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Location of Zaliche
Coordinates: 41°36′36″N35°35′42″E / 41.61000°N 35.59500°E / 41.61000; 35.59500 Coordinates: 41°36′36″N35°35′42″E / 41.61000°N 35.59500°E / 41.61000; 35.59500

Zaliche (Greek: Ζαλίχη) or Zaliches (Greek: Ζαλίχης) was an ancient town in the late Roman province of Helenopontus.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Roman province Major Roman administrative territorial entity outside of Italy

The Roman provinces were the lands and people outside of Rome itself that were controlled by the Republic and later the Empire. Each province was ruled by a Roman who was appointed as governor. Although different in many ways, they were similar to the states in Australia or the United States, the regions in the United kingdom or New Zealand, or the prefectures in Japan. Canada refers to some of its territory as provinces.



"Zaliche" is the form given in the indices of the editions, produced by Peter Wesseling, [1] and by B.G. Niebuhr [2] It is the form given also in Anthon's Classical Dictionary [3] On the other hand, the contributor (Leonhard Schmitz) of the entry on the town in William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography gives it the name "Zaliches". [4] The Annuaire historique of the Société de l'histoire de France treats "Zaliches" instead as the genitive case of "Zaliche'. [5] It appears that the city was at some time also called Leontopolis,


The manuscripts of the Synecdemus list among the seven cities of Helenopontus one called Σάλτον Ζαλίχην, [2] which Peter Wesseling believes should be corrected to Σάλτος Ζαλίχης and suggests it indicates that the city was surrounded by forests (Latin, saltus), [1] [2] making the name equivalent to "Forest of Zaliche".

The Synecdemus or Synekdemos is a geographic text, attributed to Hierocles, which contains a table of administrative divisions of the Byzantine Empire and lists of their cities. The work is dated to the reign of Justinian but prior to 535, as it divides the 912 listed cities in the Empire among 64 Eparchies. The Synecdemus, along with the work of Stephanus of Byzantium were the principal sources of Constantine VII's work on the Themes.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

At the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, a priest named Andronicus represented the Bishop John "Ζαλίχων", i.e., of Zaliche (Ζαλίχη, neuter plural). The priest is also called a priest Λεοντοπόλεως ἤτοι Ζαλίχου, an expression that treats "Leontopolis" as another name for the same town. Both Wesseling and the contributor to Smith's Geography also believe that this is the Leontopolis spoken of in Novella 28 as one of the cities of Helenopontus. [6]

Second Council of Nicaea synod

The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. In addition, it is also recognized as such by the Old Catholics and others. Protestant opinions on it are varied.


The town was the seat of an ancient bishopric and remains today a vacant titular see. [7] Leontopolis is first mentioned as a suffragan bishopric of Amaseia in the 6th century and, although declining, survived until the thirteenth. [8] [9] [10] It is mentioned in the Notitia III and sent delegates to Second and Third Council of Constantinople. [11] At times this city was merged with the bishopric centered on Isauropolis. [11] but known bishops include: [12]

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".

Third Council of Constantinople synod

The Third Council of Constantinople, counted as the Sixth Ecumenical Council by the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Churches, as well by certain other Western Churches, met in 680/681 and condemned monoenergism and monothelitism as heretical and defined Jesus Christ as having two energies and two wills.


Isauropolis was a Roman and Byzantine-era town in southern Turkey.

Council of Chalcedon Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451; not accepted by Oriental Orthodoxy

The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451, at Chalcedon. The Council was called by Emperor Marcian to set aside the 449 Second Council of Ephesus. Its principal purpose was to assert the orthodox catholic doctrine against the heresy of Eutyches and the Monophysites, although ecclesiastical discipline and jurisdiction also occupied the council's attention.

Floruit, abbreviated fl., Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished.

The seat has been vacant since April 30, 1990.


Modern scholars place the town at Alaçam, Samsun Province, Turkey. [18] [19]

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  1. 1 2 Augustus, A.; de La Tourrette, C.; Société de Géographie de Lyon (1735). Vetera Romanorum itineraria, sive Antonini Augusti itinerarium, cum integris Jos. Simleri, Hieron, Suritae, et And. Schotti notis. Itinerarium hierosolymitanum; et Hieroclis grammatici synecdemus. Curante Petro Wesselingio, qui & suas addidit adnotationes. apud J. Wetstenium & G. Smith. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  2. 1 2 3 Niebuhr, B.G.; Choniates, N.; Akropolitēs, G.; Anagnōstēs, I.; Cantacuzenus, J.; Chalkokondylēs, L.; Zonaras, J. (1840). Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae. impensis E. Weberi. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  3. The North American Review. 54. 1842. p. 196. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  4. Smith, W. (1857). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: Iabadius-Zymethus. Little, Brown and Company. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  5. Société de l'histoire de France (1845). Annuaire historique. 10. Société de l'histoire de France. p. 265. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  6. "Novella constitutio XXVIII ( Schoell & Kroll )". Retrieved 2017-01-07.
  7. Leontopolis.
  8. La sede titolare at
  9. Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p.442.
  10. Michel Le Quien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, p1740, vol I, coll.
  11. 1 2 W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor(Cambridge University Press, 24 Jun. 2010) p 362
  12. La sede titolare at
  13. Richard Price, Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1 p338.
  14. Gustave Léon Schlumberger, Sigillographie de l'empire byzantin, 1884, p.
  15. Dumbarton Oaks, John W. Nesbitt, Eric McGeer, Nicolas Oikonomidès, Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art: The East (Dumbarton Oaks, 2001) p79.
  17. Hierarchia Catholica, Volume 8, Page 247, and Page 293 and Page 339.
  18. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN   978-88-209-9070-1), p. 1011
  19. Richard Talbert , Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World , ( ISBN   0-691-03169-X ), Map 87 & notes.