Zhang Xun

Last updated
Zhang Xun
3rd Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet
In office
1 July 1917 – 12 July 1917
Monarch Xuantong Emperor
Preceded by Yuan Shikai (1912)
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Personal details
Born(1854-09-16)16 September 1854
Fengxin County, Yichun, Jiangxi, Qing dynasty
Died11 September 1923(1923-09-11) (aged 68)
Tianjin, Zhili, Republic of China
Political party Royalist Party [lower-alpha 1]
Military service
Nickname(s)Queue General
AllegianceFlag of the Qing Dynasty (1889-1912).svg Qing Dynasty
Flag of the Republic of China (1912-1928).svg Republic of China
YuanFlag1.svg Empire of China
Branch/service Beiyang star.svg Beiyang Army
Years of service1884–1917
Rank General officer
Field marshal
Battles/wars Boxer Rebellion
Xinhai Revolution
Second Revolution
National Protection War
Manchu Restoration

Zhang Xun (simplified Chinese :张勋; traditional Chinese :張勳; pinyin :Zhāng Xūn or; Wade–Giles :Chang Hsün; September 16, 1854 – September 11, 1923), courtesy name Shaoxuan (少轩), pseudonym Songshoulaoren (松寿老人), nickname bianshuai (辫帅, literally marshal with queue, queue is a symbol of Qing) was a Qing and Republic of China's loyalist general who attempted to restore the abdicated emperor Puyi in the Manchu Restoration of 1917. He also supported Yuan Shikai during his time as president. [3]



He was born on September 16, 1854 in Chitian village, Fengxin county, Jiangxi. [3]

Zhang served as a military escort for Empress Dowager Cixi during the Boxer Uprising. He later served as a subordinate of General Yuan Shikai in the Beiyang Army. He fought for the Qing at Nanjing in 1911, and then after the fall of the Qing, he remained loyal to Yuan Shikai. Despite serving as a general in the new Republic, he refused to cut his queue, as a symbol of his loyalty to the Qing. He was called the "Queue General". He seized Nanjing from the KMT in 1913, defeating the Second Revolution. Despite allowing his troops to savagely loot the city, Zhang was named a field marshal by Yuan. [3]

Zhang Xun as seen after his failed restoration Zhang Xun2.jpg
Zhang Xun as seen after his failed restoration

Between 1 July 1917 and 12 July 1917, Zhang Xun proclaimed himself Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet by entering Beijing to reinstate the deposed Puyi as Emperor of the Qing dynasty. However, Zhang Xun's proclamation in July 1917 was never recognized by the Government of the Chinese Republic, most of the Chinese people, or any foreign countries. Other generals loyal to the Republic subsequently thwarted Zhang and forced Puyi to abdicate again. Zhang then took refuge in the Dutch legation and never participated in politics again. [3]

He died on September 11, 1923. [3]


  1. According to Madeleine Chi, Zhang was an "active member" of the Royalist Party, [1] while Phil Billingsley only reports that "rumor had it" that Zhang was affiliated with the party. [2]

Related Research Articles

Puyi The 11th Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor of Manchukuo

Puyi was the last Emperor of China as the eleventh and final Qing dynasty ruler. Becoming the Xuantong Emperor at age two, forced to abdicate on 12 February 1912 due to the Xinhai Revolution, he later served as the nominal ruler of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo during World War II.

Aisin Gioro

Aisin Gioro was the Manchu ruling clan of the Later Jin dynasty (1616–1636), the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) and, nominally, Manchukuo (1932–1945). The House of Aisin Gioro ruled China proper from 1644 until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912, which established a republican government in its place. The word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, and "gioro" is the name of the Aisin Gioro's ancestral home in present-day Yilan, Heilongjiang Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their hala (哈拉), i.e. their family or clan name, and then by mukūn (穆昆), the more detailed classification, typically referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the mukūn, and Gioro is the hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Irgen Gioro (伊爾根覺羅), Šušu Gioro (舒舒覺羅) and Sirin Gioro (西林覺羅).

Li Yuanhong Fourth President of the Republic of China

Li Yuanhong was a Chinese politician during the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China. He was the President of the Republic of China between 1916 and 1917, and between 1922 and 1923.

Zaifeng, Prince Chun

Zaifeng, formally known by his title Prince Chun, was a Manchu prince and regent of the late Qing dynasty. He was a son of Yixuan, the seventh son of the Daoguang Emperor, and the father of Puyi, the Last Emperor. He served as Prince-Regent from 1908 to 1911 during the reign of his son until the Qing dynasty was overthrown by the Xinhai Revolution in 1911.

Politics of Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. The Manchukuo regime was established four months after the Japanese withdrawal from Shanghai with Puyi as the nominal but powerless head of state to add some semblance of legitimacy, as he was a former emperor and an ethnic Manchu.

Empress Dowager Longyu Chinese empress during the end of the Qing dynasty

Jingfen, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Yehe Nara clan, was the wife and empress consort of Zaitian, the Guangxu Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1889 until her husband's death in 1908, after which she was honoured as Empress Dowager Longyu. She was posthumously honoured with the title Empress Xiaodingjing.

Yuyan (1918–1997), courtesy name Yanrui, nickname Xiaoruizi, was a Chinese calligrapher of Manchu descent. He was a member of the Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing dynasty. He claimed that he was appointed by Puyi, the last Emperor of China, as the heir to the throne. His claim is the subject of the travel adventure book The Empty Throne by British journalist Tony Scotland.

Empire of China (1915–1916) 1915–1916 country

The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman, general and president Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor. The attempt was unsuccessful; it set back the Chinese republican cause by many years and fractured China into a period of conflict between various local warlords.

Zheng Xiaoxu

Zheng Xiaoxu was a Chinese statesman, diplomat and calligrapher. He served as the first Prime Minister of Manchukuo.

Chen Baochen

Chen Baochen Chinese official, hailing from Fuzhou, Fujian province in southeast China. During the last years of the Qing dynasty, he served as sub-chancellor in the Grand Secretariat and as vice president of the Ministry of Rites. Following the collapse of the imperial order and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, he remained loyal to the Qing dynasty and served as tutor and adviser of the former emperor, Puyi, who was allowed to stay in the Forbidden City for more than thirteen years under the "Articles of Favorable Treatment." In 1917, Chen supported the Manchu Restoration, the loyalist general Zhang Xun's abortive attempt to restore the Qing dynasty. Chen Baochen continued to serve Puyi after he was finally expelled from the Forbidden City in 1924, but unlike his rival Zheng Xiaoxu, he refused to collaborate in the establishment of Manchukuo.

Zaize Fengen Zhenguo Gong and acting Beizi

Zaize, born Zaijiao, courtesy name Yinping, was a Manchu noble of the Qing dynasty. He is best known for supporting reforms and advocating the adoption of a constitutional monarchy system in the final years of the Qing dynasty.

Feng Guozhang Chinese general and politician

Féng Guózhāng, was a Chinese general and politician in early republican China. He held the office of Vice-President and then President of the Republic of China. He is considered the founder of the Zhili Clique of Warlords that vied for control of northern China during the chaotic Warlord era.

<i>1911</i> (film) 2011 Chinese film by Jackie Chan

1911, is a 2011 Chinese historical drama film about the 1911 Revolution in China, produced to commemorate the revolution's 100th anniversary. Directed by Jackie Chan and Zhang Li, the film stars Chan in his 100th film as an actor, alongside an ensemble cast that includes Winston Chao, Li Bingbing, Joan Chen, Hu Ge, and Chan's son Jaycee Chan. It was released on 23 September 2011 in mainland China and on 29 September in Hong Kong; it also opened the 24th Tokyo International Film Festival later in October.

William John Francis "Bill" Jenner is an English sinologist, specialising in Chinese history and culture, and translator of Chinese literature.


Yin Chang or In-ch'ang was a military official, ambassador to Germany, and educational reformer in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. He was appointed the nation's first Minister of War in the late Qing Dynasty. Later, he also became the military Chief of Staff in the Beiyang Government. He was ethnic Manchu, and his family belonged to the Plain White Banner Clan of the Manchu Military Organization (滿洲正白旗); he held the title of Prince of that clan; at court he was addressed as Wu-lou.

Tong Jixu was a Chinese businessman and Manchukuo official from Fujian province in southeast China.

It is not usual for a Chinese dynasty to pass smoothly into the next one, as is depicted in historical timelines, since dynasties were often established before the overthrow of an existing regime, or continued for a time after they had been defeated. However, in dynasties prior to the Yuan dynasty, the reigning dynasties often gave title to certain members of the previous dynasties as recognition of the legitimacy of the former dynasty and the way to show the right to the dynastic change. The method is known as "The two crownings and the three respects" (二王三恪), the people who were given to such position had right to retain the law from the original dynasty within the land given to them, and the reigning emperor couldn't treat them as his subject. From Yuan dynasty to the Republic of China, titles or treatments given to members of previous dynasties were not considered crownings or respects.

Royalist Party Monarchist party active in the Republic of China

The Society for Monarchical Constitutionalism, better known as the Royalist Party, was a monarchist political movement, party and militant organization of the early Republic of China. Though it largely lacked a firm structure, and consisted of loosely tied factions, the Royalist Party played a major role in Chinese politics during the 1910s. Supported by the Empire of Japan, members of the Royalist Party repeatedly conspired to restore the monarchy, launched insurgencies, and attempted to enable the secession of Inner Mongolia and Manchuria from China.

Shanqi Chinese nobleman, Qing dynasty prince and minister (1866–1922)

Shanqi, courtesy name Aitang (艾堂), was a prince of the Aisin-Gioro clan, the ruling clan of the Qing Dynasty, as well as a minister in the late Qing. He was from the Bordered White Banner and the 10th generation Prince Su, the first Qing hereditary prince position.

Monarchy of China Form of government in historical China

China was a monarchy from prehistoric times up to 1912 CE, when the Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty in favor of the Republic of China. The succession of mythological monarchs of China were non-hereditary. Dynastic rule began in circa 2070 BCE when Yu the Great and his son Qi established the Xia dynasty, and lasted until 1912 CE when dynastic rule collapsed together with the monarchical system.


  1. Chi (1970), p. 127.
  2. Billingsley (1988), p. 57.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Aisin-Gioro, Pu Yi (1964,1987, 2002). 我的前半生 [The First Half of My Life; From Emperor to Citizen: The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi]. Foreign Languages Press. ISBN   978-7-119-00772-4.
Political offices
Preceded by
Yuan Shikai (1912)
Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet
1 July 1917 – 12 July 1917
Succeeded by
Position abolished