|Prime Minister of Manchukuo|
21 May 1935 –20 August 1945
|Preceded by||Zheng Xiaoxu|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|Foreign Minister of Manchukuo|
May 1937 –July 1937
|Preceded by||Zhang Yanqing|
|Succeeded by||Chuichi Ohashi|
|Minister of Defense of Manchukuo|
7 April 1932 –20 May 1935
|Preceded by||Ma Zhanshan|
|Succeeded by||Yu Zhishan|
|Minister of War of the Republic of China|
May 1926 –June 1927
|Preceded by||Jia Deyao|
|Succeeded by||He Fenglin|
Tai'an, Liaoning, Qing Empire
|Died||1 November 1959 87–88) (aged|
Fushun, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China
|Political party||Concordia Association|
|Battles/wars|| First Sino-Japanese War |
Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui; traditional Chinese :張景惠; simplified Chinese :张景惠; pinyin :Zhāng Jǐnghuì; Wade–Giles :Chang1 Ching3-hui4; Hepburn: Chō Keikei); (1871 – 1 November 1959) was a Chinese general and politician during the Warlord era. He is noted for his role in the Japanese puppet regime of Manchukuo in which he served as its second and final Prime Minister.
Zhang Jinghui was born in Tai'an, southwest of Mukden, Liaoning Province. The area was a battlefield in the First Sino-Japanese War and he joined the Honghuzi irregular cavalry forces of the Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin at an early age. These forces were recruited as mercenaries by the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05.
In the final years of the Qing dynasty, Zhang Zuolin was appointed Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces with his base at Fengtian, and with the Xinhai Revolution managed to obtain recognition of his forces as part of the new Republic of China military. At that time he was appointed commander of the Beiyang Army’s 27th Infantry Brigade. However, with the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916, the Beiyang Army split into several mutually hostile factions.
Zhang Jinghui deserted Zhang Zuolin to join Wu Peifu's Zhili clique. He later rejoined Zhang Zuolin and served as his Minister of War in the Beiyang Government from May 1926 to June 1927 and as Minister of Enterprises from June 1927 to June 1928. Within a year he was appointed governor of the Harbin and China Eastern Railway Special District in northern Manchuria. However, following the death of Zhang Zuolin in the Huanggutun Incident on 4 June 1928, Zhang Jinghui’s relations with his son and successor, Zhang Xueliang, deteriorated. Nevertheless, both men participated in a national unity conference called by Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek in January 1929 in Nanjing.
However, the political balance was changed after the Mukden Incident and the successful invasion of Manchuria by the Japanese Kwantung Army in 1931. Zhang called a conference in his office on 27 September 1931 to organize an "Emergency Committee of the Special District", with the goal of achieving the secession of Manchuria from China. Following the expulsion of pro-Kuomintang Gen. Ma Zhanshan from Qiqihar, Zhang proclaimed his territory to be self-governing and was inaugurated as governor on 7 January 1932.Uncertain of the intentions of the Soviet Union to the north, and unable to withstand the Japanese military presence to the south, Zhang reached an agreement with the Japanese and accepted an appointment as governor of Heilongjiang Province in the new Japanese-run state of Manchukuo. His refusal, though, to leave his stronghold in Harbin to take up residence in Qiqihar created friction with the Kwangtung Army leadership. However, when Ma Zhanshan agreed to terms with the Japanese on 14 February 1932 in exchange for the post of Governor of Heilongjiang Province, Zhang was set aside. Ma revolted in April 1932 and Zhang took his place as Minister of Defense of the Empire of Manchukuo.
On 21 May 1935, Zhang succeeded Zheng Xiaoxu as Prime Minister of Manchukuo at the instigation of the Kwantung Army over the objections of Emperor Puyi.As Prime Minister of Manchukuo, Zhang preferred to take a passive figurehead role, allowing the Japanese advisors seconded from the Kwantung Army to handle all aspects of day-to-day administration while he spent his days copying Buddhist sutras. Reviled by modern Chinese historians for his pro-Japanese stance, and nicknamed “the Tofu Prime Minister” even in his lifetime, Zhang was recorded to have only once spoken out against the Japanese administration—to criticize the forced sale of lands to Japanese colonists. In 1943 he was the official delegate from Manchukuo to the Greater East Asia Conference held in Tokyo. That same year a false report was published in Time Magazine that Zhang had poisoned his family and killed his Japanese advisor and other members of the Manchukuo government before committing suicide.
Zhang held the position of Prime Minister until the collapse of Manchukuo following the Soviet Red Army's invasion of Manchuria in August 1945.
Following World War II he was held in custody by the Soviet Union in Siberia and extradited to the People's Republic of China in 1950, where he was imprisoned at the Fushun War Criminals Management Centre. He died of heart failure nine years later in 1959.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was an event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
Zhang Zuolin was an influential Chinese bandit, soldier, and warlord during the Warlord Era in China. The warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928, and the military dictator of the Republic of China in 1927 and 1928, he rose from banditry to power and influence.
Zheng Xiaoxu was a Chinese statesman, diplomat and calligrapher. He served as the first Prime Minister of Manchukuo.
The Fengtian clique was one of several opposing military factions that constituted the early Republic of China during its Warlord Era. It was named after Fengtian Province, and operated from a territorial base comprising the three northeastern provinces that made up Manchuria. Warlord Zhang Zuolin, known as the "Old Marshal," led the clique with support from Japan.
The Huanggutun Incident, also known as the Zhang Zuolin Explosion Death Incident, was the assassination of the Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin near Shenyang on 4 June 1928.
The Jiangqiao campaign was a series of battles and skirmishes occurring after the Mukden Incident, during the invasion of Manchuria by the Imperial Japanese Army, prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan; simplified Chinese: 马占山; traditional Chinese: 馬占山; pinyin: Mǎ Zhànshān; Wade–Giles: Ma3 Chan4-shan1; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident. At war’s end in February of 1932, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo. Their occupation lasted until the success of the Soviet Union and Mongolia with the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation in mid-August of 1945.
The Defense of Harbin occurred during the early Second Sino-Japanese War, as part of the campaign of the Invasion of Manchuria by forces of the Empire of Japan from 25 January to 4 February 1932.
The Pacification of Manchukuo was a Japanese anti-insurgency campaign during the Second Sino-Japanese War to suppress any armed resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo from various anti-Japanese volunteer armies in occupied Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army. The operations were carried out by the Imperial Japanese Kwantung Army and the collaborationist forces of the Manchukuo government from March 1932 until 1942, and resulted in a Japanese victory.
Zhang Haipeng (1867–1949), was a Chinese Northeastern Army general, who went over to the Japanese during the Invasion of Manchuria and became a general in the Manchukuo Imperial Army of the State of Manchuria.
Zang Shiyi was a Chinese general and Governor of Liaoning Province at the time of the invasion of Manchuria in 1932.
Xie Jieshi was a cabinet minister in the Japanese-dominated Empire of Manchukuo, who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Yuan Jinkai, was a politician in the late Qing Empire, serving subsequently under the Beiyang Government and the Fengtian clique, subsequently becoming a cabinet minister in the Empire of Manchukuo.
Yu Zhishan, was a military officer under the Beiyang Government and the Fengtian clique, subsequently becoming a cabinet minister in the Empire of Manchukuo.
Zhang Yanqing, was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently collaborated with the Japanese imperialists and became the Foreign Minister of Manchukuo, Japan's puppet state. His father Zhang Zhidong was an important official in the later days of the Qing Empire, while his brother Zhang Renli was an official in the Reorganized National Government of China, another Japan's puppet state, making the two brothers as Japanese collaborators.
Lu Ronghuan, was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently served in a number of Cabinet posts of the Empire of Manchukuo.
Ding Jianxiu, was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently served in a number of Cabinet-level ministries of the Empire of Manchukuo.
Sun Qichang , was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently served as a cabinet minister in the Empire of Manchukuo.
The Kwantung Army was the largest army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zhang Jinghui .|
| Minister of Defense of Manchukuo|
| Prime Minister of Manchukuo |
| Foreign Minister of Manchukuo|