Zhou in the 1920s
13 January 1906
|Died||14 January 2017|
(aged 111 years, 1 day)
|Alma mater|| St. John's University |
|Known for||Development of Pinyin; supercentenarian|
|The Historical Evolution of Chinese Languages and Scripts|
|Political party||China Democratic National Construction Association|
(m. 1933;died 2002)
Zhou Youguang (13 January 1906 – 14 January 2017), also known as Chou Yu-kuang or Chou Yao-ping, was a Chinese economist, banker, linguist, sinologist, publisher, and supercentenarian, known as the "father of Pinyin",a system for the writing of Mandarin Chinese in Roman script, or romanization, which was officially adopted by the government of the People's Republic of China in 1958, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982, and the United Nations in 1986.
Zhou was born Zhou Yaoping in Changzhou (Changchow), Jiangsu Province, on 13 January 1906 to a Qing Dynasty official.At the age of ten, he and his family moved to Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1918, he entered Changzhou High School, during which time he first took an interest in linguistics. He graduated in 1923 with honors.
Zhou enrolled that same year in St. John's University, Shanghai where he majored in economics and took supplementary coursework in linguistics.He was almost unable to attend due to his family's poverty, but friends and relatives raised 200 yuan for the admission fee, and also helped him pay for tuition. He left during the May Thirtieth Movement of 1925 and transferred to Guanghua University, from which he graduated in 1927.
On 30 April 1933, Zhou married Zhang Yunhe (张允和). The couple went to Japan for Zhou's studies. 周小禾).Zhou started as an exchange student at the University of Tokyo, later transferring to Kyoto University due to his admiration of the Japanese Marxist economist Hajime Kawakami, who was a professor there at the time. Kawakami's arrest for joining the outlawed Japanese Communist Party in January 1933 meant that Zhou could not be his student. Zhou's son, Zhou Xiaoping (周晓平), was born in 1934. The couple also had a daughter, Zhou Xiaohe (
In 1937, due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Zhou and his family moved to the wartime capital Chongqing, and his daughter died. 经济部农本局). After the 1945 Japanese defeat in World War II, Zhou went back to work for Sin Hua where he was stationed overseas: first in New York City and then in London. During his time in the United States, he met Albert Einstein twice.He worked for Sin Hua Bank before entering public service as a deputy director at the National Government's Ministry of Economic Affairs, agricultural policy bureau (
Zhou participated for a time in the China Democratic National Construction Association. [ citation needed ] After the founding of the People's Republic was established in 1949 he returned to Shanghai, where he taught economics at Fudan University for several years.
Because of his friendship with Zhou Enlai who recalled the economist’s fascination with linguistics and Esperanto, he summoned Zhou to Beijing in 1955 and tasked him with developing a new alphabet for China.The Chinese government placed Zhou at the head of a committee to reform the Chinese language to increase literacy.
While other committees oversaw the tasks of promulgating Mandarin Chinese as the national language and creating simplified Chinese characters, Zhou's committee was charged with developing a romanization to represent the pronunciation of Chinese characters.Zhou said the task took about three years, and was a full-time job. Pinyin was made the official romanization in 1958, although (as now) it was only a pronunciation guide, not a substitute writing system. Zhou based Pinyin on several preexisting systems: the phonemes were inspired by Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928 and Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, while the diacritic markings representing tones were inspired by zhuyin.
In April 1979, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in Warsaw held a technology conference. Speaking on behalf of the People's Republic of China, Zhou proposed the use of the "Hanyu Pinyin System" as the international standard for the romanization of Chinese. Following a vote in 1982 the scheme became ISO 7098.
In the modern era Pinyin has largely replaced older romanization systems such as Wade-Giles.
During the Cultural Revolution, Zhou was sent to live in the countryside and to be "reeducated", as were many other intellectuals at that time.He spent two years at a labor camp.
After 1980, Zhou worked with Liu Zunqi and Chien Wei-zang on translating the Encyclopædia Britannica into Chinese, earning him the nickname "Encyclopedia Zhou".Zhou continued writing and publishing after the creation of Pinyin; for example, his book 中国语文的时代演进 (Zhōngguó yǔwén de shídài yǎnjìn), translated into English by Zhang Liqing, was published in 2003 as The Historical Evolution of Chinese Languages and Scripts. Beyond the age of 100, he published ten books, some of which have been banned in China.
In 2011, during an interview with NPR, Zhou said that he hoped to see the day China changed its position on the Tiananmen Square killings in 1989, an event he said had ruined Deng Xiaoping's reputation as a reformer.He became an advocate of political reform and democracy in China, and was critical of the Communist Party of China's attacks on traditional Chinese culture when it came into power.
In early 2013, both Zhou and his son were interviewed by Dr. Adeline Yen Mah at their residence in Beijing. Mah documented the visit in a video and presented Zhou with a Pinyin game she created for the iPad.Zhou became a supercentenarian on 13 January 2016 when he reached the age of 110.
Zhou died on 14 January 2017 at his home in Beijing, one day after his 111th birthday; no cause was given.His wife had died in 2002, and his son had died in 2015.
Google honored what would have been his 112th birthday with an animated version of its logo in Mandarin.
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Zhou was the author of more than 40 books, some of them banned in China and over 10 of them published after he turned 100 in 2005.
|Title (Simplified Chinese)||Pinyin||English title||Publication year|
|新中国的金融问题||Xīn zhōngguó de jīnróng wèntí||New China's financial problems||1949|
|汉语拼音词汇||Hànyǔ pīnyīn cíhuì||Chinese phonetic alphabet glossary||1950|
|中国拼音文字研究||Zhōngguó pīnyīn wénzì yánjiū||A study of Chinese phonetic alphabets||1953|
|资本的原始积累||Zīběn de yuánshǐ jīlěi||Primitive accumulation of capital||1954|
|字母的故事||Zìmǔ de gùshi||The alphabet's story||1954|
|汉字改革概论||Hànzì gǎigé gài lùn||On the reform of Chinese characters||1961|
|电报拼音化||Diànbào pīnyīn huà||Telegraph romanization||1965|
|汉语手指字母论集||Hànyǔ shǒuzhǐ zìmǔ lùn jí||Essays on Chinese Sign Language||1965|
|汉字声旁读音便查||Hànzì Shēngpáng dúyīn Biànchá||A handy guide to the pronunciation of phonetics in Chinese characters||1980|
|拼音化问题||Pīnyīn huà wèntí||Problems with Pinyin||1980|
|语文风云||Yǔwén fēngyún||The tempest of language||1981|
|中国语文的现代化||Zhōngguó yǔwén de xiàndàihuà||Modernization of the Chinese language||1986|
|世界字母简史||Shìjiè zìmǔ jiǎn shǐ||A brief history of the world's alphabets||1990|
|新语文的建设||Xīn yǔwén de jiànshè||Constructing new languages||1992|
|中国语文纵横谈||Zhōngguó yǔwén zònghéng tán||Features of the Chinese language||1992|
|汉语拼音方案基础知识||Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Fāng'àn jīchǔ zhīshì||Fundamentals of Pinyin||1993|
|语文闲谈||Yǔwén xiántán||Language Chat||1995|
|文化畅想曲||Wénhuà chàngxiǎng qǔ||Capriccio on culture or Cultural fantasia||1997|
|世界文字发展史||Shìjiè wénzì fāzhǎn shǐ||History of the worldwide development of writing||1997|
|中国语文的时代演进||Zhōngguó yǔwén de shídài yǎnjìn||The historical evolution of Chinese languages and scripts||1997|
|比较文字学初探||Bǐjiào wénzì xué chūtàn||A tentative study of comparative philology||1998|
|多情人不老||Duō qíngrén bùlǎo||Passionate people don't age||1998|
|汉字和文化问题||Hànzì hé wénhuà wèntí||Chinese characters and the question of culture||1999|
|新时代的新语文||Xīn shídài de xīn yǔwén||The new language of the new era||1999|
|人类文字浅说||Rénlèi wénzì qiǎnshuō||An introduction to human (written) language||2000|
|现代文化的冲击波||Xiàndài wénhuà de chōngjíbō||The shock wave of modern culture||2000|
|21世纪的华语和华文||21 Shìjì de huáyǔ hé huáwén||Written and spoken Chinese of 21st century||2002|
|周有光语文论集||Zhōu Yǒuguāng yǔwén lùn jí||Collection of essays by Zhou Youguang on the Chinese language||2002|
|百岁新稿||Bǎi suì xīn gǎo||Centenarian's essay||2005|
|朝闻道集||Zhāo wén dào jí||Essay collection||2010|
|拾贝集||Shi bèi jí||Selected essays||2011|
|今日花开又一年||Jīnrì huā kāi yòu yī nián||Today a new year blooms||2011|
|我的人生故事||Wǒ de rénshēng gùshi||My life story||2013|
|逝年如水 - 周有光百年口述||Shì nián rúshuǐ - Zhōu Yǒuguāng bǎinián kǒushù||"The years passed like water" - Zhou Youguang's oral recounting of his life||2015|
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———. 1980f. Hanzi Shengpang duyin Biancha [A handy guide to the pronunciation of phonetics in Chinese characters]. Kirin.
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