Original manuscript of the poem,
written in the Bohorič alphabet
|Country||Carniola, part of Austria-Hungary, present-day Slovenia|
|Media type||Print (periodical)|
"Zdravljica" [zdɾau̯ˈljiːtsa] ; English: "A Toast") is a carmen figuratum poem by the 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet France Prešeren, inspired by the ideals of Liberté, égalité, fraternité . It was written in 1844 and published with some changes in 1848. Four years after it was written, Slovenes living within Habsburg Empire interpreted the poem in spirit of the 1848 March Revolution as political promotion of the idea of a united Slovenia. In it, the poet also declares his belief in a free-thinking Slovene and Slavic political awareness. In 1989, it was adopted as the regional anthem of Slovenia, becoming the national one upon independence in 1991.(Slovene pronunciation:
The integral version of the poem was first published only after the March Revolution when Austrian censorship was abolished, since the censorship did not allow for the poem to be printed earlier because of its political message. On 26 April 1848, it was published by the Slovene newspaper Kmetijske in rokodelske novice , that was edited by the Slovene conservative political leader Janez Bleiweis.[ citation needed ]
Before the censorship was abolished, Prešeren omitted the third stanza ("V sovražnike 'z oblakov / rodú naj naš'ga treši gróm") because he intended to include the poem in his Poezije collection (Poems), however the censor (fellow-Slovene Franz Miklosich in Austrian service) saw in the fourth stanza ("Edinost, sreča, sprava / k nam naj nazaj se vrnejo") an expression of pan-Slavic sentiment and therefore did not allow its publication either. Prešeren believed the poem would be mutilated without both the third and the fourth stanza and decided against including it in the Poezije.[ citation needed ]
"Zdravljica" was first set to music in the 1860s by Benjamin Ipavec and Davorin Jenko, but their versions didn't go well with the public, probably because the stanzas that they chose were not enough nationally awakening.In 1905, the Slovene composer Stanko Premrl wrote a choral composition. It was first performed only on 18 November 1917 by Glasbena matica ("Slovene Music Centre") in the Grand Hotel Union, Ljubljana. It became an immediate success.
France Prešeren was a 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet whose poems have been translated into English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Hungarian, Slovak, Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bengali, as well as to all the languages of former Yugoslavia, and in 2013 a complete collection of his "Poezije" (Poems) was translated into French.
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"O Vrba" is a sonnet written in 1832 and later corrected by the Slovene Romantic poet France Prešeren, who is considered the national poet of Slovenia. It was published in 1834 in the fourth volume of the almanac Krajnska čbelica. It is the introductory exposition of a cycle of six sonnets, titled the Sonnets of Misfortune. The sonnet is dedicated to the Prešeren's home village of Vrba, expressing a sense of general melancholy over the lost idyll of the rural environment. According to contemporary Slovene literary critics, especially Marija Pirjevec, Boris Paternu and Janko Kos, the meaning of the sonnet is centered on the problem of insecurity and unhappiness of a free subject detached from the theocentric world view. The sonnet form follows the rules abstracted by August Wilhelm Schlegel from the sonnets of Petrarch. In the 20th century, several musical interpretations of the poem were created, the most known of them probably being a version by the Slovene folk rock musician Vlado Kreslin.
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The national anthem of Slovenia is based on "Zdravljica", a carmen figuratum poem by the 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet France Prešeren, inspired by the ideals of Liberté, égalité, fraternité, and set to music by Stanko Premrl. As the country's national anthem, it is one of the state symbols of Slovenia.
Anton Füster, also spelled as Fister was an Austrian Roman Catholic priest, theologian, pedagogue, radical political activist and author of Slovene origin. He was one of the leaders of the Viennese March Revolution of 1848.
Karel Dežman, also known as Dragotin Dežman and Karl Deschmann, was a Carniolan liberal politician and natural scientist. He was one of the most prominent personalities of the political, cultural, and scientific developments in the 19th-century Duchy of Carniola. He is considered one of the fathers of modern archeology in what is today Slovenia. He also made important contributions in botany, zoology, mineralogy, geology and mineralogy. He was the first director of the Provincial Museum of Carniola, now the National Museum of Slovenia. Due to his switch from Slovene liberal nationalism to Austrian centralism and pro-German cultural stances, he became a symbol of national renegadism.
Emil Antoni Korytko was a Polish political activist in the period of the Great Emigration, who was exiled to Ljubljana, Carniola and became an important ethnographer, philologist and translator there. His legacy are collections of Slovene folk songs and vivid descriptions of Carniolan folk customs. He significantly contributed to the mutual dialogue between Polish and Slovene authors and readers.
Kmetijske in rokodelske novice, frequently referred to simply as Novice (News), was a Slovene language newspaper in the 19th century, which had an influential role in the Slovene national revival. For its first two years of publication (1843–1844) the newspaper's name was spelled Kmetijſke in rokodélſke novize, and from 1845 onward Kmetijske in rokodélske novice.
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The Prešeren Monument in Ljubljana, also Prešeren Statue in Ljubljana, is a late Historicist bronze statue of the Slovene national poet France Prešeren in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. It stands in the eastern side of Prešeren Square, in front of the Central Pharmacy Building in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. It is among the best-known Slovenian monuments.
... in September 1989 ... 'Zdravljica' had been chosen as the national anthem by the Socialist Republic of Slovenia.