Zhao Mausoleum (Qing dynasty)

Last updated

Coordinates: 41°50′59.54″N123°25′17.80″E / 41.8498722°N 123.4216111°E / 41.8498722; 123.4216111

Contents

Zhaoling Tomb of the Qing Dynasty
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Beiling Park Zhao Mausoleum (Qing dynasty) drone view 1.jpg
"Da Hong Men," the Red Gate of the tomb
Location Huanggu, Shenyang, Liaoning, China
Part of Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
Criteria Cultural: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
Reference 1004ter-014
Inscription2000 (24th session)
Extensions2003, 2004
Area47.89 ha (118.3 acres)
Buffer zone318.74 ha (787.6 acres)
Bird's-eye view of the mausoleum Beiling Park Zhao Mausoleum (Qing dynasty) drone view 16.jpg
Bird's-eye view of the mausoleum

Zhaoling (Chinese :昭陵; pinyin :Zhàolíng; lit. 'luminous mausoleum'; Manchu :ᡝᠯᡩᡝᠩᡤᡝ
ᠮᡠᠩᡤᠠᠨ
; Möllendorff : eldengge munggan), also known as Beiling (Chinese :北陵; pinyin :Bĕilíng; lit. 'North Mausoleum') is the tomb of the second Qing emperor, Hong Taiji, and his empress Xiaoduanwen.

The tomb is located within Beiling Park, in Huanggu District of the northern urban Shenyang, Liaoning province, and is a popular area attraction. The tomb complex took eight years (between 1643 and 1651) to build and has a row of animal statues leading to it. The tomb and surrounding park cover an area of 3,300,000 square metres making it the largest of the three imperial tombs north of the great wall. The area around the tomb was originally set aside for imperial use and ordinary people were forbidden entry. This forbidden area was opened to the public in 1928 and now forms Shenyang's Beiling Park (simplified Chinese :北陵公园; traditional Chinese :北陵公園; pinyin :Běilíng Gōngyuán).

Lake inside the Beiling Park for leisure and the skyline of Shenyang Beiling Park Zhao Mausoleum (Qing dynasty) drone view 19.jpg
Lake inside the Beiling Park for leisure and the skyline of Shenyang

The Beiling Park has an area of 330 hectares (820 acres), and contains many historic buildings, pine trees and lakes. In 1927, Government of the Fengtian Province (later renamed Liaoning Province) established the park, which includes Zhaoling and surrounding area. West of the tomb are flower gardens and east are several lakes. There is also a Children's Garden within the park. [1]

Description

The site is aligned on a north-south axis set west of Shenyang city's old north axis. This access forms the sacred way of about 1.2 km that leads from the park gate to the tomb buildings. The way itself is made in three paths. The centre path was for the deities only or bearers of offerings. The path of the lefthand (west) of the sacred way was for the ruling emperor and the righthand (east) path was for officials and imperial staff. Halfway along the royal way stands a statue of Hong Taiji in a bold stance and wearing military dress. To either side lie extensive park lands of forest and lakes. At the northern end of the royal way, the route crosses a bridge over a lake beyond which stand a series of gates that mark the entrance to the inner tomb area. [2]

The first gate is made of marble with ornate carvings. Heavy steel supports have been added to the front and back of this gate to prevent it falling over. The second gate takes you through the walls that surround the tomb. The royal way continues through forested land. A pair of stone pillars mark the beginning of the inner tomb structures. To either side of the route stand four pairs of stone animals. These are two xiezhi (mythical beasts that could tell good from evil. Here they represent the justice of the Emperor), two qilin (representing peace and kindness), two white horses, and lastly two camels. Beyond these guardians, the way is blocked by a small building inside which is a large stele. This stele tells of the deeds done by the dead emperor. It is mounted on top of a large statue of a turtle. After this, to either side of the way stand four buildings. These were used by the emperor and his staff to prepare themselves and their offerings before their ceremony to honor the past emperor. [2]

Three stations of Shenyang Metro Line 2 serve this area: Beiling Gongyuan Station, Lingxi Station, and Xinle Yizhi Station.

Main temple complex

After these stands the main temple complex. This is a walled area within which the ceremonies for worshiping the emperor were carried out. The tomb mound and underground palace stand in a semi-circular walled area north of the temple area. The temple walls are high, with a walkway set on top of them. Each corner is marked with a small tower and two larger towers stand over the north and south gates of the temple area. Within the temple complex's walls stand five buildings. The first four, set on either side of the central axis, were used for preparing the ceremony.

At the northern end of the temple area, on top of the central axis, stands the altar building. It was here that the rites of worship were carried out. The building houses representations of the dead emperor. In front of the altar building, the emperor and his household would make offerings to their ancestors. To the south west of the altar stands a small stone structure in which offerings, after being presented on the altar, would be burnt.

Beyond the altar building, a final gate leads out of the temple area to the wall of the tomb mound itself. The underground tomb remains sealed, its contents hidden from view. Within lies Emperor Huang Taji, and his consorts along with a multitude of priceless offerings.

Related Research Articles

Forbidden City Art museum, Imperial Palace, Historic site in Beijing, China

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in Dongcheng District, Beijing, China, at the center of the Imperial City of Beijing. It is surrounded by numerous opulent imperial gardens and temples including the 54-acre Zhongshan Park, the sacrificial Imperial Ancestral Temple, the 171-acre Beihai Park and the 57-acre Jingshan Park.

Shenyang Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Liaoning, China

Shenyang, formerly known as Fengtian or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Liaoning province. Located in central-north Liaoning, it is the province's most populous city, with a total metropolitan population up to 8.1 million. The largest city in Northeast China by urban population, with 6.3 million people, Shenyang is also the central city of one of the major megalopolises in China, the Greater Shenyang Metropolitan Area, which has a total population over 23 million. The city's administrative region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties: Kangping and Faku.

Ming tombs Collection of mausoleums built by emperors of China

The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China. The first Ming emperor's tomb is located near his capital Nanjing. However, the majority of the Ming tombs are located in a cluster near Beijing and collectively known as the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty. They are located within the suburban Changping District of Beijing Municipality, 42 kilometers (26 mi) north-northwest of Beijing's city center. The site, on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain, was chosen based on the principles of feng shui by the third Ming emperor, the Yongle Emperor. After the construction of the Imperial Palace in 1420, the Yongle Emperor selected his burial site and created his own mausoleum. The subsequent emperors placed their tombs in the same valley.

Ming Xiaoling

The Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty. It lies at the southern foot of Purple Mountain, located east of the historical centre of Nanjing. Legend says that in order to prevent robbery of the tomb, 13 identical processions of funeral troops started from 13 city gates to obscure the real burying site.

Mukden Palace Art museum, Imperial Palace, Historic site in Shenyang, Liaoning

The Mukden Palace, or Shenyang Imperial Palace, was the former imperial palace of the early Manchu-led Qing dynasty. It was built in 1625, and the first three Qing emperors lived there from 1625 to 1644. Since the collapse of imperial rule in China, the palace has been converted to a museum that now lies in the center of Shenyang, Liaoning.

Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties is the designation under which the UNESCO has included several tombs and burial complexes into the list of World Heritage Sites. These tombs date from the Ming and Qing dynasties of China.

Imperial City, Beijing

The Imperial City is a section of the city of Beijing in the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the Forbidden City at its center. It refers to the collection of gardens, shrines, and other service areas between the Forbidden City and the Inner City of ancient Beijing. The Imperial City was surrounded by a wall and accessed through seven gates and it includes historical places such as the Forbidden City, Tiananmen, Zhongnanhai, Beihai Park, Zhongshan Park, Jingshan, Imperial Ancestral Temple, and Xiancantan.

Western Qing tombs Necropolis in Hebei Province, China

The Western Qing tombs are located some 140 km (87 mi) southwest of Beijing in Yi County, Hebei Province. They constitute a necropolis that incorporates four royal mausoleums where seventy-eight royal members are buried. These include four emperors of the Qing dynasty and their empresses, imperial concubines, princes and princesses, as well as other royal servants.

Imperial Ancestral Temple

The Imperial Ancestral Temple, or Taimiao of Beijing, is a historic site in the Imperial City, just outside the Forbidden City, where during both the Ming and Qing Dynasties, sacrificial ceremonies were held on the most important festival occasions in honor of the imperial family's ancestors.

Temple of Earth

The Temple of the Earth in Beijing, China, is located in the northern part of central Beijing, around the Andingmen area and just outside Beijing's second ring road. It is also located just a few hundred yards north of Yonghe Temple. At 42.7 hectares, it is the second largest of the four Temples of Beijing behind only the Temple of Heaven.

Hunnan District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Hunnan District, formerly Dongling District one of ten districts of the prefecture-level city of Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning Province, Northeast China, and forms part of the eastern and southeastern suburbs. The district contains 12 subdistricts of Shenyang proper, six towns, one rural township, and one ethnic rural township. It borders Shenbei New Area to the north, Sujiatun to the south, Heping to the west, and Shenhe and Dadong to the northwest; it also borders the prefecture-level city of Fushun to the east.

Eastern Qing tombs Imperial mausoleum complex of the Qing dynasty

The Eastern Qing tombs are an imperial mausoleum complex of the Qing dynasty located in Zunhua, 125 kilometres (78 mi) northeast of Beijing. They are the largest, most complete, and best preserved extant mausoleum complex in China. Altogether, five emperors, 15 empresses, 136 imperial concubines, three princes, and two princesses of the Qing dynasty are buried here. Surrounded by Changrui Mountain, Jinxing Mountain, Huanghua Mountain, and Yingfei Daoyang Mountain, the tomb complex stretches over a total area of 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi).

Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor

The Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor is the burial site of the legendary Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) of China. It is located in Huangling County, Yan'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. According to legend, the Yellow Emperor attained immortality and rose to Heaven, leaving behind only his clothing and cap to be entombed.

Fuling Mausoleum

The Fuling or Fu Mausoleum, also known as the East Mausoleum, is the mausoleum of Nurhaci, the founding monarch of the Later Jin dynasty and his wife, Empress Xiaocigao. It served as the main site for ritual ceremonies conducted by the imperial family during the entire Qing dynasty. Located in the eastern part of Shenyang city, Liaoning Province, northeastern China, Fuling has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2004.

Huanggu District District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Huanggu District is one of ten districts of the prefecture-level city of Shenyang, the capital of the Chinese province of Liaoning. It borders Shenbei New Area to the north, Dadong to the east, Shenhe to the southeast, Heping to the south, Tiexi to the southwest, and Yuhong to the west.

Nurhaci Jurchen chieftain (1559–1626)

Nurhaci was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, and reigned as the founding Khan of Later Jin from 1616 to 1626.

Kong Family Mansion

The Kong Family Mansion was the historical residence of the direct descendants of Confucius in the City of Qufu, the hometown of Confucius in Shandong Province, China. The extant structures mainly date from the Ming and Qing dynasties. From the mansion, the family tended to the Confucian sites in Qufu and also governed the largest private rural estate in China. The Kong family was in charge of conducting elaborate religious ceremonies on occasions such as plantings, harvests, honoring the dead, and birthdays. Today, the mansion is a museum and part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu".

Lingxi station Shenyang Metro station

Lingxi is a station on Line 2 of the Shenyang Metro. The station opened on 30 December 2011. This station locates at the west gate of the Qing Zhao Mausoleum and Beiling Park, also known as Zhaoling or Beiling.

Xinleyizhi station Shenyang Metro station

Xinleyizhi is a station on Line 2 of the Shenyang Metro. The station opened on 30 December 2011.This station locates to the west of the Qing Zhao Mausoleum and Beiling Park, also known as Zhaoling or Beiling, and close to the Museum of the Xinle Civilization.

Beilinggongyuan station Shenyang Metro station

Beilinggongyuan is a station on Line 2 of the Shenyang Metro. The station opened on 30 December 2011. This station locates at the south gate of the Qing Zhao Mausoleum and Beiling Park, also known as Zhaoling or Beiling.

References

  1. "Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 10 Apr 2021.
  2. 1 2 "Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties" (PDF). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. The State Administration of Cultural Heritage of the People's Republic of China.