Zheng (surname)

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Zheng (Cheng/Chang/Cheang)
Cheng surname.png
PronunciationCheng (Wade-Giles)
Zhèng (Mandarin)
Tcheng or Cheng/Chang (Hong Kong)
Cheang (Macao)
Tay, Tee, Teh or The (Hokkien, Teochew)
Dang or Dhang (Hokchew)
Language(s) Chinese
Origin
MeaningName of an ancient state in Henan province
Region of originChina
Other names
Variant form(s) Chung, Jung, Jeong (Korean)
Saetae (Thai)
Trịnh (Vietnamese)

Zheng or zhèng (Hanyu Pinyin) or Cheng (Wade-Giles) ( [ʈʂə́n] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a Chinese surname and also the name of an ancient state in today's Henan province. It is written as in traditional Chinese and in simplified Chinese. It is the 7th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.

Contents

In 2006, Zheng (Cheng/Chang) ranked 21st in China's list of top 100 most common surnames. Zheng (Cheng/Chang) belongs to the second major group of ten surnames which makes up more than 10% of the Chinese population. [1] [2] [3] Zheng (Cheng/Chang) was a major surname of the rich and powerful during China's Tang dynasty. [4]

In Hong Kong and Taiwan, the name is normally romanized as Cheng or Tcheng (occasionally romanized as Chang in Hong Kong although that variant is more commonly used for another Chinese name, Zhang). In Malaysia, Cheng is commonly romanized as Cheng, Cheang, Chang, Tay, Tee and Teh. It is spelled as Tay in Singapore and The in Indonesia and Ty in Philippines, [5] from the Hakka, Hokkien and Teochew pronunciation of the character. It also pronounces Dâng in Hokchew.

The surname also has taken form outside of Chinese societies: in Vietnamese as Trịnh. In Korean, the name is written 정 and transliterated as Chung, Jung, or Jeong. It is the fifth most common Korean surname (after Kim, Lee, Park, and Choi), with about 4.85% of the South Korean population (2,230,611 people) having this name.[ citation needed ]

Origin

The Zheng surname originated in Henan. In 806 BC, King Xuan, the penultimate king of the Western Zhou Dynasty, enfeoffed his younger brother Prince You, who became posthumously known as Duke Huan of Zheng, at Zheng (present-day Hua County, Shaanxi). Duke Huan was killed along with King You of Zhou when the Quanrong tribes sacked the Zhou capital Haojing in 771 BC. Duke Huan was succeeded by his son Duke Wu, who helped King Ping of Zhou establish the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in Luoyang, and his feudal state of Zheng was also moved east to present-day Henan. His descendants and many people of the state later adopted Zheng as their surname. [6] [7] [8]

The city of Xingyang is considered as the origin place of the people whose surname is Zheng. Today, Xingyang is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhengzhou (鄭州) which translates to "Settlement of Zheng". Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan province and is located within the boundaries of the ancient state of Zheng (state). There is also another city called Xinzheng ("New Zheng"), also under the administration of Zhengzhou.

The Zheng clan character (鄭) is featured prominently on the flag of the short-lived rebel Kingdom of Tungning founded by Ming-loyalist Koxinga (who had the surname Zheng) in Taiwan. Also called the Kingdom of Formosa.

During the Tang dynasty the Li family of Zhaojun 趙郡李氏, the Cui family of Boling 博陵崔氏, the Cui family of Qinghe 清河崔氏, the Lu family of Fanyang 范陽盧氏, the Zheng family of Xingyang 荥陽鄭氏, the Wang family of Taiyuan 太原王氏, and the Li family of Longxi 隴西李氏 were the seven noble families between whom marriage was banned by law. [9] The marriages between the families were performed clandestinely after the prohibition was implemented on the seven families by Emperor Gaozong. [10] Their status as "Seven Great surnames" became known during Gaozong's rule. [11]

Distribution

Of the top 30 cities in China, 郑 ranked 4th most common surname in the city of Fuzhou. [12]

Spelling and pronunciation

ChineseMandarin (Hanyu Pinyin)HakkaCantonese (Jyutping)Hokkien (Pe̍h-ōe-jī)Hokchew (Bàng-uâ-cê)
Trad.Simp.
Zhèng Meixian: cang52
Huiyang: cang53
Fengshun: chang31
Wuhua: qang31
Songkou: cang52
Yingde: qang31
Sixian: cang55
Hailu: chang33
Dabu: chang53
Raoping: chang24
Zhao'an: chang55
Hong Kong: cang55
zeng6 Tēⁿ [ permanent dead link ] / Tīⁿ [ permanent dead link ]Dâng

Notable people

There are over 400 Zhengs listed in the Who's Who in Chinese History. [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

Monarch

Arts, entertainment & media

Sports, fitness

Other

See also

Related Research Articles

Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, and among overseas Chinese communities around the world such as Singapore and Malaysia. Chinese surnames are given first for names written in Chinese, which is the opposite of Western naming convention where surnames come last. Around 2,000 Han Chinese surnames are currently in use, but the great proportion of Han Chinese people use only a relatively small number of these surnames; 19 surnames are used by around half of the Han Chinese people, while 100 surnames are used by around 87% of the population. A report in 2019 gives the most common Chinese surnames as Wang and Li, each shared by over 100 million people in China, with Zhang, Liu, Chen, Yang, Huang, Zhao, Wu and Zhou making up the rest of the ten most common Chinese names.

Wang (surname) Surname list

Wang is the pinyin romanization of the common Chinese surnames (Wáng) and (Wāng). It is currently the most common surname in mainland China, as well as one of the most common surnames in the world, with more than 100 million worldwide.

King Ling of Zhou, personal name Ji Xiexin, was the twenty-third king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty and the eleventh of Eastern Zhou. He died in 545 BC.

Cheng (surname) Surname list

Cheng can be a transcription of one of several Chinese surnames. Since the syllable Cheng represents different sounds in Hanyu pinyin and the Wade–Giles systems of Chinese romanization, some ambiguity will exist as to which sound is represented by the letters "Cheng" if the romanisation and tone is not known. Also within each system of romanisation, each syllable can represent one of several different characters, as with any Chinese syllable.

Zheng Yi was a powerful Chinese pirate operating from Guangdong and throughout the South China Sea in the late 1700s.

Zheng (state)

Zheng was a vassal state in China during the Zhou Dynasty located in the centre of ancient China in modern-day Henan Province on the North China Plain about 75 miles (121 km) east of the royal capital at Luoyang. It was the most powerful of the vassal states at the beginning of the Eastern Zhou, and was the first state to clearly establish a code of law in its late period of 543 BCE. Its ruling house had the ancestral name Ji (姬), making them a branch of the Zhou royal house, who were given the rank of Bo (伯), corresponding roughly to being a Count.

Kingdom of Tungning State in southwestern Taiwan (1661-1683)

The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683. It was founded by Koxinga as part of the loyalist movement to restore the Ming dynasty in China after it was overthrown by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. Koxinga hoped to recapture the mainland China from the Qing, using the island as a base of operations. Until its annexation by the Qing Dynasty in 1683, the Kingdom was ruled by Koxinga's heirs, the House of Koxinga.

Zheng Keshuang Prince of Yanping (延平王)

Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping, courtesy name Shihong, art name Huitang, was the third and last ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century. He was the second son of Zheng Jing and a grandson of Koxinga. After surrendering to the Qing dynasty in 1683, he was ennobled as Duke Hanjun, and lived the rest of his life in Beijing.

The romanisation of the Chinese language in Singapore is not dictated by a single policy, nor is its policy implementation consistent, as the local Chinese community is composed of a myriad of topolect groups. Although Hanyu Pinyin is adopted as the preferred romanisation system for Mandarin and the standard of Chinese education, the general lack of a romanisation standard for other Chinese varieties results in some level of inconsistency. This may be illustrated by the many variants for the same Chinese characters often found in surnames such as Low, Loh, Lo; Tay, Teh; Teo, Teoh; Yong, Yeong.

Xingyang County-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

Xingyang, is a county-level city of Henan Province, South Central China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Zhengzhou. It is situated 15 kilometers to the west of Zhengzhou city proper. The population of Xingyang is around 590,000 and the area of Xingyang is about 908 km2 (351 sq mi).

The Hundred Family Surnames, commonly known as Bai Jia Xing, also translated as Hundreds of Chinese Surnames, is a classic Chinese text composed of common Chinese surnames. The book was composed in the early Song dynasty. It originally contained 411 surnames, and was later expanded to 504. Of these, 444 are single-character surnames, and 60 are double-character surnames. About 800 names have been derived from the original ones.

Cui, alternatively spelled Tsui or Tsway, is one of the 100 most common surnames in China, with around 0.28% of the Chinese population having the surname. It is also one of the most common surnames in Korea, with around 4.7% of the population having the surname in South Korea.

Zheng Yi Sao Chinese pirate

Zheng Yi Sao, also known as Ching Shih, meaning wife of Ching (Zheng), was a Chinese pirate leader who terrorized the South China Sea from 1807 to 1810. Zheng Yi Sao was a honorific bestowed upon her by the people of Guangdong, meaning wife of Zheng Yi. She was the unofficial commander of the Guangdong Pirate Confederation, which was composed of 400 junks and between 40,000 to 60,000 pirates in 1805. Her ships entered into conflict with several major powers, such as the East India Company, the Portuguese Empire, and Qing China.

Kong (孔) is a Chinese and Korean surname. It can also be written as Kung in Taiwan, Hung in Hong Kong, Khổng in Vietnam, and Gong in Korea. There are around 2.1 million people with this surname in China in 2002, representing 0.23% of the population. In 2018, it was the 97th-most common surname in China. It is the 25th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.

Lu (surname 盧) Chinese surname with character 卢/盧 (pinyin: Lú)

is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surname written 卢 in simplified character and 盧 in traditional character. It is also spelled Lo or Loh according to the Cantonese pronunciation. Lu 卢 is the 52nd most common surname in China, shared by 5.6 million people, or 0.475% of the Chinese population as of 2002. It is especially common in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and Hebei provinces. Lu 卢 is listed 167th in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames.

The Cui clan of Qinghe (清河崔氏) was an eminent Chinese family of high-ranking government officials and Confucian scholars. The clan's ancestral home was in Qinghe Commandery (清河郡), which covered parts of present-day Shandong and Hebei provinces.

Zheng Guanying

Zheng Guanying or Cheng Kuan-ying was a Chinese reformist active in the late Qing Dynasty. He was a proponent of fighting economic dominance by Western countries of China through economic nationalism, of parliamentary representative democracy, and of women's rights.

Cheng Changgeng was a Qing dynasty Hui opera and Peking opera artist based in Beijing, who specialized in laosheng roles, or old gentlemen. Sometimes called the "Father of Peking Opera", he was the leader of the Three Celebrations Company (三慶班) as well as the leader of the actor's guild in Beijing. He was from Qianshan, Anhui.

The Zheng clan of Xingyang (滎陽鄭氏) was a prominent Chinese clan, chiefly based around Xingyang. Tracing their origins to the rulers of the State of Zheng, they became highly prominent in government during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, where they became one of the "Four Clans" in Northern Wei, and also during the Tang Dynasty.

Tongyushi (彤魚氏) was a legendary empress, the third wife of the Yellow Emperor. According to tradition, she invented the cooking and chopsticks in the 27th century BC.

References

  1. National Natural Science Foundation, China. Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. China renews top 100 surnames, Li still the biggest, People's Daily, January 11, 2006.
  2. Consulate-General of the People's Republic of China in Houston, Texas
  3. Origins of Chinese Names By Chunjiang Fu, Asiapac Editorial, Wei Lin Chua, Joo Ling Choong Published by Asiapac Books Pte Ltd, 2007; ISBN   981-229-462-7, ISBN   978-981-229-462-3; p. 37 [ dead link ]
  4. Origins of Chinese Names By Chunjiang Fu, Asiapac Editorial, Wei Lin Chua, Joo Ling Choong Published by Asiapac Books Pte Ltd, 2007; ISBN   981-229-462-7, ISBN   978-981-229-462-3; p. 36 [ dead link ]
  5. Setyautama, Sam; Mihardja, Suma (2008). Tokoh-tokoh Etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia [Ethnic Chinese Figures in Indonesia] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Gramedia. ISBN   978-979-9101-25-9.
  6. Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN   0-19-508137-4
  7. Top 100 surnames: in the Lower Mainland by Chad Skelton, published in the Vancouver Sun, Saturday, November 03, 2007 Archived June 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  8. Origins of Chinese Names By Chunjiang Fu, Asiapac Editorial, Wei Lin Chua, Joo Ling Choong Published by Asiapac Books Pte Ltd, 2007; ISBN   981-229-462-7, ISBN   978-981-229-462-3; p. 60 [ dead link ]
  9. "p. 67" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
  10. A Study of Yuan Zhen's Life and Verse 809--810: Two Years that Shaped His Politics and Prosody. 2008. pp. 65–. ISBN   978-0-549-80334-8.
  11. William H. Nienhauser (2010). Tang Dynasty Tales: A Guided Reader. World Scientific. pp. 78–. ISBN   978-981-4287-28-9.
  12. "https://www.douban.com/group/topic/23803598/"(Chinese)
  13. Who's who in China, 1919
  14. Who's who in China, Containing the Pictures and Biographics of Some of China's Political, Financial By John Benjamin Powell, Hollington Kong Tong Published by Millard's review, 1920
  15. Who's who in China [Supplement to the 3d Ed.] edited by John Benjamin Powell Published by The China Weekly Review, 1928
  16. Who's who in China: Biographies of Chinese : Supplement By China Weekly Review Published by China Weekly Review, 1931
  17. Who's who in China: Containing the Pictures and Biographies of China's Best Known Political, Financial, Business and Professional Leaders ... By Zhixiang Hao Published by The China weekly review, 1931
  18. Who's who in China Published by China Weekly Review, 1936; Item notes: 1936
  19. Who's who in China: Biographies of Chinese Leaders. Chung-kuo Ming Jen Lu Published by The China Weekly Review, 1936
  20. Who's who in China: Biographies of Chinese Leaders : Supplement to Fifth Edition : (including a Section Embracing Those who are Affiliated with Japanese-sponsored Administrations Within Areas Controlled by the Japanese Military Forces Published by The China weekly review, 1940
  21. Who's who in China By Who's Who Staff Published by AMS Press, 1950; ISBN   0-404-56968-4, ISBN   978-0-404-56968-6
  22. Who's who in China; Biographical Sketches of 542 Chinese Communist Leaders.: Biographical Sketches of 542 Chinese Communist Leaders By Donald W. Klein Published 1959
  23. Who's who in China, 1918-1950: With an Index By Jerome Cavanaugh, Chinese Materials Center Published by Chinese Materials Center, 1982; Item notes: v.1
  24. Who's who in China: Current Leaders By Who's Who in China, "Zhongguo ren ming da ci dian" bian ji bu; Published by Foreign Languages Press, 1989; ISBN   0-8351-2352-9, ISBN   978-0-8351-2352-5
  25. Who's who in China: Chinese-English Manual of Chinese Leaders and Government Organizations = 汉英中国领导人暨政府机构手册 Published by TWL, 1993
  26. Who's Who in China By Sony Imagesoft Published by Sonic Books, 1994; ISBN   1-56673-135-6, ISBN   978-1-56673-135-5
  27. Who's who in China: [a First-ever Comprehensive Compilation of the Powerful, Affluent, and Influential in China - Their Stories, Net Worth and Networks] Contributor Gerald Leong Published by Inspire Publ, 2004; ISBN   3-938159-00-6, ISBN   978-3-938159-00-2

Further reading