tribal Tree (shjrh).jpg

Notable Persons

See also

Related Research Articles

Pashtunistan Historical region inhabited by the Pashtun people

Pashtūnistān is a geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan in South-Central Asia, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based. Alternative names historically used for the region include "Pashtūnkhwā" (پښتونخوا) and "Afghānistān" (افغانستان), since at least the 3rd century CE onward. Pashtunistan borders Iran to the west, Persian and Turkic-speaking areas of Turkestan region to the north, Kashmir to the northeast, Punjab to the east, and Balochistan to the south. The region is alternatively called Pakhtūnistān, Pathānistān, or Pashtūnkhwa.

Khost Province Province of Afghanistan

Khost is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. To the east, Khost Province is bordered by North Waziristan and Kurram in Pakistan. Khost Province used to be part of Paktia Province in the past, and the larger region surrounding Khost is still called Loya Paktia.

Paktia Province Province of Afghanistan

Paktia is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the east of the country. Forming part of the larger Loya Paktia region, Paktia Province is divided into 15 districts and has a population of roughly 623,000, which is mostly a tribal society living in rural areas. Pashtuns make up the majority of the population but smaller number of 01% are also found. Gardez is the provincial capital.

Paktika Province Province of Afghanistan

Paktika is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. Forming part of the larger Loya Paktia region, Paktika has a population of about 789,000, mostly ethnic Pashtuns. The town of Sharana serves as the provincial capital, while the most populous city is Urgun.

Waziristan Area

Waziristan is a mountainous region covering the former FATA agencies of North Waziristan and South Waziristan which are now districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Waziristan covers some 11,585 square kilometres (4,500 sq mi). The area is populated by ethnic Pashtuns. It is named after the Wazir tribe. The language spoken in the valley is Pashto, predominantly the Waziri dialect. The region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which is now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

The Kharoti are a Pashtun tribe of Ghilji origin, originating in the central part of Paktika Province, Afghanistan, but can be also found in other parts of the country. The Kharoti settled in Kharotabad in Quetta, British India around 1945.

The Zazi, also spelled Zazai, or Jaji, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe. They are found in Paktia and Khost provinces in the Loya Paktia region of southeastern Afghanistan, as well as Kurram Valley of Pakistan, but also have an effective presence in Kabul, Logar, Ghazni, Nangharhar, Kunduz, and Baghlan in Afghanistan.

Said Akbar Khan Babrakzai or Said Akbar khan was a Pashtun tribesmen from the tribal regions of Afghanistan He was a Pashtun of the Babrakzai clan and was also responsible for the assassination of the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaqat Ali Khan, in Rawalpindi, Punjab Province, on October 16, 1951.

Jalaluddin Haqqani Afghan leader of the Haqqani network (1939–2018)

Jalaluddin Haqqani was an Afghan militant commander who founded the Haqqani network, an insurgent group fighting in guerilla warfare against US-led NATO forces and the now former government of Afghanistan they support.

Pacha Khan Zadran is a militia leader and a politician in the southeast of Afghanistan. He was an ex anti-Soviet-fighter militia leader who played a role in driving the Taliban from Paktia Province in the 2001 invasion, with American backing, and he subsequently assumed the governorship of the province. In 2002, he engaged in a violent conflict with rival tribal leaders in the province over the Governorship of the province, shelling Gardez City and obstructing two separate appointed governors sent by Hamid Karzai.

Nika District District

Nika District, also known as Naka, is one of the most remote districts in Paktika Province, Afghanistan. It lies in a bowl-shaped valley and is only accessible by a few rocky river beds and a single dirt road, the latter of which is not passable in winter. The valley's economy is rudimentary and relies on wood cutting and subsistence farming. The district is within the heartland of the Zadran tribe of Pashtuns. The population in 2019 was estimated at 16,747. It was, until the US invasion 2001, a bastion for the Taliban, with mid-level and a few senior Taliban commanders spending time there, including Jalaluddin Haqqani, who has since taken up a prominent role in Al Queda and is rumored to have been one of Osama bin Laden's senior advisors.

Zerok District District in Paktika, Afghanistan

Zerok District, also spelled Zirok, is a district of Paktika Province that once was a part of Paktia, Afghanistan. The main town is Zerok located on the main Khost-Urgun road.

The Mangal is a Pashtun tribe, residing in eastern Paktia and adjacent Khost provinces of Afghanistan, and in the town of Tari Mangal, district Kurram, Pakistan. Their land constitutes the northeastern part of the Loya Paktia region. The Mangals descent from Karlani Pashtun lineage.

Dawlatzai are several Pashtun tribes in eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. Dawlatzis live in Logar, Samangan, Paktia, Paktika, Khost, Baghlan, Nangarhar, Balkh Tajurghan, and Faryab provinces of Afghanistan.

The Haqqani network is an Afghan guerrilla insurgent group, built around the family of the same name, that has used asymmetric warfare in Afghanistan to fight against Soviet forces in the 1980s, and US-led NATO forces and the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan government in the 21st century. It is considered to be a "semi-autonomous" offshoot of the Taliban. It has been most active in eastern Afghanistan and across the Durand Line in north-west Pakistan.

Khost-Gardez Pass

The Khost-Gardez Pass, frequently abbreviated as the K-G Pass, and known locally as the Seti-Kandow Pass, or the Satukandav Pass by Soviet forces, is the main land route connecting Khost, the capital of Khost Province, and Gardez, the capital of Paktia province, in eastern Afghanistan. The pass currently consists of a rutted dirt road, though it is slowly being improved by construction crews as part of the international reconstruction effort in Afghanistan.

Loya Paktia

Lōya Paktiā is a historical and cultural region of Afghanistan, comprising the modern Afghan provinces of Khost, Paktia, and Paktika, as well as parts of Logar and parts of Kurram and Waziristan in Pakistan. Loya Paktia is vaguely defined by a common culture and history that is connected to the local indigenous tribes that reside in the region. Particular styles of clothing, articles of clothing, turban styles, turban cloth colors, dialects of Pashto language, etc. may sometimes be associated with specific tribes indigenous to Loya Paktia and thus integrate themselves into regional culture. For instance, a Pashtun tribesman from Loy Kandahar may quickly recognize a Pashtun from Loya Paktia based upon his turban style and color. Likewise, a Pashtun from Loya Paktia may recognize someone from Loy Kandahar based upon his unique style of collarless kameez (shirt) with specific embroidered patterns on the front. There are many subtle and intricate cultural indicators of this type that are not recorded in any known written history but simply known and observed by the tribesmen of the various Pashtun regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Zerok

Zēṛōk is the main town of Zerok District in Paktika Province, Afghanistan. It is located within the heart of Zadran land on the main Khost-Urgun road.

Masidwola, Mehsudi, or Maseedwola is a dialect of Waziristani.

Babrak Khan Zadran chieftain

Babrak Khan was a Zadran chieftain who was the father of Said Akbar Babrak and of Mazrak Zadran.

References

  1. Paktia Executive Summary on nps.edu
  2. Paktika Executive Summary on nps.edu
  3. Khost Executive Summary on nps.edu
  4. "Afghan power brokers: Playing the tribal loyalty card". Christian Science Monitor. 2002-06-10. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008. Retrieved 2015-08-23.
  5. Coyle, Dennis Walter (August 2014). "Placing Wardak among Pashto varieties" (PDF). University of North Dakota:UND. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  6. Zellen, Barry Scott (2014). Culture, Conflict, and Counterinsurgency. Stanford University Press. p. 145. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  7. McFate, Montgomery (2015). Social Science Goes to War: The Human Terrain System in Iraq and Afghanistan. Oxford University Press. p. 108. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  8. Kaka Khel, Syed Bahadar Shah Zafar (2008). Pukhtun Tareekh ke Ayeney Mein. Peshawar, Pakistan: University Book Agency, Peshawar. p. 1093.