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Clockwise from the top: Qingshui riverfront, downtown fireworks, Tong Bridge, Qingyuan Building, Dajingmen
Pearl of the Great Wall (塞外明珠)
Location of Zhangjiakou City jurisdiction in Hebei
|Coordinates(Zhangjiakou municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Established||November 15, 1983|
|Municipal seat||Qiaodong District|
|• Party Secretary||Hui Jian (回建)|
|• Mayor||Wu Weidong (武卫东)|
|• Prefecture-level city||36,861.56 km2 (14,232.33 sq mi)|
|• Urban||407.21 km2 (157.22 sq mi)|
|• Districts||6,963.8 km2 (2,688.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||716 m (2,349 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,650,000|
|• Density||130/km2 (330/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,600/km2 (6,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HE-07|
|Licence plate prefixes||冀G|
"Zhangjiakou", as written in Chinese
|Literal meaning||"Zhang family's pass"|
|Literal meaning||(Mongolian) "The gate"|
Zhangjiakou ( // ; Chinese :张家口; pinyin :Zhāngjiākǒu; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʈʂáŋ tɕjá kʰòu] ) also known as Kalgan and several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. By 2019, its population was 4,650,000 inhabitants on 36,861.56 square kilometres (14,232.33 sq mi), divided into 17 Counties and Districts. The built-up (or metro) area made of Qiaoxi, Qiaodong, Chongli, Xuanhua, Xiahuayuan Districts largely being conurbated had 1,500,000 inhabitants in 2019 on 1,412.7 km2 (545.4 sq mi).
Since ancient times, Zhangjiakou has been a stronghold of military significance and vied for by multiple sides. Hence, Zhangjiakou is given the nickname the Northern Gate of Beijing. Due to its strategic position on several important transport arteries, it is a critical node for travel between Hebei and Inner Mongolia and connecting northwest China, Mongolia, and Beijing. Dajingmen, an important gate and junction of the Great Wall of China is located here.
In the south, Zhangjiakou is largely cultivated for agricultural use. In the north, Bashang is a part of the Mongolian plateau and dominated by grasslands. The forest coverage reaches 37%, earning Zhangjiakou the title of National Forest City. According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Zhangjiakou has the freshest air and least PM 2.5 pollution of all Chinese cities north of Yellow River. Zhangjiakou also possesses 4.6% of China's wind energy resources, 2.5% of which has already been put into use. Moreover, the city ranks second in solar energy use 25–30 Zhangjiakou will be one of the host cities at the 2022 Winter Olympics.:
Zhangjiakou (Chang-chia-k'ou) is written 张家口 in simplified Chinese and 張家口 in traditional Chinese. It is Zhāngjiākǒu in pinyin, the name meaning "Zhang family pass." Older names for the town in Chinese include Zhāngyuán (張垣), used in the Republican era.
Zhangjiakou was historically known to Europeans as Kalgan (喀拉干, Kālāgàn) until the mid 20th century. This name derives from the Mongolian name of the city, , "Čiɣulaltu qaɣalɣa" (Classical Mongolian), "Chuulalt haalga" (modern Mongolian) or shorter, , "Qaghalghan" (Classical Mongolian), "Haalgan" (modern Mongolian), which means "the gate" (in the Great Wall). In Manchu, the city is known as (Imiyangga jase).
Because of its strategic position above and northwest of Beijing, Zhangjiakou has been nicknamed "Beijing's Northern Door".
There are many paleolithic remains like Nihewan, Xiaochangliang,and Maquangou located in Guyuan county, which indicated human activities dating back as far as 1.36 million to 2 million years ago, thus becoming one of the earliest sites of human activities in human history and constituting a challenge against the notion that humanity originated from East Africa.
Around 2500 BC, the legendary ancestors of Chinese people, Huangdi, Yandi, and Chiyou used to live in area of Zhuolu Town, and later fought the Battle of Zhuolu and Battle of Banquan, amalgamating different tribes into a single Huaxia tribe, thus beginning Chinese history.
During Spring and Autumn period, Xiongnu and Donghu people inhabited the northern area while Yan State (since around 11th century BC) and Dai state (since 7th century BC) occupied the southern area. In 475 BC, Dai was occupied by Zhao Wuxu of Zhao State. In 300 BC, King Wuling of Zhao established Dai Commandery, managing the area of ancient Dai state with its administrative center in Dai, currently Daiwangcheng, Yu County. During the same period of time, King Zhao of Yan sent General Qin Kai who was once captured by Donghu people and thus became familiar with their tactics to defeat Donghu. Following that, Yan State built Great Wall in its border extending from Zaoyang (currently northeast of Xuanhua) to Xiangping (currently north of Liaoyang). In 283 BC, King Zhao established Shanggu Commandery. 15–16 In 265 BC, Li Mu, a famous general of Zhao, commanded and deployed troops in Dai to protect against Xiongnu. After arriving in Dai, initially Li Mu banned any counterattack against Xiongnu to preserve the strength for years, which however incurred the discontent of King of Zhao. As a result, Li Mu was sacked. Following Zhao troops' defeat later, King of Zhao reinistated Li Mu. Viewing Zhao troops as cowards, Xiongnu grew arrogant and underestimated Zhao's strength. Finally, Li Mu led troops and ambushed Xiongnu, causing hundreds of thousands of casualties and great damage of Xiongu, thus ensuring decades of peace in Zhao's borderlands.:
In 228 BC, Wang Jian, a Qin general defeated Zhao army and occupied its capital, Handan. Jia, a son of Zhao king, escaped to Dai, currently northeast of Yu County and declared himself as the King of Dai. In alliance with Xi, King of Yan, the combined army, commanded by Crown Prince Dan was defeated at Yishui. In 222 BC, Wang Ben, a Qin general defeated Yan state and then, attacked Dai. He captured Jia and ended Dai as a state. Jia feared humiliation and committed suicide.
During Qin dynasty, Shihuangdi sent Meng Tian, commanding 300,000 troops to defend his empire from Xiongnu's attacks. They spent 10 years connecting the Great Wall of Yan, Qin and Zhao, thus building Great Wall of Qin, the first Great Wall of 10,000 li, its 80-kilometer-long relics currently located in Batou (坝头), or Erdaogou (二道沟) in local slang, to the north of Zhangjiakou downtown area. The southern area of Zhangjiakou was under jurisdiction of Dai Commandery and Shanggu Commandery.
During Han dynasty, most part of the area belonged to You Prefecture while some parts belonged to Wuhuan, Xiongnu and Xianbei. 15–16 When Liu Bang established Han dynasty, he granted Dai and the title of King of Dai to his brother Liu Zhong in 201 BC. One year later, Liu Zhong was defeated by Modu Chanyu of Xiongnu and escaped, thus demoted. In 196 BC, Chen Xi, the chancellor of Zhao, rebelled against the emperor and occupied more than 20 cities soon after. As a result, Liu Bang commanded an army in person from Luoyang. During the war, the empress launched a coup d'état and killed Han Xin, the most important general who helped establish Han dynasty. With the help of Fan Kuai and Zhou Bo, Liu Bang defeated Chen Xi very soon. Following the rebellion, Liu Bang granted the title of King of Dai to his third son, Liu Heng, later Emperor Wen of Han. :17–21:
Zhangjiakou was a major battleground during Han–Xiongnu War. In 127 BC, Xiongnu cavalry attacked Shanggu (currently Huailai), Yuyang. The Emperor Wu of Han launched a successful counterattack. In 124 BC, Xiongnu cavalry invaded Dai Commandery. Emperor Wu ordered Wei Qing commanding 100,000 troops to counterattack. Wei Qing left the Great Wall more than 600 to 700 kilometers, encircled Xiongnu's head, Youxianwang (右贤王). In 122 BC, 50,000 Xiongnu invaded Shanggu, killed hundreds of people. In next March, Huo Qubing commanded 10,000 cavalry to counterattack and achieved success. In 119 BC, Wei Qing and Huo Qubing each commanded 50,000 cavalry. Huo Qubing departed from Dai Commandery, marched 2000 li northward crossing Gobi desert. Finally, Han troops defeated Xiongnu under Yizhixie completely. Following the success, a new office, the Colonel-Protector of the Wuhuan (护乌桓校尉), was established in Shanggu in order to prevent contact between the Wuhuan with the Xiongnu and to use them to monitor the Xiongnu activities. In 106 BC, Emperor Wu of Han organized the Western Han Dynasty into 13 province-sized prefectures, each administered by a cishi ( 刺史 ) or inspector, thus putting Shanggu and Dai under the jurisdiction of You Prefecture.
Following Xin dynasty, Lu Fang (卢芳) rebelled against Han but was defeated. Then, Emperor Guangwu of Han granted him the King of Dai. In 48 AD, Eastern Han dynasty established Colonel-Protector of the Wuhuan in Ningcheng (宁城), Shanggu (currently, Ningyuanbao Qiaodong District), representing Han's management of Wuhuan. Meanwhile, Han also opened Hu Market (胡市) to conduct regular exchanges with Wuhuan in Ningcheng. From 110 AD, Ningcheng also began to manage affairs with Xianbei. :21–22
In 274, Western Jin divided Shanggu Commandery and established Guangning Commandery (廣寧郡) in Xialuo (下洛, in the west of present Zhuolu), which was disestablished during Northern Qi.
During the period known as Sixteen Kingdoms in Chinese history when the northern China was repeatedly invaded and occupied various nomadic peoples from further north, Zhangjiakou area became part of Dai, Former Yan, ultimately ruled by Northern Wei of Xianbei. In 310, by helping Jin's Liu Kun, the governor of Bingzhou to fight Xiongnu state of Han Zhao, Tuoba Yilu, the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba, was appointed Duke of Dai by Western Jin and since 315, the King of Dai. In 376, Dai was conquered by Former Qin state.
Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River. In 386, Tuoba Gui, the grandson of Tuoba Shiyijian, the last King of Dai, took the opportunity to reestablish Dai and soon changed its name from Dai to Wei. Initially, Tuoba Gui was a vassal of Later Yan but claimed imperial title in 397 after defeating Murong Bao of Yan in Battle of Canhe Slope. Later, Tuoba Gui was given the title of Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei.
In 423, in order to defend itself from Rouran’s invasions, Northern Wei built a Great Wall from Chicheng to the east and Wuyuan to the West, and established Huaihuang (懷荒, in present Zhangbei), Rouxuan (柔玄, in present Shangyi), Woye (沃野, in present Wuyuan County, Inner Mongolia) as two of the Six Frontier Towns. Later on, Yuyi (御夷, in present Chicheng and Guyuan ) was added. In 523, an uprising happened in Huaihuang, thus starting the Rebellion of Six Frontier Towns, an anti-Sinicization movement among northern peoples. In 525, Du Luozhou (杜洛周) led Shanggu Uprising, leading to many similar uprising to respond, including Gao Huan's. Next year, Du Luozhou broke through Juyong Pass and occupied You Prefecture. :23
In 645, Taizong of Tang had a north march in Jiming Mountain (鸡鸣山) during his campaign against Xueyantuo. In 822, Tang established Longmen County (龍門縣份) and Huai'an County (懷安縣), thus the first appearance of Huai’an. In 866. Tang established Xinzhou (新州), the administrative center located to the west of Zhuolu. In 877, Li Keyong, the grandfather of Li Cunxu, later the emperor of Later Tang, was serving as the deputy commander of the Shatuo troops and stationed in Yuzhou, turning this place into his base for future struggles. In 899, Wuzhou (武州) was established with its administrative center in Xuanhua. Meanwhile, Wende County (文德縣) was established, the administrative center in present Xuanhua.
During the period of Five Dynasties, Zhangjiakou area, like other places in northern China, underwent repeated changes of rules of different dynasties. In 937, in order to enlist the help from Khitan people to defeat Later Tang, Shi Jingtang of Later Jin (Five Dynasties) agreed to cede Sixteen Prefectures to Khitan, later Liao Dynasty, in which Xinzhou (新州, present Zhuolu), Weizhou (妫州, Huailai), Wuzhou (武州), Yuzhou (蔚州) were included. The Sixteen Prefectures held strategic locations in the north and because the Great Wall was across Zhangjiakou area, the cession left China in a vulnerable position against the invasions from the north. In 951, Yelu Ruan, the Emperor Shizong of Liao intended to attack Later Zhou in the south despite the reluctance of many subordinate tribes. While passing Huoshendian (火神淀), the west of Xinzhou, a rebellion broke out and Yelu Gecha (耶律察割) and Yelu Pendu (耶律盆都) assassinated the drunken emperor. The rebellion was put down very soon by Shizong's successor, Yelu Jing, the Emperor Muzong of Liao.
During the reign of Emperor Jingzong of Liao, the empress Xiao Yanyan often took part in politics and war. She often stationed troops in Yanzicheng (燕子城present Zhangbei), the name of which is believed to derive from Xiao Yanyan in preparations for the War against Song. Attracted by the beautiful scenery in Zhangjiakou area, she built two royal gardens, Shanghuayuan (上花園; 'Upper Garden') and Xiahuayuan (下花園; 'Lower Garden', in present Xiahuayuan District). Xiao resided there often and enlisted many talent in his war with Song dynasty.
In 1168, the Emperor Shizong of Jin traveled to Helihudongchuan (曷里滸東东川). Seeing the fully blossoming yellow flowers, he named the yellow flowers Jinlianhua (金蓮花) and the place became Jinlianchuan (金蓮川; 'River of Golden Lotus').
In August 1211, during the Battle of Yehuling, Genghis Khan's 90,000 strong force destroyed the 450,000 strong Jin dynasty army. In 1251, Möngke Khan became the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. He put Kublai, his brother, in charge of affairs of northern China. Kublai established Jinlianchuan Mufu (金蓮川幕府), enlisting many talent of Han people like Liu Bingzhong to assist his governance. Kublai regularly consulted them and discussed politics, religion ranging from Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.
In 1307, Külüg Khan or the Emperor Wuzong of Yuan began the construction of Yuan Zhongdu (元中都) in Onggachatu (旺兀察都, north to present Zhangbei) where the court was moved. However, before full completion, Emperor Wuzong died soon and his successor Wuzong's brother, Emperor Renzong of Yuan called it off. In August 1329, during Tianli Incident following the War of the Two Capitals, the new emperor Khutughtu Khan Kusala was poisoned to death by El Temür in Zhongdu. Zhongdu was later destroyed in 1357 during the Red Turban Rebellion as the rebels marched towards Shangdu.
In 1370, Zhu Yuanzhang ordered his general, Tang He, to occupy Xuande (宣德), later changed to Xuanfu (宣府), Hua Yunlong to occupy Yunzhou (雲州), seated in the north of Chicheng. Xuanfu was one of the Nine Garrisons of the Ming dynasty. In order to defend China proper from invasions from the north, Ming emperors, especially Yongle Emperor (who sent the fleet of Zheng He journeying as far as East Africa) put great emphasis on the building of defensive forces in northern China, where most troops were deployed in Xuanfu, reaching 151 thousand during 1403 to 1424. Fighting Mongols, Yongle Emperor's campaigns against the Mongols mainly took place to the north of Zhangjiakou. In 1429, the construction of Zhangjiakoubu (張家口堡; 'Castle of Zhang Family's (Mountain) Pass') was started. The castle was one defensive stronghold in the Great Walls.
On September 1, 1449, while retreating from the campaign against Mongols (Oirats), the 500,000-man army was defeated and the Emperor Yingzong of Ming was captured by chasing Mongolian troops in Huailai County, which was later called Tumu Crisis. The Emperor was sent back next year but only restored his throne in 1457. In 1529, local officer Zhang Zhen (张珍) built a small gate to north, which was strengthen in 1574 and 1581. Zhangjiakoubu enjoyed a paramount strategic position, thus being called Wuheng (武城; 'Martial Town'). Therefore, Zhangjiakoubu was the origin and starting point of modern-day Zhangjiakou City. :29–31
In 1514 and 1517, Dayan Khan led Mongol troops to invade China, causing great damage. He built forts in Xuanhua and Datong and stationed 15000 troops on Ming territory. Culminating in the Battle of Yingzhou (應州大捷) in 1517, Dayan Khan was killed in the battle. From 1545, Xuanda Governor Weng Wanda (宣大總督翁萬達) began building Xuanfu Great Wall, reaching 462 li (231 km) next year. In 1545, he built Great Walls again, reaching 169 li (84.5 km), effectively defending the area of Mongol cavalry's invasion. :115
The water-scarce city was historically the chief northern gate in the Great Wall to China for Europeans travelling along the Northern Tea Road (such as Ivan Petlin (1619)or Nicolae Milescu), often through the Juyong Pass.
In 1571, Altan Khan of Mongols received the title "Prince of Shunyi" (Obedient and Righteous Prince) from the Longqing Emperor, thus reaching an agreement of lasting peace with Ming. Since then, the city of Zhangjiakou was transformed from a military base to an important horse market for Mongolian mounts imported into China. 40 From 1727 it was an important station for the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China. In early autumn long lines of camels would come in from all quarters for the conveyance of the tea chests from "Kalgan" (Zhangjiakou) to Kyakhta across the Gobi Desert. Each caravan usually made three journeys in the winter. In the 19th century some Russian merchants had permanent residences and warehouses just outside the gate.:
In October 1909, Zhangjiakou was connected with Beijing by Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway, the first railway solely designed and built by Chinese people. Zhan Tianyou was the chief engineer. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica noted that, in Kalgan, "the ordinary houses have an unusual appearance, from the fact that they are mostly roofed with earth and become covered with green-sward" and that "on the way to Peking the road passes over a beautiful bridge of seven arches, ornamented with marble figures of animals". Following Xinhai Revolution, Zhangjiakou was incorporated into Chahar Special Administrative Region, later changed to Chahar Province in 1928, after the success of Northern Expedition of Kuomingtang.
In 1937, the Japanese occupied the region and made Kalgan the capital of the autonomous Cha-nan (South Chahar) Province. The Federated Mengjiang Commission was set up to supervise the economic affairs, banking, communications, and industry of Japanese-occupied Inner Mongolia (Mengjiang).
During the Second Phase of the Chinese Civil War, The 35th Army under Fu Zuoyi was surrounded at Xinbao'an of Zhangjiakou and Defeated. This caused Fu Zuo Yi to Quickly strike a deal with the Communists and Make Peace.
In the early 1960s, at the height of Sino-Soviet tensions, Zhangjiakou was considered one of the most important cities in China for military strategy reasons. Zhangjiakou was aptly nicknamed, "Beijing's Northern Door", because whoever controlled Zhangjiakou was in a good position to either attack (in the case of the Soviets) or defend (in the case of the Chinese) Beijing.
Zhangjiakou will host some of the events in the 2022 Winter Olympics.
Lying in between the Mongolian Plateau and the North China Plain, Zhangjiakou has a somewhat rugged topography characterized by high mountains, deep valleys, and rocky pathways. As a result, it serves as a perfect natural screen for Beijing, which has made it a strategic priority militarily since ancient times. It is called "The Gateway to Beijing" and "The Mountain City beyond the Great Wall". The grand Yan Mountain, the towering Taihang Mountain, the vast grasslands, and the meandering Sangyang River converge here. The city government has regarded tourism as a major driving force of the city's economy and continues to develop the industry.[ citation needed ]
As a place where water resources for Beijing is located, ecological and sustainable development have been emphasized by local government. Due to its less impact on environment than heavy industry, tourism figures significantly in local policies of development. Possessing diverse landforms, such as plains, hills, mountains, basins and grasslands, Zhangjiakou is an ideal place for holidays, entertainment sightseeing for neighbour middle class and can provide tourists with a variety of experiences. In the area, there are significant differences in different seasons. In winter, tourists can ski in Chongli Mountains; in spring, they can visit historical sites; in summer, visitors can sleep in Mongolian yurts on Zhangbei Grassland, where annual musical events were held and taste fresh mutton; while in autumn, visitors can taste Huailai wine and take a bath in nearby hot springs. 155:
In today's Zhangbei county a major attraction are the ruins and museum of the former Yuan capital Zhongdu.
Zhangjiakou is located in the northwest part of Hebei province, and is defined by mostly rough terrain created by the Yin Mountains, with elevations increasing from southeast to northwest. The east of the prefecture marks the Yan Mountains The bordering prefectures in the province are Chengde to the northeast and Baoding to the south. It also borders Shanxi to the west and southwest and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The prefecture's latitude ranges from 39° 30' to 42° 10' N, or 289.2 kilometres (179.7 mi), while its longitude spans 113° 50' to 116° 30' E, or 216.2 kilometres (134.3 mi).
Zhangjiakou City is divided into three topographical regions: plateau, mountains, and basin. The former has elevations generally above 1,400 metres (4,600 ft), and consists of all of Guyuan and Kangbao Counties as well as part of Shangyi and Zhangbei Counties. This area is part of the southern end of the Inner Mongolia Plateau (内蒙古高原) and accounts for one-third of the prefecture's area. The basin area has elevations of 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to 3,300 ft) and supports a few rivers.
The urban area of Zhangjiakou is surrounded by mountains on three sides. The Qingshui River passes through the city, dived the city into two districts, Qiaodong District and Qiaoxi District.
Zhangjiakou has a monsoon-influenced, continental semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with long, cold, dry, and windy winters due to the Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers driven by the East Asian monsoon; in between spring and autumn are dry and brief. Conditions are much cooler than in Beijing due in part to the elevation. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −8.3 °C (17.1 °F) in January to 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 8.81 °C (47.9 °F). On January 8, 2021, a minimum temperature of −26.8 °C (−16.2 °F) was registered.
|Climate data for Zhangjiakou (1971−2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||9.7|
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−8.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||−26.8|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||2.0|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.7||2.5||4.6||4.8||7.6||10.2||13.4||12.8||9.1||4.3||2.6||1.7||75.3|
|Source: Weather China|
|Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2004 est.)||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
|Qiaoxi District||桥西区||Qiáoxī Qū||230,000||141||1,631|
|Qiaodong District||桥东区||Qiáodōng Qū||260,000||113||2,301|
|Xuanhua District||宣化区||Xuānhuà Qū||590,000||2,371||248|
|Xiahuayuan District||下花园区||Xiàhuāyuán Qū||70,000||315||222|
|Wanquan District||万全区||Wànquán Qū||220,000||1,158||190|
|Chongli District||崇礼区||Chónglǐ Qū||120,000||2,326||52|
|Zhangbei County||张北县||Zhāngběi Xiàn||370,000||4,232||87|
|Kangbao County||康保县||Kāngbǎo Xiàn||280,000||3,365||83|
|Guyuan County||沽源县||Gūyuán Xiàn||230,000||3,601||64|
|Shangyi County||尚义县||Shàngyì Xiàn||190,000||2,621||72|
|Yu County||蔚县||Yù Xiàn||460,000||3,216||143|
|Yangyuan County||阳原县||Yángyuán Xiàn||280,000||1,834||153|
|Huai'an County||怀安县||Huái'ān Xiàn||250,000||1,706||147|
|Huailai County||怀来县||Huáilái Xiàn||340,000||1,793||190|
|Zhuolu County||涿鹿县||Zhuōlù Xiàn||330,000||2,799||118|
|Chicheng County||赤城县||Chìchéng Xiàn||280,000||5,238||53|
The vicinity of Zhangjiakou is rich in coal and iron ore, making it an ideal location for developing iron and steel industry. Apart from metallurgy, the city is home to one of China's most important grape wine industries, with the Great Wall Wine Company being located in Shacheng, Huailai County.
Due to its comparatively late implementation Reform and Opening policies, the scale of foreign investment in Zhangjiakou is not quite large. Currently, there are approximately 130 foreign companies settled. The amount of investment reached 820 million US dollars. The largest one is Zhangjiakou Volvo Motor Company with investment amounting to 3.1 billion RMB, and value of output exceeding 1 billion RMB. 168:
Due to several factors including the hosting of 2022 Winter Olympic Games with its concomitant expansion of infrastructure, the opening of high-speed railway in December 2019, the national strategy of coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the ratification of building a national demonstration zone of renewable energy by State Council of the People's Republic of China, Zhangjiakou economy is expected to undergo unprecedented advance in the coming years. 168:
Zhangjiakou is headquarters of the 65th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Beijing Military Region responsible for defending China's capital.
Zhangjiakou is home to Hebei North University. The university has been improving its international network and many foreign students are now studying there. Another university Hebei University of Architecture is located in Qiaodong District. Zhangjiakou No.1 Middle School is the most famous secondary school in Zhangjiakou. Beijing No.101 Middle School was a branch of Zhangjiakou No.1 Middle School in the past.
Zhangjiakou will host Freestyle and Nordic skiing and snowboarding excluding big air for the 2022 Winter Olympics. The events will be held in a venue in Taizicheng, a village in Chongli District.The ski resort earned over 1.54 billion yuan (US$237.77 million) in tourism during the 2015–16 snow season for a 31.6% growth over the previous season. In 2016, it was announced that Chongli received 2.185 million tourists, an increase of 30% from the previous season, during the first snow season after winning the Olympic bid. The snow season lasted for five months from November, during which Chongli has hosted thirty-six competitions and activities, such as Far East Cup and Children Skiing International Festival. A total of twenty-three skiing camps have also been set up, attracting the participation of 3,800 youths. All venue construction started in November 2016 and will be finished by the end of 2020 to enable the city to hold test events.
Venues currently being constructed are:
Shanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level cities are Changzhi and Datong. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed there during the Spring and Autumn period.
The Xianbei were an ancient nomadic people that once resided in the eastern Eurasian steppes in what is today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China. They originated from the Donghu people who splintered into the Wuhuan and Xianbei when they were defeated by the Xiongnu at the end of the 3rd century BC. The Xianbei were largely subordinate to larger nomadic powers and the Han dynasty until they gained prominence in 87 AD by killing the Xiongnu chanyu Youliu. However unlike the Xiongnu, the Xianbei political structure lacked the organization to pose a concerted challenge to the Chinese for most of their time as a nomadic people.
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.
Prince or King of Dai was an ancient and medieval Chinese title.
The Wuhuan were a Proto-Mongolic nomadic people who inhabited northern China, in what is now the provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, Shanxi, the municipality of Beijing and the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia.
Shuozhou is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi province, China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the northwest. It is situated along the upper reaches of the Fen River. The prefecture as a whole has an area of about 5,737 km2 (2,215 sq mi) and, in 2010, a population of about 1.71 million.
The Han–Xiongnu War, also known as the Sino–Xiongnu War, was a series of military battles fought between the Chinese Han Empire and the nomadic Xiongnu confederation from 133 BC to 89 AD.
You Prefecture or Province, also known by its Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (zhou) in northern China during its imperial era.
Tuoba Yilu was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295 to 307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307 to 316, Duke of Dai from 310 to 315, and first ruler of the Dai kingdom from 315 to 316. He was the son of Tuoba Shamohan (拓跋沙漠汗) and the brother of Tuoba Yituo and Tuoba Fu.
Yu County, also known by its Chinese name Yuxian, is a county under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Zhangjiakou in northwestern Hebei province, China. Yuzhou (蔚州镇) is the county seat.
The Xianbei state or Xianbei confederation was a nomadic empire which existed in modern-day Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northern Xinjiang, Northeast China, Gansu, Buryatia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Tuva, Altai Republic and eastern Kazakhstan from 156 to 234. Like most ancient peoples known through Chinese historiography, the ethnic makeup of the Xianbei is unclear.
Qin's wars of unification were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major Chinese states — Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu and Qi. During 247–221 BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the very strong and powerful Seven Warring States.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians," non-Chinese peoples who had settled in northern and western China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The kingdoms founded by ethnic Xiongnu, Xianbei, Di, Jie, Qiang, as well as Chinese and other ethnicities, took on Chinese dynastic names, and fought against each other and the Eastern Jin dynasty, which succeeded the Western Jin and ruled southern China. The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.
Ji or Jicheng was an ancient city in northern China, which has become the longest continuously inhabited section of modern Beijing. Historical mention of Ji dates to the founding of the Zhou dynasty in about 1045 BC. Archaeological finds in southwestern Beijing where Ji was believed to be located date to the Spring and Autumn period. The city of Ji served as the capital of the ancient states of Ji and Yan until the unification of China by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC. Thereafter, the city was a prefectural capital for Youzhou through the Han dynasty, Three Kingdoms, Western Jin dynasty, Sixteen Kingdoms, Northern Dynasties, and Sui dynasty. With the creation of a Jizhou (蓟州) during the Tang dynasty in what is now Tianjin Municipality, the city of Ji took on the name Youzhou. Youzhou was one of the Sixteen Prefectures ceded to the Khitans during the Five Dynasties. The city then became the southern capital of the Liao dynasty and then main capital of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234). In the 13th century, Kublai Khan built a new capital city for the Yuan dynasty adjacent to Ji to the north. The old city of Ji became a suburb to Dadu. In the Ming dynasty, the old and new cities were merged by Beijing's Ming-era city wall.
Dai Commandery was a commandery (jùn) of the state of Zhao established c. 300 BC and of northern imperial Chinese dynasties until the time of the Wen Emperor of the Sui dynasty. It occupied lands in what is now Hebei, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia. Its seat was usually at Dai or Daixian, although it was moved to Gaoliu during the Eastern Han.
Chen Xi was a Chinese rebel against the first Han emperor Liu Bang.
The military of the Han dynasty was the military apparatus of China from 202 BC to 220 AD, with a brief interregnum by the reign of Wang Mang and his Xin dynasty from 9 AD to 23 AD, followed by two years of civil war before the refounding of the Han.
The military history of the Jin dynasty encompasses the period of Chinese military activity from 266 AD to 420 AD. The Jin dynasty is usually divided into the Western and Eastern Jin eras. Western Jin lasted from its usurpation of Cao Wei in 266 to 316 when the Uprising of the Five Barbarians split the empire and created a number of barbarian states in the north. The Jin court fled to Jiankang, starting the era of Eastern Jin, which ended in 420 when it was usurped by Liu Yu, who founded the Liu Song dynasty.
Shanggu Commandery was a commandery in imperial China from the Warring States period to Tang dynasty. It was located in present-day Hebei and Beijing.
Yan (燕國) was a kingdom/principality in early Imperial China. It first appeared during the interregnum between the Qin and Han dynasties as one of the Eighteen Kingdoms created by Xiang Yu, and was subsequently dissolved and recreated multiple times, mainly during the Han dynasty. It was eventually dissolved in the War of the Eight Princes during the Jin dynasty.
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