Zhangjiajie

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Zhangjiajie

张家界市
Zhangxjivavlar
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Nickname(s): 
Dayong
Location of Zhangjiajie Prefecture within Hunan (China).png
Location of Zhangjiajie City jurisdiction in Hunan
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Zhangjiajie
Location of Zhangjiajie City centre in Hunan
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Zhangjiajie
Location of Zhangjiajie City centre in China
Coordinates(Zhangjiajie municipal government): 29°07′01″N110°28′44″E / 29.117°N 110.479°E / 29.117; 110.479 Coordinates: 29°07′01″N110°28′44″E / 29.117°N 110.479°E / 29.117; 110.479
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Province Hunan
Area
   Prefecture-level city 9,518 km2 (3,675 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [1]
55.20 km2 (21.31 sq mi)
   Districts [1] 2,571.3 km2 (992.8 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
   Prefecture-level city 1,476,521
  Density160/km2 (400/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2017) [1]
225,700
  Districts [1]
584,000
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
ISO 3166 code CN-HN-08
Website www.zjj.gov.cn
Zhangjiajie
Zhangjiajie (Chinese characters).svg
"Zhangjiajie" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 张家界
Traditional Chinese 張家界
Postal Changkiakai
Tayung (until 1994)
Dayong
Chinese 大庸
Postal Tayung

Zhangjiajie (simplified Chinese :张家界; traditional Chinese :張家界; pinyin :Zhāngjiājiè), also known in Tujia language as Zhangx jif avlar (dzaȵ˩ ji˥ a ˩la˥), is a prefecture-level city in the northwestern part of Hunan Province, China. It comprises the district of Yongding, Wulingyuan and counties of Cili and Sangzhi. It contains the Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, part of the Wulingyuan Scenic Area which was as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992 as well as an AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration. [2]

Contents

History

Map including Zhangjiajie (labeled as TA-YUNG (YUNG-TING) Da Yong 
) (AMS, 1953) Txu-oclc-10552568-nh49-10.jpg
Map including Zhangjiajie (labeled as TA-YUNG (YUNG-TING) 大庸) (AMS, 1953)

The city itself was previously named Dayong (大庸) and has a recorded history dating back to 221 BC. People lived here along both banks of the Lishui River (the mother river in Zhangjiajie), now within the boundaries of Zhangjiajie City, very early during the Stone Age. Human settlement in this region dates back 100,000 years, rivaling such famous sites as Xi'an, Beijing and others. In 1986, the Academy of Chinese Social Science discovered Stone Age relics in Cili County, unearthing 108 articles of stoneware; mostly tapered-form, hacked-tamped and plate-shaped works. According to archaeological experts’ textual research, all of these wares were produced about 100,000 years ago. Shortly thereafter, in 1988, the Archaeological Institute of Hunan Province found other relics in Sangzhi County, including three pieces of stoneware that were estimated to have been fashioned over 100,000 years ago.

Ten thousand years ago, those who lived within the boundaries of what is now Zhangjiajie City employed fire to bake pottery. Archaeologists have found more than 20 relics of this kind in Cili County, while in Sangzhi County, a black clay pot adorned with a unique design was unearthed dating back ten thousand years. During that period, this pottery-firing technique was the most advanced in China. These technological advancements in the fashioning of stone tools and pottery would seem to indicate a highly developed culture in this region. However, the society which developed only endured briefly before waning and being superseded by other regional powers. This seems understandable in view of Zhangjiajie's remote geographical position, its undeveloped land and river transportation and its mountainous terrain making cultivation difficult. For these reasons, Zhangjiajie has been labeled "the Land of the Savage Southern Minority" since the earliest recorded history. Additional name descriptors have been the "Wuling Rude People" and "Tujia Rude People", indicative of discriminatory views held against the regional culture. [3]

Origin of the name

Wulingyuan Wulingyuan 3.jpg
Wulingyuan
The Tianmenshan Temple at Tianmen Mountain Tianmen Mountain temple I (30000795430).jpg
The Tianmenshan Temple at Tianmen Mountain

The new name of Zhangjiajie City was adopted in 1994, after the National Forest Park in the Wulingyuan Scenic Area in order to give it more prominence and after this site had been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. The National Forest Park had been given the name of Zhangjiajie after the name of a small village located within its bounds and now a popular tourist attraction within the park. The three-character name (张家界) can be interpreted as follows: "Zhang" ( ) is a common surname in China; "jia" ( ) can be translated as "family" and "jie" ( ) can be translated as "homeland", giving the completed translation of "Zhang family homeland." It has been reported that at least one tourist guide has said that the name may have been chosen to convey the idea or impression of "Open the family door to welcome the world" (门引进世), but this is not the locally accepted and directly-translated meaning of the name. The official version of its name is linked to a Han general, Zhang Liang, who resettled in the area after a suspicious Liu Bang, the Han emperor, started to persecute his staffs and generals who had contributed to his becoming emperor. It was so named to signify that the Zhang family had set up home there. [4]

Administrative subdivisions

Zhangjiajie administers two districts and two counties.

Map

Government

The current CPC Party Secretary of Zhangjiajie is Guo Zhenggui and the current Mayor is Liu Ge'an.

Transportation

The Zhangjiajie Hehua International Airport services scheduled service to major airports in China. It is about 5 km (3.1 mi)away from the downtown and 30 km (19 mi)away from Wulingyuan Scenic Area. There are domestic flights available between Zhangjiajie and other cities, such as Changsha, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou etc. Flights between Zhangjiajie and Seoul, Busan are also available. [5]

Rail

Zhangjaijie is served by two railway stations. Zhangjiajie railway station is on the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou railway. Zhangjiajie West railway station opened in 2019 on the Qianjiang–Changde railway.

Roads

Due to tourism, the G5513 Changsha–Zhangjiajie Expressway links provincial capital Changsha and Zhangjiajie.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Zhangjiajie is twinned with:

Climate

Related Research Articles

Wulingyuan scenic and historic interest area in Hunan Province, China

Wulingyuan is a scenic and historical site in the Wulingyuan District of South Central China's Hunan Province. It was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992. It is noted for more than 3,000 quartzite sandstone pillars and peaks across most of the site, many over 200 metres (660 ft) in height, along with many ravines and gorges with attractive streams, pools, lakes, rivers and waterfalls. It features 40 caves, many with large calcite deposits, and a natural bridge named Tianqiashengkong, which is one of the highest natural bridges in the world.

Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Autonomous prefecture in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture of the People's Republic of China. It is located in western Hunan province. It consists of one city, Jishou, and seven counties: Baojing, Fenghuang, Guzhang, Huayuan, Longshan, Luxi, Yongshun. The capital is Jishou. Twenty-five nationalities gather here, of the total 2,480,000 population, 66.6 per cent are ethnic minorities, including 860,000 Tujia and 790,000 Miao.

Cili County County in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Cili is a county in Hunan Province, China under administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhangjiajie. Located in the north of Hunan and the east of Zhangjiajie, Cili County is bordered to the southeast by Taoyuan County, to the south and the southwest by Yongding District, to the west and the northwest by Sangzhi County, to the north and northeast by Shimen County. Cili is also the home of the Tujia people. The County has an area of 3,492 square kilometres (1,348 sq mi) with 703,452 of registered population and roughly 613,000 permanent population. It is divided into 25 township-level divisions, its county seat is Lingyang Town (零阳镇).

Zhangjiajie National Forest Park park in Hunan province in China

Zhangjiajie National Forest Park is a national forest park located in Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China. It is one of several national parks within the Wulingyuan Scenic Area.

Liaojiacun Town in Hunan, China

Liaojiacun Town is an urban town in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Yongshun County County in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Yongshun County is a county of Hunan Province, China. It is under the administration of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture.

Sangzhi County County in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Sangzhi is a county in Hunan Province, China, it is under administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhangjiajie. Located on the northern margin of Hunan, Sangzhi County is bordered to the east by Cili County, to the south by Yongding and Wulingyuan Districts, to the west by Yongshun and Longshan Counties, to the north by Xuan'en and Hefeng Counties of Hubei, Sangzhi is also the home of the Tujia, Miao and Bai people. The County has an area of 3,474 square kilometres (1,341 sq mi) with rough 479,500 of population. It is divided into 23 township-level divisions, its county seat is Liyuan Town (澧源镇).

Wulingyuan District District in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Wulingyuan District is one of two urban districts in Zhangjiajie City, Hunan Province, China, it is also the smallest district by population in Hunan. Located on the central area of Zhangjiajie, the district is surrounded by Cili County to the northeast and southeast, to the north by Sangzhi County, to the south and southwest by Yongding District. The district is named after Wulingyuan of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, one of famous scenic zones.

Yongding District, Zhangjiajie District in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Yongding District is one of two urban districts in Zhangjiajie City, Hunan Province, China. Located on the south of Zhangjiajie, the district is bordered to the north by Wulingyuan District and Sangzhi County, to the northeast by Cili County, to the east by Taoyuan County, to the southeast by Yuanling County, to the southwest by Yongshun County. Yongding District has an area of 2,208 square kilometres (853 sq mi) with 468,300 of registered population. It is divided into six subdistricts, seven towns and seven subdistricts, its government seat is Xixiping (西溪坪街道).

G5513 Changsha–Zhangjiajie Expressway road

The Changsha–Zhangjiajie Expressway, commonly referred to as the Changzhang Expressway is an expressway that connects Changsha, Hunan, China, and Zhangjiajie, Hunan. The expressway is a spur of G55 Erenhot–Guangzhou Expressway and is entirely in Hunan Province.

Badagongshan Township in Hunan, China

Badagongshan Township is an rural township in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Kuzhuping township in Hunan, China

Kuzhuping Township is an rural township in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Liangshuikou Town in Hunan, China

Liangshuikou Town is an urban town in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Longtanping, Sangzhi Town in Hunan, China

Longtanping Town is an urban town in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Qiaoziwan township in Hunan, China

Qiaoziwan Township is an rural township in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Shanghexi township in Hunan, China

Shanghexi Township is an rural township in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Wudaoshui, Sangzhi Town in Hunan, China

Wudaoshui Township is an urban town in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Zoumaping township in Hunan, China

Zoumaping Township is an rural township in Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China.

Puguang Temple (Zhangjiajie)

Puguang Temple or Puguang Chan Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Yongding District of Zhangjiajie, Hunan, China.

The Qianjiang–Changde railway is an electrified railway in China.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 68. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. "AAAAA Scenic Areas". China National Tourism Administration . 16 November 2008. Archived from the original on April 4, 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  3. "Tujia language". Zhangjiajie Municipal Government. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  4. "The Origin of Zhangjiajie Name". Zhangjiajie Municipal Government. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
  5. "Zhangjiajie Travel Guide" ChinaTour.Net Accessed 2015-1-21
  6. 中国地面气候标准值月值(1981-2010) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Data Service Center. Retrieved 20 October 2018.