Zhu Hongzhao (朱弘昭) (d. May 14, 934) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. He was a close associate of its second emperor Li Siyuan, and became particularly powerful during the short reign of Li Siyuan's son and successor Li Conghou while serving as chief of staff ( Shumishi ). Traditionally, he and fellow chief of staff Feng Yun were blamed for making inappropriate sensitive personnel movements that caused Li Conghou's adoptive brother Li Congke to be fearful and rebel, eventually leading to Li Conghou's being overthrown and Zhu's own death.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was recorded as the twenty-first Shang king by the written records of Shang dynasty unearthed. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China.
Li Siyuan, also known by his temple name Mingzong (明宗), was the second emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Tang during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 926 until his death. He was an ethnic Shatuo originally named, in the Shatuo language, Miaojilie (邈佶烈).
It is not known when Zhu Hongzhao was born, but it was known that he was from Taiyuan, either late in the Tang Dynasty when it served as the capital for Hedong Circuit (河東), ruled by the major warlord Li Keyong, or early in the history of its successor state Jin, ruled successively by Li Keyong and his son Li Cunxu. His grandfather Zhu Wen (朱玟) and father Zhu Shuzong (朱叔宗) both served as officers of the guard corps for the Hedong headquarters. Zhu Hongzhao himself came to serve under Li Siyuan, an adoptive son of Li Keyong's and a major general.
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.
Li Keyong was a Shatuo military governor (Jiedushi) during the late Tang Dynasty and was key to developing a base of power for the Shatuo in what is today Shanxi Province in China. His son, Li Cunxu would eventually become the founder of the Later Tang, arguably the first of many Conquest Dynasties in China.
Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang, personal name Li Cunxu, nickname Yazi (亞子), was the Prince of Jin (908–923) and later became Emperor of Later Tang (923–926), of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period of Chinese history. He was the son of Li Keyong.
In 926, Li Cunxu, who had established a Later Tang as its emperor, was killed in a mutiny at then-capital Luoyang. Li Siyuan, who had earlier rebelled against him, quickly arrived at Luoyang and claimed imperial title.Zhu Hongzhao became the overseer of palace technicians (文思使). Later in the year, Li Siyuan's powerful chief of staff An Chonghui became suspicious of both Meng Zhixiang the military governor ( Jiedushi ) of Xichuan Circuit (西川, headquartered in modern Chengdu, Sichuan) and Dong Zhang the military governor of Dongchuan Circuit (東川, headquartered in modern Mianyang, Sichuan), as both Meng and Dong were trusted by Li Cunxu, and Meng had married Li Cunxu's biological cousin, and therefore was trying to find some way to curb Meng's and Dong's powers. As part of An's machinations, he sent the official Li Yan (李嚴) to Xichuan to serve as Meng's army monitor, and Zhu to Dongchuan to serve as Dong's deputy military governor. Meng, however, soon had Li Yan executed. Hearing of Li Yan's death, Zhu became fearful that Dong would kill him as well. He took the chance, when Dong happened to be asking him to go to Luoyang to make a report, to leave Dongchuan and stay at Luoyang. He became a general of the imperial guards and protocol officer (內客省使, Neikeshengshi). In 928, he was promoted to be a director of palace affairs (宣徽使, Xuanhuishi). That year, on an occasion when, after a major policy argument between Li Siyuan and An, Li Siyuan considered letting An retire, but Zhu pointed out that Li Siyuan had considered An a trusted adviser and should not abandon him on the basis of an argument, and therefore, Li Siyuan reconciled with An and continued to have An serve as chief of staff.
Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. As of the final 2010 census, Luoyang had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District are not urbanized yet.
An Chonghui was the chief of staff (Shumishi) and chief advisor to Li Siyuan of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang.
Meng Zhixiang was a general of the Later Tang who went on to found the independent state of Later Shu during the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Meng Zhixiang was an in-law of the Later Tang ruling family, who went by the family name Li. Meng married the eldest sister or perhaps a cousin of the founding emperor, Zhuangzong. Meng served the Later Tang as the military governor (Jiedushi) of Xichuan Circuit, after the conquest of Former Shu. After Emperor Zhuangzong's death, Meng was more distant to the succeeding emperor. The new emperor was Emperor Zhuangzong's adoptive brother, Emperor Mingzong. Meng, fearing accusations by Emperor Mingzong's chief advisor An Chonghui, rebelled, in alliance with Dong Zhang, military governor of neighboring Dongchuan Circuit. The Meng-Dong alliance repelled subsequent attempts to suppress or control them, although they continued as nominal subjects of Mingzong. Eventually, Meng overpowered Dong, thus assuming control of both allied domains. Meng continued as titular vassal to Mingzong for the rest of that emperor's reign; but, afterwards, Meng Zhixiang declared himself suzerain of an independent state named Shu, in 934, now called Later Shu to avoid confusion with other political entities sharing the same name.
Later in the year, Li Siyuan launched a general campaign against the rebellious warlord Wang Du the military governor of Yiwu Circuit (義武, headquartered in modern Baoding, Hebei), under the overall command of the general Wang Yanqiu. Wang Yanqiu believed Yiwu's capital Ding Prefecture (定州) to have strong defenses and therefore would be difficult to attack directly; rather, he wanted to surround the city and put it under siege, to drain out the city's food supplies. Both Zhu and Zhang Qianzhao (張虔昭), serving under Wang Yanqiu, claimed that Wang Yanqiu was being cowardly, and Li Siyuan, believing them, ordered Wang Yanqiu to attack. Wang Yanqiu's initial attacks, under such orders, resulted in heavy casualties, and he was then able to persuade Li Siyuan to allow him to resume his strategy of starving out the Ding Prefecture defense. He was eventually able to capture Ding in 929, and Wang Du committed suicide.
Wang Du (王都), né Liu Yunlang (劉雲郎), was a warlord during the early Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of China as the military governor (Jiedushi) of Yiwu Circuit. He seized control of Yiwu from his adoptive father Wang Chuzhi in a coup, and subsequently ruled it semi-independently as a vassal of Jin and Jin's successor state Later Tang. In 928, then-reigning Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang, believing that Wang was about to openly rebel, ordered a general campaign against him, and, after a lengthy siege, Wang killed himself and his family by self-immolation as his capital was falling.
Baoding is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) southwest of Beijing. At the 2010 census, Baoding City had 11,194,372 inhabitants out of which 2,176,857 lived in the built-up area made of 3 urban districts and Qingyuan and Mancheng counties largely being conurbated, on 1,840 km2 (710 sq mi). Baoding is among 13 Chinese cities with a population of over 10 million, ranking seventh.
Hebei is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili Province or Chihli Province. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.
Also in 929, Li Siyuan sacrificed to heaven and earth south of Luoyang, to signify his status as emperor. During the ceremony, Zhu stayed at the palace to keep it safe. After the ceremony, Li Siyuan gave him the title of acting Taifu (太傅), and made him the military governor of Fengxiang Circuit (鳳翔, headquartered in modern Baoji, Shaanxi).
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi, Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.
In 930, Meng and Dong, fearful of An's suspicions against them, had allied with each other and rebelled against Li Siyuan's rule. Li Siyuan sent his son-in-law Shi Jingtang to command the operations against the two circuits, but the operations stalled against the two circuits' defenses. An offered to head to the front to review the operations, and Li Siyuan agreed. On the way to the front, An stopped at Fengxiang. Zhu personally came out of the city to bow to him, and housed An inside his own headquarters. He also had his wife come out to bow to An and to present food to An. An, touched by the gesture, stated, "Libelers had repeatedly accused me, and I almost could not escape. It was only because His Imperial Majesty saw the situation clearly that I still have my clan." After An departed Fengxiang for the front, Zhu immediately submitted a report to Li Siyuan, accusing An of showing anger to the emperor and stating that he was fearful that when An arrived at the front, he would seize command of the army from Shi. He also sent messengers ahead of An, informing Shi of the same thing. Shi, in fear, also sent messengers to Luoyang asking Li Siyuan to recall An. Li Siyuan therefore did so. When An received the recall and headed back to Luoyang, he went first to Fengxiang, but Zhu, this time, refused to receive him into the city at all, causing An, in fear, to try to head to Luoyang as quickly as possible. Li Siyuan, however, gave him no chance to return to Luoyang, but instead commissioned him as the military governor of Huguo Circuit (護國, headquartered in modern Yuncheng, Shanxi) without allowing him to return, and subsequently had him killed.
Shi Jingtang (石敬瑭), also known by his temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the founding emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Jin during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 936 until his death.
Yuncheng is the southernmost prefecture-level city in Shanxi province, People's Republic of China. It borders Linfen and Jincheng municipalities to the north and east, and Henan and Shaanxi provinces to the south and west. At the 2010 census, its population was 5,134,779 inhabitants, of whom 680,036 lived in the built-up area made of Yanhu District.
Shanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.
Shortly after An's death, Zhu was recalled to Luoyang to again serve as the director of palace affairs.In 932, he was made the military governor of Shannan East Circuit (山南東道, headquartered in modern Xiangyang, Hubei), replacing Kang Yicheng (康義誠).
By 933, Li Siyuan's oldest surviving son, Li Congrong the Prince of Wei, who was generally considered Li Siyuan's likely heir, had made all of the high level officials fearful of him due to his arrogant and violent ways. Then-chiefs of staff, Fan Yanguang and Zhao Yanshou, whom Li Congrong had threatened repeatedly, in particular, did not want to remain chiefs of staff, and repeatedly requested to be sent out to the circuits. Li Siyuan was initially resistant, believing that they were abandoning him, but eventually relented, allowing Zhao to become military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan) and naming Zhu to replace him. Zhu initially tried to decline the post as well, but Li Siyuan angrily stated, "If people like you all refuse to be by my side, what use was it for me to feed you?" Zhu did not dare to decline further, so took his office.Li Siyuan also bestowed the chancellor designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事) on him.
Shortly after Zhu became chief of staff, Feng Yun replaced Fan as the other chief of staff. Thereafter, Li Siyuan became extremely ill, but had not yet named an heir. Li Congrong wanted to force his way inside the palace so that the succession would not be diverted from him, but when he suggested the idea to Zhu and Feng, both were resistant of him. Li Congrong therefore decided to fight them with his army. The imperial guards, however, under orders from Zhu and Feng, as well as Kang (who was serving as a commanding general at that time) and the eunuch Meng Hanqiong, resisted and defeated Li Congrong's army. Li Congrong was subsequently killed. Li Siyuan subsequently agreed to summon Li Congrong's younger brother Li Conghou the Prince of Song, who was then serving as the military governor of Tianxiong Circuit (天雄, headquartered in modern Handan, Hebei), but died before Li Conghou reached Luoyang. When Li Conghou reached Luoyang, the high-level officials, including Zhu, supported him to be emperor.
As Zhu Hongzhao believed himself to be the person most instrumental to Li Conghou's enthronement, he tried to dominate the court scene. That caused him to eject Li Conghou's most trusted follower, Song Lingxun (宋令訓), out of Li Conghou's proximity, to be the prefect of Ci Prefecture (磁州, in modern Handan), despite Li Conghou's displeasure. He and Feng Yun similarly distrusted the imperial guard generals An Yanwei (安彥威) and Zhang Congbin (張從賓), and An and Zhang were sent out to be the military governors of Huguo and Zhangyi (彰義, headquartered in modern Pingliang, Gansu), respectively, and replaced with Zhu Hongshi (朱洪實) and Huangfu Yu (皇甫遇).
In spring 934, Zhu received the greater chancellor title Zhongshu Ling (中書令).
Meanwhile, Zhu and Feng also distrusted Li Conghou's older adoptive brother, Li Congke the Prince of Lu, who was then serving as the military governor of Fengxiang, and Shi Jingtang, who was then serving as the military governor of Hedong, as Li Congke and Shi had long served as generals under Li Siyuan and were respected by the imperial army. Due to their distrust of Li Congke, they ejected Li Congke's son Li Chongji (李重吉), who was at that time an officer in the imperial guard corps, to be the military prefect of Bo Prefecture (亳州, in modern Bozhou, Anhui), and ordered Li Congke's daughter Li Huiming (李惠明), who had previously become a Buddhist nun in a temple at Luoyang, to live in the palace so that they would have control over her. These actions caused Li Congke to become very apprehensive.
Shortly after, Zhu and Feng decided that they did not want to allow Shi to remain at Hedong for too long, and they also wanted to recall Meng Hanqiong, who had been overseeing the governance of Tianxiong ever since Li Conghou was recalled from Tianxiong. They thus issued a series of orders as chiefs of staff, recalling Meng, and moving Fan Yanguang from Chengde Circuit (成德, headquartered in modern Shijiazhuang, Hebei) to Tianxiong, Li Congke from Fengxiang to Hedong, and Shi from Hedong to Chengde. Despite the seriousness of these orders, no edicts were issued by the emperor. Li Congke, fearing that these moves were targeted toward him, rebelled. The imperial government sent the general Wang Sitong to command the operations against Fengxiang, and initially, it appeared that Wang would prevail, as his siege against Fengxiang's capital Fengxiang Municipality almost caused it to fall. However, at that time, a group of soldiers, led by the officer Yang Siquan (楊思權), defected to Li Congke, causing the imperial army, to collapse, with most of the army surrendering to Li Congke. Li Congke then took his army and headed for Luoyang, announcing that all who surrendered to him would be forgiven, except Zhu and Feng. Upon hearing this news, Li Conghou panicked and considered surrendering the throne to Li Congke, and Zhu and Feng were not sure how to react. Kang Yicheng, however, who was secretly considering defecting to Li Congke as well, offered to command the remaining imperial forces against Li Congke. Li Conghou agreed. (Meanwhile, Li Chongji and Li Huimin were executed.)
Even before Kang's army could meet Li Congke's advancing forces, however, the soldiers began to desert and surrender to Li Congke. Kang himself then did so as well. Upon hearing this, Li Conghou summoned Zhu to try to think of what to do next. Zhu, however, interpreted the command summoning him to be a sign that Li Conghou intended to punish him for his wrong advice, and committed suicide by jumping into a well. The imperial guard general An Congjin killed Feng and delivered Zhu's and Feng's heads to Li Congke. (Li Conghou fled Luoyang, and was subsequently killed by Li Congke's emissaries after Shi also refused to support him.)
Li Congke, also known posthumously as Emperor Mo of Later Tang, Emperor Fei of Later Tang, Wang Congke (王從珂), or Prince of Lu, nickname Ershisan or, in short, Asan (阿三), was the last emperor of the Later Tang - the second of the Five Dynasties following the fall of the Tang Dynasty. He was an adoptive son of Li Siyuan and took the throne after overthrowing Emperor Mingzong's biological son Emperor Min of Later Tang. He was later himself overthrown by his brother-in-law Shi Jingtang, who was supported by Khitan troops. When the combined Later Jin and Khitan forces defeated Later Tang forces, Li Congke and his family members, as well as the guards most loyal to him, ascended a tower and set it on fire, dying in the fire.
Li Conghou (李從厚) (914–934), formally Emperor Min of Later Tang (後唐閔帝), nickname Pusanu, was an emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang, ruling between 933 and 934. He was overthrown by his adopted brother Li Congke.
Fan Yanguang (范延光), courtesy name Zihuan (子環) or Zigui (子瓌), formally the Prince of Dongping (東平王), was a general from the state of Later Tang and Later Jin during the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He was a close associate of the Later Tang's second emperor Li Siyuan, serving three terms as Li Siyuan's chief of staff (Shumishi), and subsequently continued to serve as a general. After the Later Tang's final emperor Li Congke was overthrown by Li Siyuan's son-in-law Shi Jingtang, who founded Later Jin, Fan initially formally submitted, but later rebelled against Shi. His rebellion, however, was not successful, and after Shi promised to spare him, he surrendered. He was, nevertheless, later killed by Shi's general Yang Guangyuan, probably with Shi's implicit, if not explicit, approval.
Li Congyan (李從曮), né Li Jiyan (李繼曮), formally the Prince of Qi (岐王), was a son and the heir of Li Maozhen, the only ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Qi. After Li Maozhen submitted to Later Tang and died shortly after, he continued to control the former Qi territory, as a Later Tang vassal, and subsequently served as a general for both Later Tang and its successor state Later Jin.
Zhao Dejun (趙德鈞), né Zhao Xingshi (趙行實), known as Li Shaobin (李紹斌) during the reign of Li Cunxu, formally the Prince of Beiping (北平王), was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang. Toward the end of Later Tang, he was ordered by Later Tang's final emperor Li Congke to combat Li Congke's brother-in-law, Shi Jingtang, who had rebelled against Li Congke's reign and established his own Later Jin, as well as Shi's Khitan allies, led by Khitan's Emperor Taizong. However, after failed negotiations in which Zhao himself tried to get Emperor Taizong's support to overthrow Later Tang, the joint Khitan/Later Jin forces defeated him, forcing him to surrender to Khitan. He died in captivity.
Li Yu (李愚), courtesy name Zihui (子晦), known in his youth as Li Yanping (李晏平), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Liang and Later Tang, serving as a chancellor during Later Tang.
Li Congrong (李從榮), formally the Prince of Qin (秦王), was a son of Li Siyuan, the second emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. During Li Siyuan's reign, he, as Li Siyuan's oldest surviving biological son, was commonly expected to be Li Siyuan's heir. When his father became deathly ill, however, he, worried that his father's officials might try to divert succession away from him, tried to seize power by force, but was then defeated and killed.
Empress Cao, formally Empress Hewuxian (和武憲皇后), was an empress of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. Her husband was Later Tang's second emperor Li Siyuan, and she was empress dowager during the subsequent reigns of his son Li Conghou and adoptive son Li Congke. Eventually, when her son-in-law Shi Jingtang rebelled against Li Congke, establishing his own Later Jin and attacked the Later Tang capital Luoyang, she died in a mass suicide with Li Congke, his family, and some officers.
Empress Kong, formally Empress Ai, was an empress of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. Her husband was its third emperor Li Conghou.
Consort Dowager Wang (王太妃), known commonly by her imperial consort title Shufei (王淑妃), nickname Huajianxiu, was an imperial consort to Li Siyuan, the second emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. During Li Siyuan's reign, she, as his favorite concubine, exerted substantial influence within his administration. After the destruction of both Later Tang and its successor state Later Jin, her adoptive son Li Congyi was forced to claim imperial title by the evacuating Liao forces, and both she and he were subsequently killed by the succeeding Later Han's founding emperor Liu Zhiyuan.
Feng Yun (馮贇) was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state known as the Later Tang, serving both as chancellor and chief of staff (Shumishi) during the reigns of its second emperor Li Siyuan and Li Siyuan's son and successor Li Conghou.
Meng Hanqiong (孟漢瓊), was a eunuch of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang. He became powerful late in the reign of its second emperor Li Siyuan, in association with Li Siyuan's favorite concubine Consort Wang, and continued to be during the reign of Li Siyuan's son and successor Li Conghou. He was killed by Li Conghou's adoptive brother Li Congke, who overthrew Li Conghou.
Zhao Yanshou (趙延壽), né Liu Yanshou (劉延壽), formally the Prince of Wei (魏王), was a major general of Later Tang of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, as well as the Khitan Liao Dynasty. He first became prominent as a son-in-law of Later Tang's second emperor Li Siyuan, but was captured by Liao's Emperor Taizong when Later Tang fell. He subsequently served Emperor Taizong, who promised him that he would be made the emperor of China if helped Emperor Taizong destroy Later Tang's successor state Later Jin. Emperor Taizong reneged on the promise after doing so, however, leading to Zhao's attempt to seize Liao's Chinese territory after Emperor Taizong's death. He was, however, arrested by Emperor Taizong's nephew and successor Emperor Shizong and held until his death.
Wang Sitong (王思同) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang (and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin. In 934, when Li Congke, the adoptive brother of then-reigning emperor Li Conghou, rebelled against Li Conghou, Wang was put in command of the army against Li Congke, but was soon defeated and executed without Li Congke's approval.
Liu Xu (劉昫) (888–947), courtesy name Yaoyuan (耀遠), formally the Duke of Qiao (譙公), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin, serving as a chancellor during both of those short-lived dynasties. He was the lead editor of the Old Book of Tang, one of the official histories of the preceding Tang Dynasty, completed during Later Jin, although most of the work was probably completed during the term of his predecessor Zhao Ying.
An Congjin (安從進) was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period states Later Tang and Later Jin. In 941, he rebelled against the rule of Later Jin's founding emperor Shi Jingtang, but was defeated, and he then committed suicide.
Ma Yinsun (馬胤孫), courtesy name Qingxian (慶先), was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang, serving briefly as a chancellor during the reign of its last emperor Li Congke.