Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant

Last updated

Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station
Kernkraftwerk Saporischschja.JPG
Two cooling towers at left, one largely obscured by the other, and the six reactor buildings viewed from the Nikopol shore. The large building between the cooling towers and the reactors, and the two tall smokestacks, are at the Zaporizhzhia thermal power station, beyond the nuclear plant.
Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant
Official nameЗапорізька атомна електростанція
Country Ukraine
Location Enerhodar, Zaporizhzhia Oblast
Coordinates 47°30′30″N34°35′04″E / 47.50833°N 34.58444°E / 47.50833; 34.58444
StatusShutdown
Construction beganUnit 1: 1 April 1980
Unit 2: 1 January 1981
Unit 3: 1 April 1982
Unit 4: 1 April 1983
Unit 5: 1 November 1985
Unit 6: 1 June 1986
Commission date Unit 1: 25 December 1985
Unit 2: 15 February 1986
Unit 3: 5 March 1987
Unit 4: 14 April 1988
Unit 5: 27 October 1989
Unit 6: 17 September 1996
Owner(s) Energoatom
Operator(s)Energoatom (De jure)
Rosatom (De facto)
Nuclear power station
Reactors6
Reactor type PWR
Reactor supplier Atomstroyexport
Cooling towers2
Cooling source Kakhovka Reservoir
Thermal capacity6 × 3000 MWth
Power generation
Units operational6 × 950 MW
Make and model6 × VVER-1000/320
Nameplate capacity 5700 MW
Capacity factor 58.68%
Annual net output
  • 29,299 GWh (2016)
  • 38,000 GWh
External links
Website www.npp.zp.ua/en [ dead link ]
Commons Related media on Commons

The Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station (Ukrainian : Запорізька атомна електростанція, romanized: Zaporiz'ka atomna elektrostantsiia) in southeastern Ukraine is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe and among the 10 largest in the world. It has been under Russian occupation since 2022. It was built by the Soviet Union near the city of Enerhodar, on the southern shore of the Kakhovka Reservoir on the Dnieper river. It is operated by Energoatom, who operate Ukraine's other three nuclear power stations.

Contents

An annotated Landsat 9 photograph of Zaporizhzia Nuclear Power Plant, February 2022
1-6.
Reactor units 1-6
7.
Electricity pylons
8.
Training building shelled
9.
Radioactive waste storage
10.
Cooling pond
11.
Cooling towers
12.
Kakhovka Reservoir Zaporizhzia nuclear power plant aerial.svg
An annotated Landsat 9 photograph of Zaporizhzia Nuclear Power Plant, February 2022
16. Reactor units 16
7. Electricity pylons
8.Training building shelled
9.Radioactive waste storage
10.Cooling pond
11.Cooling towers
12. Kakhovka Reservoir

The plant has six VVER-1000 pressurized light water nuclear reactors (PWR), each fuelled with 235U (LEU) [1] and generating 950 MWe, for a total power output of 5,700 MWe. [2] The first five were successively brought online between 1985 and 1989, and the sixth was added in 1995. In 2020, the plant generated nearly half of the country's electricity derived from nuclear power, [3] and more than a fifth of total electricity generated in Ukraine. [4] The Zaporizhzhia thermal power station is nearby.

On 4 March 2022, the nuclear and thermal power stations were both captured by Russian forces during the Battle of Enerhodar of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. [5] [6] [7] [8] As of 12 March 2022 the plant was controlled by the Russian company Rosatom. [9] Since its capture, the plant does not generate power and is mostly shut down. [10]

Facilities

The spent nuclear fuel is stored in cooling pools inside the reactor containments for up to five years. It is then transferred to an on-site dry cask storage facility that was commissioned in 2004. [11] [12] The reactors and spent fuel pools depend on water from the Kakhovka Reservoir for cooling. The reservoir is created by the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant dam, which is a main conflict location of the two war participants. [13] [14]

The electricity generated is supplied to the Ukrainian grid through four 750 kV overhead transmission lines and one 330 kV line. [12] One of the 750 kV lines runs northwards across the Kakhovka Reservoir and on to the Dniprovska substation just south of Vilnohirsk in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. The other three 750 kV lines run south from the plant. One diverges from the others near the village of Zapovitne and runs to the Kakhovska substation just west of Nova Kakhovka. This is the newest of the lines and was commissioned in 2021. [11] Two lines continue south-southeast, diverging at the urban-type settlement of Mykhailivka. One continues southeast to the Pivdennodonbaska mines in Donetsk Oblast, while the other continues east and then north to the Zaporizka substation north of Znackove in Zaporizhzhia Oblast. [15] The 330 kV line runs to the neighbouring Zaporizhzhia thermal power station. [16]

In 2017, modernization work was completed on reactor unit 3, enabling a 10-year life extension to 2027. [3] In 2021, modernization work was completed on unit 5, enabling a 10-year life extension. [17]

Incidents

1984 electrical fire

On 27 January 1984, a major fire started during commissioning of unit 1, before any nuclear fuel was in the reactor. An electrical relay caused PVC insulation to catch fire, molten PVC causing more fires below in a vertical shaft. More than 4,000 control units, 41 motors, and 700 km of cables were damaged. [18]

2014 unrest and safety concerns

The Zaporizhzhia power plant is located around 200 km from the war in Donbas combat zone, where fighting became intense in 2014. On 31 August 2014, a Greenpeace member, Tobias Münchmeyer, expressed concerns the plant could be hit by heavy artillery from the fighting.

On 3 December 2014, Prime Minister Arseny Yatseniuk announced the occurrence of an incident several days before at the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. [19] The cause of the incident was reported as a short circuit in the power outlet system and was not linked to the site's production. [20] One of the six reactors of the plant was shut down twice in December 2014. [21] This and lack of coal for Ukraine's coal-fired power stations led to rolling blackouts throughout the country from early until late December 2014. [21]

2022 Russian occupation of plant

After the Russian invasion of Ukraine began on 24 February 2022, Energoatom shut down Units 5 and 6 to reduce risk, keeping Units 1 to 4 in operation on 25 February. [22]

At 11:28 pm local time on 3 March 2022, a column of 10 Russian armored vehicles and two tanks approached the power plant. [23] [24] Fighting commenced at 12:48am on 4 March when Ukraine forces fired anti-tank missiles. Russian forces responded with a variety of weapons, including rocket-propelled grenades. [23] During approximately two hours of heavy combat, a fire broke out in a training facility outside the main complex, which was extinguished by 6:20am, [25] [26] [27] though other sections surrounding the plant sustained damage. [23] [28]

The fire did not impact reactor safety or any essential equipment. [28] [29] [27] The plant lost 1.3 GW of capacity. [30] It was later learned that a large caliber bullet pierced an outer wall of Reactor No. 4 and an artillery shell hit a transformer at Reactor No. 6. [31]

Ukrayinska Pravda reported on 12 March 2022 that the plant's management was told by Russian authorities that the plant now belonged to Rosatom, Russia's state nuclear power company. [9] It continued to operate and supply data, including from a remote monitoring system, to the IAEA, [32] and continued to be operated by Ukrainian staff, under Russian control. [33] Satellite imagery from 9 July 2022 and 7 August 2022 shows that Russian forces established bases and defensive positions next to the reactor units, [34] along the central supply route [35] and on the periphery of the facility. [36]

On 3 September 2022 an IAEA delegation visited the plant and on 6 September 2022 a report was published documenting damage and potential threats to plant security caused by external shelling and the presence of occupying troops in the plant. [37] [38]

With the declared annexation of Zaporizhzhia oblast, Russia also declared legal takeover of the plant, while the actual control over its operations continued to be unclear as of October 2022. Russian forces detained a number of plant's Ukrainian employees—starting from its deputy director Valery Martynyuk, his assistant Oleh Oshek, and IT manager Oleh Kostyukov—without providing any justification for their detainment. [39] [40]

As of November 2022, Ukrainian cities had drawn up plans for evacuation centers and secured supplies of potassium iodide pills, and 10% of Ukrainian emergency medical teams had been reconfigured to respond to chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear risks. [41]

The destruction of the nearby Kakhovka Dam on 6 June 2023 was reported to have no immediate risk to the plant. [42] Generally five units have been in cold shutdown with one unit kept in hot shutdown, which the IAEA reported was necessary to produce steam for nuclear safety purposes, including the processing of liquid radioactive waste in storage tanks. The IAEA is urging the investigation of whether an external boiler can be installed as an alternative to keeping one unit in hot shutdown. [43] [44]

On January 19, 2024, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported the presence of mines along the perimeter of the power plant's territory, in the buffer zone between the inner and outer fences of the facility. According to the Agency it is "inconsistent with the IAEA safety standards." Mines that had been found there previously were removed in November 2023. [45]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant</span> Decommissioned nuclear power plant in Ukraine

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant undergoing decommissioning. ChNPP is located near the abandoned city of Pripyat in northern Ukraine, 16.5 kilometers (10 mi) northwest of the city of Chernobyl, 16 kilometers (10 mi) from the Belarus–Ukraine border, and about 100 kilometers (62 mi) north of Kyiv. The plant was cooled by an engineered pond, fed by the Pripyat River about 5 kilometers (3 mi) northwest from its juncture with the Dnieper.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rosatom</span> Russian state-owned nuclear technologies company

Rosatom, also known as Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation, the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, or Rosatom State Corporation, is a Russian state corporation headquartered in Moscow that specializes in nuclear energy, nuclear non-energy goods and high-tech products. Established in 2007, the nonprofit organization comprises more than 350 enterprises, including scientific research organizations, a nuclear weapons complex, and the world's only nuclear icebreaker fleet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant</span>

The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Bulgaria situated 180 kilometres (110 mi) north of Sofia and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of Kozloduy, a town on the Danube river, near the border with Romania. It is the country's only nuclear power plant and the largest in the region. The construction of the first reactor began on 6 April 1970.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rivne Nuclear Power Plant</span> Nuclear power plant in Ukraine

The Rivne Nuclear Power Plant, also called Rovno is a nuclear power plant in Varash, Rivne Oblast, Ukraine.

Nuclear decommissioning is the process leading to the irreversible complete or partial closure of a nuclear facility, usually a nuclear reactor, with the ultimate aim at termination of the operating licence. The process usually runs according to a decommissioning plan, including the whole or partial dismantling and decontamination of the facility, ideally resulting in restoration of the environment up to greenfield status. The decommissioning plan is fulfilled when the approved end state of the facility has been reached.

State Enterprise National Nuclear Energy Generating Company "Energoatom", commonly known as just Energoatom, is a state enterprise operating all four nuclear power plants in Ukraine. It is the largest power producer in Ukraine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Enerhodar</span> City in Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine

Enerhodar is a city and municipality in the northwest of Zaporizhzhia Oblast, Ukraine. It is on the south bank of the Dnieper River, on the opposite side of the Kakhovka Reservoir from Nikopol and Chervonohryhorivka.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant</span> RBMK and VVER nuclear power plant in Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant ) is a nuclear power plant located in the town of Sosnovy Bor in Russia's Leningrad Oblast, on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, some 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the west of the city centre of Saint Petersburg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zaporizhzhia thermal power station</span> Thermal power station in Enerhodar, Ukraine

Zaporizhzhia thermal power station is a large thermal power plant (DRES) in the purpose-built city of Enerhodar in Ukraine. It is the most powerful thermal power station in Ukraine, with an installed capacity of 2,850 MWe. Its primary fuel is coal. It can also fire natural gas and fuel oil, and has tank storage for these reserve fuels adjacent to the coal bunkers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant</span> Russian Nuclear Plant

The Novovoronezh nuclear power station is a nuclear power station close to Novovoronezh in Voronezh Oblast, central Russia. The power station was vital to the development of the VVER design: every unit built was essentially a prototype of its design. On this site is built the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant</span> Nuclear power plant in Ukraine

The South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant, also known as the Pivdennoukrainsk Nuclear Power Plant, is a nuclear power plant in Ukraine, near the city of Yuzhnoukrainsk in Mykolaiv Oblast, about 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Kyiv. It is the second largest of the country's five nuclear power stations. It is part of the South Ukrainian Energy Complex, along with the Tashlyk Pumped-Storage Power Plant and Oleksandrivska hydroelectric power station.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Astravets Nuclear Power Plant</span> Nuclear power plant in Astravyets District, Belarus

The Astravets Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant located in the Astravyets District, Grodno Region in north-western Belarus. The power plant is built close to the Belarus-Lithuania border, being 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of the Lithuanian capital of Vilnius. The plant is powered by two 1194-MW VVER-1200 units supplied by Atomstroyexport, the nuclear equipment exporter branch of the Russian nuclear corporation Rosatom. The plant is owned by State Enterprise Belarusian NPP, which in turn is owned by the state-owned operator Belenergo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khmelnytskyi Nuclear Power Plant</span> Nuclear power plant in Ukraine

The Khmelnytskyi Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Netishyn, Khmelnytskyi, Ukraine. The plant is operated by Energoatom. Two VVER-1000 reactors are operational, each generating 1000 MW (net) of electricity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nuclear power in Ukraine</span> Overview of nuclear energy in Ukraine

Ukraine operates four nuclear power plants with 15 reactors located in Volhynia and South Ukraine. The total installed nuclear power capacity is over 13 GWe, ranking 7th in the world in 2020. Energoatom, a Ukrainian state enterprise, operates all four active nuclear power stations in Ukraine. In 2019, nuclear power supplied over 20% of Ukraine's energy.

Slovakia has five operational nuclear reactors, with a combined net power capacity of 2,308 MWe, with a sixth coming on line shortly.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Energy in Ukraine</span> Energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Ukraine

Energy in Ukraine is mainly from gas and coal, followed by nuclear and oil. The coal industry has been disrupted by conflict. Most gas and oil is imported, but since 2015 energy policy has prioritised diversifying energy supply.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Enerhodar</span> Battle of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

The battle of Enerhodar was a military engagement between the Russian Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the southern Ukraine offensive of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine over the city of Enerhodar in Zaporizhzhia Oblast, on March 4 2022. Enerhodar is the location of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, which generates nearly half of the country's electricity derived from nuclear power and more than a fifth of total electricity generated in Ukraine, as well as the nearby thermal power station.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on nuclear power plants</span>

Ukraine is home to four nuclear power plants, as well as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, site of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. As of January 2024, both the Chernobyl and the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plants saw battles during the war that resulted from the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The invasion has prompted significant discussion about the status of the power plants, including fears of potential disasters, and has also prompted debates about nuclear energy programmes in other European countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant crisis</span> Ongoing nuclear safety crisis during the Russian Invasion of Ukraine

During the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant has become the center of an ongoing nuclear safety crisis, described by Ukraine as an act of nuclear terrorism by Russia.

References

  1. Kosourov, E.; Pavlov, V.; Pavlovcev, A.; Spirkin, E. (2003), Improved VVER-1000 fuel cycle (PDF), Moscow, Russia: RRC Kurchatov Institute , retrieved 5 March 2022
  2. "Nuclear Power Plants in Lithuania & Ukraine". Industcards.com. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  3. 1 2 "Zaporozhe 3 enters next 10 years of operation". World Nuclear News. 7 November 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  4. "SS "Zaporizhzhia NPP"". www.energoatom.com.ua. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  5. Polityuk, Pavel; Vasovic, Aleksandar; Irish, John (4 March 2022). "Russian forces seize huge Ukrainian nuclear plant, fire extinguished". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  6. Daniel Ten Kate, David Stringer (4 March 2022). "Russian Forces Occupy Site of Nuclear Plant as Fire Contained". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  7. Boynton, Sean (4 March 2022). "Russian troops capture Europe's largest power plant in Ukraine after intense battle". Global News . Archived from the original on 4 March 2022.
  8. "Russia Seizes Ukraine Nuclear Plant Hours After Attack: 10 Points". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  9. 1 2 Petrenko, Roman (12 March 2022). "Invaders seize Zaporizhzhia power plant and claims it is part of Rosatom". Ukrayinska Pravda . Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  10. Hunder, Max (2 December 2023). "Ukraine's Russian-occupied Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant suffered power outage, energy ministry says". Reuters. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  11. 1 2 "Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine". Power Technology. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  12. 1 2 "Zaporizhzhya Nuclear Power Plant". NS Energy. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  13. "Factbox: Is the Kakhovka dam in Ukraine about to be blown?". Reuters . 21 October 2022. Archived from the original on 23 October 2022.
  14. "Kakhovka hydro dam: A strategic facility for Crimea". France 24 . 21 October 2022. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022.
  15. "Open Infrastructure Map". Openinframap. OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  16. "Zaporizhzhya power plant in Ukraine: Arrangements in the event of a total loss of external power supplies". IRSN. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  17. "Energoatom marks life extension of Ukraine's Zaporozhye 5". Nuclear Engineering International. 1 February 2021. Archived from the original on 19 October 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  18. "The Zaporizhia NPP 1984 fire". Nuclear Engineering International. 1 February 2023. Retrieved 3 February 2023.
  19. "Ukraine Reports Accident At Nuclear Power Plant, But Says Poses No Danger". Huffington Post. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 3 December 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  20. "Ukraine energy minister says 'no threat' from accident at nuclear plant". Reuters. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  21. 1 2 Ukraine turns off reactor at its most powerful nuclear plant after 'accident' Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine , The Independent (28 December 2014)
    Ukraine Briefly Cuts Power to Crimea Amid Feud With Russia Over NATO Archived 29 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine , New York Times (24 December 2014)
    Coal import to help avoid rolling blackouts in Ukraine — energy minister Archived 8 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine , ITAR-TASS (31 December 2014)
    Rolling blackouts in Ukraine after nuclear plant accident Archived 31 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine , Mashable (3 December 2014)
    Ukraine to Import Coal From ‘Far Away’ as War Curtails Mines Archived 9 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine , Bloomberg News (31 December 2014)
  22. Kraev, Kamen (25 February 2022). "Energoatom shuts down Zaporozhye-5 and −6 as rest of fleet remains safe and operational". NucNet. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  23. 1 2 3 "Video analysis reveals Russian attack on Ukrainian nuclear plant veered near disaster". NPR. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  24. "Security Council debates Russian strike on Ukraine nuclear power plant". UN News. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  25. "Ukraine nuclear power plant attack: All you need to know". Al Jazeera. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  26. Update on the human rights situation in Ukraine (Reporting period: 24 February – 26 March) United Nations Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine
  27. 1 2 Campbell, Charlie (21 April 2022). "As Putin threatens nuclear disaster, Europe learns to embrace nuclear energy again". Time. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  28. 1 2 "IAEA appeal after shelling and fire at Zaporozhe". World Nuclear News. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  29. "IAEA Director General Grossi's initiative to travel to Ukraine". www.iaea.org. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  30. "TPP compensates for the shutdown of Zaporizhzhya NPP". www.dtek.com. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  31. Santora, Marc; Kramer, Andrew E. (23 August 2022). "In Ukraine, a nuclear plant held hostage". New York Times . Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  32. "Ukraine says any IAEA visit to occupied Zaporizhzhia 'unacceptable'". World Nuclear News. 27 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  33. Lederer, Edith M. (3 August 2022). "UN nuclear chief: Ukraine nuclear plant is 'out of control'". AP News . Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  34. Goodhind, William (2023). "Contested Ground, Report 1: Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, 9 July 2022". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.22183.73127/2.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. Goodhind, William (2023). "Contested Ground, Report 2: Russian Military Positions (Centre), Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, March-July 2022". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.20296.29448/2.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  36. Goodhind, William (2023). "Contested Ground, Report 4: Russian Military Positions (Periphery), Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, 7 August 2022". doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.15272.96004/2.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  37. "Factbox: Seven recommendations the IAEA makes in its Ukraine report". Reuters. 6 September 2022. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  38. "Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards in Ukraine: 28 April - 5 September 2022" (PDF). IAEA. 6 September 2022. pp. 13–16, 46–48. Retrieved 6 September 2022.
  39. "Two Zaporizhzhia NPP employees reportedly abducted by Russian forces". Meduza. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  40. "2nd kidnapping reported at Ukraine nuclear power plant amid 'unacceptable' conditions". ABC News. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  41. Holt, Ed (5 November 2022). "Ukraine health care prepares for nuclear disaster" . The Lancet . 400 (10363): 1572–1573. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)02156-0. ISSN   0140-6736. PMID   36335962. S2CID   253305540.
  42. Borger, Julian (6 June 2023). "Ukrainian dam collapse 'no immediate risk' to Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 6 June 2023.
  43. "IAEA 'strongly encouraging' options to allow cold shutdown of all Zaporizhzhia units". World Nuclear News. 13 July 2023. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  44. "Update 173 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine" (Press release). IAEA. 12 July 2023. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  45. "Update 207 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine". IAEA. Retrieved 16 February 2024.